About Journal

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ)  The first issue of Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ) was published in 1993 by the college of engineering – University of Mosul. The journal publishes Engineering Science articles at an average rate of six issues/year (Bi-Monthly). AREJ publishes original and valuable engineering research papers aiming at developing the knowledge in the fields of applied engineering science.  Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ) includes (but not limited to) the following fields:  1- Civil Engineering 2- Electrical Engineering 3-...
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Journal Information

Publisher: College of Engineering, Mosul University

Email:  drjssm@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Prof. Dr. Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar

Print ISSN: 1813-0526

Online ISSN: 2220-1270

Design Class (F) Power Amplifier for (GSM) Application Based on Optimization

Ahmad T. Younis; Ahmad Abdul-Jabbar Ismail

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 23, Issue 5, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2015.108987

Non-linear Class-F PA has drawn a great attention among all different classes of PAs because of their capability of giving high power, providing good PAE and work in high frequency .The problem of class F PA is Poorlinearity.The efficiency linearity and complexity of class (F) power amplifier depend on the load network. In this research, Class-F amplifier with carefully chosen bias points , input and output impedance, designed load matching network and harmonic traps to get linearity and efficiency greeting with (GSM) application . The load network was designed by low pass flitter and matching network was designed to obtain the required optimum impedance at fundamental only to reduce complexity of PA and adding radial stub to provide a short circuit for higher degree harmonics and improve the linearity . The final design produced a PAE of 75.6% with 29.5dBm output power with (16dB) gain and TH distorted -46dBc.

Assessment Timing Criterions of Spring Streamflow Hydrograph for Lesser Zab River

Thair M. AL-Taiee; Mohanad T. AL-Sha

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 23, Issue 5, Pages 13-21
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2015.108989

The timing criterions represented by the time center of mass flow (CT), spring pulse onset (S.P.O) and time of flood peak discharge (TP) of rivers are considered good indicators for the climate change occurs on their watershed areas. Spring snowmelt is a main water resources for large number of rivers in the world such as lesser Zab river in Iraq. An analysis for the daily discharge of lesser Zab measured at Dokan station and for climatic data such as temperature and rainfall measured at Alsulaymania meteorological station is carried out for spring and winter seasons of the 50 water years (1960-2009) after dividing this study period into two equal consecutive eons.The results indicate an early advance for the average values of these above criterions in the second eon by 5 , 5 and 15 days respectively in-comparison with the first eon as a result of early snowmelt feeding the river due to increasing temperature in the second eon (1.33)°c and decreasing rainfall (16) mm. The earlyadvance in the timing criterions of the flow hydrograph occur from snowmelt may effect on the storage efficiency and operation of reservoirslocated on the river and require taking these hydrological changes intoconsiderationinthewaterresourcesprojects.

Artifact Removal from Skin Dermoscopy Imagesto Support Automated Melanoma Diagnosis

Dr. Ahlam Fadhil Mahmood; HamedAbdulaziz Mahmood

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 23, Issue 5, Pages 22-30
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2015.108992

The main challenge in an automated diagnostic system for the early diagnosis of melanoma is the correct segmentation. In skindermoscope images manyartifacts such as ruler markings, air bubbles and hairsmust be removed to correctly diagnosis skin cancer. This paper focuses on the use of image processing techniques to automatically detects and removes hairs and ruler markings from dermoscopy images. The proposed algorithm includes two main steps: firstly, hairs and ruler marking are isolatedby generating a binary image mask include these artifacts only. The suggested mask procedure start with separate RGB dermoscopy images to the red, green and blue color components.Utilizingred channelto create the mask by applying noise removing on this plan, then adaptive canny edge detector is used for refinement by morphological operators. Secondly, the white regions ofthe mask are repaired based onpolygonsinpainting. Experiment on a number of dermoscopy images demonstrates that the proposed method produces superior results compared to existing techniques.

Automatic Triple-A Segmentation of Skin Cancer Images based on Histogram Classification

Dr. Ahlam Fadhil Mahmood; Hamed Abdulaziz Mahmood

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 23, Issue 5, Pages 31-42
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2015.108994

Skin cancer has been the most common and represents 50% of all new cancers detected each year. If detected at an early stage, simple and economic treatment can cure it mostly. Accurate skin lesion segmentation is critical in automated early diagnosis system. This paper present a triple segmentation procedure based on the pixels distribution Bell-shaped (Normal), J-shaped, Reverse J-shaped and U-shaped peaks that is bimodal. According to the nature of dermoscopy images distributions, three segmentation methods are used to identify the normal skin cancer from malignant skin and to extract the tumor region. First, active contours are used for bell distribution shape. Second segmentation is done using adjusted ant colony optimization when the U-shaped peaks distribution was classify. Third segmentation strategies apply adaptive threshold for two J-shapes. Experiments on synthetic and real dermoscopy images demonstrate the advantages of the proposed methods that is able to produce ant colony optimization accurate segmentation when applied to a large number of skin cancer (melanoma) images.

An Optimized Adaptive Filtering for Speech Noise Cancellation

Mohammad Qasim Hayder; Dr. Ahlam Fadhil Mahmood

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 23, Issue 5, Pages 43-53
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2015.108996

The maininterest in adaptive filters continues to grow as they begin to find practical applications in areassuch as channel equalization, echo cancellation, noise cancellation and many other adaptive signal-processing applications. The work presented in this paper focuses on optimizingmost popular adaptive filtering algorithms namely Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm, Normalized Least Mean Square (NLMS) and Recursiveleast Squares (RLS) by using genetic optimizer approach. The tap-length are updated with the three adaptive algorithms according to the value of mean square error based on genetic style. The simulation results for noise cancellation in speechenhancementdemonstrate the good performance of the proposed algorithm in attenuating the noise with less hardware resources complexity.It is a nicetradeoff betweenhardware complexity, SNR ratioand the convergence speed.

A 90-nm CMOS Quadrature Power Amplifier With High Efficiency Designed For Wireless Application

Dr. Luqman S. Ali; Shamil H. Hussein; Ahmad A. Ismail

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 23, Issue 5, Pages 54-68
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2015.108997

Abstract
The quadrature power amplifier (QPA) is used in a CMOS radio frequencies (RF) amplifier for wireless communication system such as WLAN and mobile communication(W-CDMA).Because of its high efficiency at high frequency operation and good linearity.This paper presents a design and analysis in the timeand frequency domains for quadrature power amplifier based on 90-nm CMOS technology.The Class D power amplifier is used in the QPA configuration, because ofthe switch mode amplifiers provide amplification for modulated signals at RF with high efficiency and linearity. The quadrature signals are to be directly amplified by using a QPA without decomposing these signal to a phase and amplitude signal because of the lack of its separate avoid and the linearity and bandwidth requirements, thus reducing power consumption.
The results obtained show that the QPA can be used in a wide band spectrum. The amplifier has very good power added efficiency (PAE%) about (70.5%)and IDM3 is (-62.6dBm) at maximum output power (24.35dBm) and input power greater than (20dBm). The amplitude distortionhas been obtained in this work about (1.36 dB/dB), and phase distortion about(0.27 degree/dB).

Utilizing Adaptive Tabu Search Technique Based Tuning PID Controller for Optimal Speed Control Single Phase Induction Motor

Amer Mohammad Jarjees

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 23, Issue 5, Pages 69-80
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2015.108998

The PID algorithm is the most popular controller used within the process industries. Robust easily understood algorithm could provide excellent control performance despite of the varied dynamic characteristic of process plant. However, the tuning of the PID controller parameters are not easy and does not give the optimal required response, especially with non-linear system. In the last years emerged several new intelligent optimization technique like, Adaptive Tabu search (ATS), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) techniques to get better control of the speed. This Paper deals with the speed control of single Phase Induction Motor with closed loop PID controller using (ATS) as intelligent optimization technique . The system is simulated using Matlab/Simulink GUI environment and the results are discusses.
The Ziegler– Nichols methods for tuning PID controller is represent as a point of comparison. The intelligent optimization technique ATS is propos to tune the PID controller parameters to get optimal results of the closed loop of PID - ATS Controller. The Simulation results show the effectiveness of the propose method, which has get number of advantages.

Improving the Reliability of Object Recognition Based On Template Matching

Dr. A.S.M. Khedher; Dr. A. M. Alkababji; O. A. Hadi

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 23, Issue 5, Pages 81-88
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2015.108999

Object recognition in computer vision is the task of finding a given object in an image or video sequence. During the last decades it has received increasing attention from the computer vision community for a variety of reasons, ranging from counting objects for industrial application to the development of practical biometric systems and interactive, emotion-aware and capable human–machine interfaces. There are variety of approaches for object recognition problem, depending on the type of object, the degree of freedom of the object and the target application. Template matching is the most advanced and intensively developed areas of computer vision and has been a classical approach to the problems of locating and recognizing of an object in the image. The object of this paper is to improve the reliability of object recognition by describing a modified method for template matching based on the Sum of Squared Differences (SSD) equation, that gives the highest margin between other template matching methods, the main advantage is that the high margin resulting from it can be considered as more safe to avoid wrongly detecting /recognizing an object.

Experimental Study of the Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams under Repeated Loads

Samier S. Shmas; Muna M .Abdullah; Dr.Bayar J. Al; Sulayfani

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.31560

Abstract:
Concrete behavior subjected to repeated loads is differs than the one subjected to static loads. Repeated loads caused crushing in some part of concrete due to loading and unloading process. Concrete behavior under static loads is affected by adding steel fibers, which improved many properties especially concrete tensile strength. These improvements are studied in this research under the effect of repeated loads, by testing simply supported fibrous reinforced concrete beams with dimensions (1000x150x160) mm, reinforced with different percentages of steel fibers (0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0%). Repeated loads were applied to the beams through two points and for many cycles up to failure. The physical properties and compressive strength of the concrete used was found by casting standard cylinders (150x300) mm for the different percentages of fibers. All the results show improvements in beams behavior due to fiber addition to the concrete under repeated loads, by increasing the deflection, strain, ductility and energy dissipation due to increasing of added fibers percentages.

Keywords : Repeated load, Reinforced Concrete, Beams, Steel fiber

Settlement Analysis of a Piled Raft- E

Raid R. Al-Omari; Ahmed F. Hassan

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.89962

Abstract
Recently the concept of settlement piles has been introduced in which the spacing could be large when the purpose of using piles is to mitigate the settlement rather than resisting the load. For large spacing the effect of cap soil contact on the bearing capacity may increase therefore the new system is usually referred to as piled raft. It is yet not clearly indicated what number of piles or spacing is enough to maintain tolerable settlements. This ambiguity is the main problem of the present research besides some other relations. The software ANSYS version 11 has been used to model and analyze the piled raft. The raft and piles are represented using the 8-node isoparametric brick element SOLID 65 while the surrounding soil is represented using the 8-node brick element SOLID 45. The raft dimensions are kept constants, as well as the cohesion and the angle of friction of the soil. The Drucker-Prager soil yield model has been employed.The results indicate that there is a limiting number of piles represented by the total piles area relative to the group area which in general amounts to 3 to 4% after which there will be no significant advantage of increasing the number of piles to reduce settlement. This relative piles area is slightly affected by the stress level relative to the bearing capacity so that the factor of safety. Accordingly the pile spacing may significantly be increased if the settlement is the major concern.The ultimate bearing capacity was found to moderately increase with increasing the relative pile area up to the narrowest spacing used of 3D which is in agreement with the conventional knowledge.For the conditions investigated the effect of raft-soil contact was found to be not very significant.

Flexural Behavior Of Flat And Folded Ferrocement Panels

Sura A. Majeed; Mohamad N. Mahmood

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43268

Abstract
The present paper describes the results of testing folded and flat ferrocement panels reinforced with different number of wire mesh layers. The main objective of these experimental tests is to study the effect of using different numbers of wire mesh layers on the flexural strength of folded and flat ferrocement panels and to compare the effect of varying the number of wire mesh layers on the ductility and the ultimate strength of these types of ferrocement structure. Seven ferrocement elements were constructed and tested each having (600x380mm) horizontal projection and 20mm thick, consisting of four flat panels and three folded panels. The used number of wire mesh layers is one, two and three layers. The experimental results show that flexural strength of the folded panels increased by 37% and 90% for panels having 2 and 3 wire mesh layers respectively, compared with that having single layer, while for flat panel the increase in flexural strength compared with panel of plan mortar is 4.5%, 65% and 68% for panels having 1, 2 and 3 wire mesh layers respectively. The strength capacity of the folded panels, having the particular geometry used in the present study, is in the order of 3.5 to 5 times that of the corresponding flat panels having the same number of wire mesh layers. Both types are also analyzed using finite element method to check the flexural stresses in these panels under self weight and cracking load.

Keywords: Ferrocement, Flat Panel, Folded panel, Mortar, Wire Mesh.

Use Of Bentonite Clay As A Coagulant Or A Coagulant Aid With Ferrous Sulfate For Synthetic Turbidity Removal

Mohammad S. Hassan; b A. Al- Tamir; Musa

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 14, Issue 4, Pages 46-58
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2006.45374

Abstract
In this study the bentonite clay has been used as a coagulant and coagulant aid with ferrous sulfate in turbidity removal for different initial synthetic turbidity of Tigris River samples of (10- 500) ntu, The study revealed the efficiency of using bentonite clay as a coagulant alone in removing turbidity with a dose not more than 30 mg/l, Also the study reveled the improvement of ferrous sulfate efficiency for removing water turbidity when bentonite clay used with it in a dose of 7.5 mg/l of bentonite and 5 mg/l of ferrous sulfate. The regression analysis showed that the most important variables affecting on turbidity removal were initial turbidity followed by settling time and bentonite clay dose then finally ferrous sulfate dose.
Key Words: Ferrous Sulfate, Iron Salts, Bentonite Clay, Coagulation, flocculation, Coagulant aids, Turbidity removal, Water Supply

The Effect Of Adding Ethanol To leaded Gasoline on The Performance of Spark Ignition Engine

Dr. A.R Habbo; Mr.H.S Hammodi

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 33-43
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.31631

ألخلاصة
أُجريت هذه الدراسة لمعرفة تأثير إضافة مادة الايثانول بنقاوة 99.2% إلى الكازولين المرصص على أداء محرك احتراق داخلي يعمل بشمعة القدح متمثلاً بعزم المحرك والاستهلاك النوعي للوقود وكذلك كمية الملوثات المنبعثة منه عند ظروف تشغيلية مختلفة شملت كل من نسبة الانضغاط وتوقيت إعطاء قدحة الاشتعال. أُجريت التجارب العملية باستخدام الوقود الجديد (الايثانول + الكازولين المرصص) وبنسب حجمية مختلفة لمادة الايثانول ابتداءً من نسبة 10% وانتهاءً بنسبة 50% وبزيادة مقدارها 10% في كل مرة لبيان تأثير إضافة مادة الايثانول إلى الكازولين المرصص على أداء المحرك وكمية الملوثات المنبعثة منه.
تم إجراء التجارب العملية عند نسب انضغاط مختلفة وهي11:1, 10:1, 9:1 بينما تم تغيير وقت إعطاء القدحة بواقع 5 درجة من درجات عمود المرفق. وتم تثبيت سرعة المحرك ((2000 دورة لكل دقيقة وعند النسبة المكافئة ( ) .
بينت النتائج إن إضافة الايثانول إلى الكازولين المرصص أدى إلى زيادة عزم المحرك والاستهلاك النوعي للوقود مع حصول زيادة طفيفة في درجة حرارة غازات العادم وخصوصاً عند إضافة الايثانول إلى الكازولين المرصص بنسب 30% فما فوق، وصاحب هذا الأداء انخفاض في نسب الملوثات الناتجة من المحرك. كما بينت النتائج أيضاً أن زيادة نسبة الايثانول المضافة إلى الكازولين المرصص عملت على رفع نسبة الانضغاط التي يمكن للمحرك أن يعمل عندها مع غياب ظاهرة الصفع (knock) المعروفة آثارها السلبية على المحرك.

Settlement Analysis of a Piled Raft- E

Raid R. Al-Omari; Ahmed F. Hassan

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.89962

Abstract
Recently the concept of settlement piles has been introduced in which the spacing could be large when the purpose of using piles is to mitigate the settlement rather than resisting the load. For large spacing the effect of cap soil contact on the bearing capacity may increase therefore the new system is usually referred to as piled raft. It is yet not clearly indicated what number of piles or spacing is enough to maintain tolerable settlements. This ambiguity is the main problem of the present research besides some other relations. The software ANSYS version 11 has been used to model and analyze the piled raft. The raft and piles are represented using the 8-node isoparametric brick element SOLID 65 while the surrounding soil is represented using the 8-node brick element SOLID 45. The raft dimensions are kept constants, as well as the cohesion and the angle of friction of the soil. The Drucker-Prager soil yield model has been employed.The results indicate that there is a limiting number of piles represented by the total piles area relative to the group area which in general amounts to 3 to 4% after which there will be no significant advantage of increasing the number of piles to reduce settlement. This relative piles area is slightly affected by the stress level relative to the bearing capacity so that the factor of safety. Accordingly the pile spacing may significantly be increased if the settlement is the major concern.The ultimate bearing capacity was found to moderately increase with increasing the relative pile area up to the narrowest spacing used of 3D which is in agreement with the conventional knowledge.For the conditions investigated the effect of raft-soil contact was found to be not very significant.

The Formal Composition of Khans in Islamic Architecture (An Analytical Study)

Assda A. H. Al-Tuhafi; Talaat I. M. Al-Aane; Khawla F. M. Al-Daudi

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 80-96
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43312

Abstract
Islamic architecture is considered to be a unique example that reflects the impact of structural formation systems in establishing its form; the structural relations represent the most important items and bases of architectural structures, especially at the abstract level. The structural relations form the basic foundation which represent the most important aspect in producing the formal structure of any building thus they are considered to be the most important method in describing the physical reality of architectural production . Stemming from the above fact, the study focuses on the structural relations that form the plans. The problem of the study is that structural relations which form the plans of Khans buildings in Islamic architecture are not clear. The aim of the present study is to clarify the specialty of Muslim architect intellectuality in the formation of a particular mechanism or method to form and design studied plans with specific functions like khans. To achieve the aim of the study a theoretical framework of structural relations is built depending on modern studies on formation of those relations on the bases of the statistical analytical method. The results arrived at show that the structural relations which form and construct the plans of Khans buildings are characterized by uniqueness as a distinguishing character of Islamic architecture some of these types of building are the khans, though they differ in their architectural design, their date and ever their geographical location. This in turn gives an indication and proof of the Muslim architect creative role in determine the distinguished identity of his architecture with the incentive of Islamic cultural intellect held by that architect all over the places of his civilization whenever and wherever he exists.
Key Word : Formal Composition , Relationships Formative , Khan , Islamic architecture

Simulation of Velocity and Temperature fields

Mahmood Khalid Mawlood; Ihsan Fadhil Abbas

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 155-166
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.87340

Simulation of Velocity and Temperature fields
Mahmood Khalid Mawlood Ihsan Fadhil Abbas
Dep. of Mechanical Engineering, Dep. of Refrigeration and
College of Engineering, Air Conditioning,
University of Kirkuk College of Technology - Kirkuk
Abstract
In this work, a numerical method is developed for solving the unsteady Navier-
Stokes and energy equations in a two-dimensional passive heating Trombe wall system.
A parallel computer code that can be run efficiently on multicore PCs or networked
workstations is developed for calculating the velocity and temperature fields in the
whole domain of the system. The developed code is validated using data from the
literature. Results are presented for the time response of a typical classical Trombe wall
system to transient heating.
نمذجة السرع ودرجات الحرارة في جدار نزومب ذو بعدين
الدكتور محمود خالد مولود السيد احسان فاضل عباس
الخلاصة
لقد تم في هذه الدراسة تطوير طريقة عددية لحل معادلات نافير-ستوكس ومعادلة الطاقة لنظام التدفئة باستخدام جدار
ترومب ذو بعدين. لقد تم استخدام البرمجة المتوازيةلاعداد برنامج حسابي يمكن تنفيذه بكفاءة على الحاسبات الشخصية
ذات المعالجات المتعددة او شبكة من الحاسبات الشخصية لحساب مجالي السرعة والحرارة في مجمل نطاق النظام. تم
اختبار البرنامج باستخدام بيانات من دراسات سابقة. تم تقديم نتائج للاستجابة الزمنية لنظام جدار ترومب تقليدي
معرض لتسخين عابر.

Flexural Behavior Of Flat And Folded Ferrocement Panels

Sura A. Majeed; Mohamad N. Mahmood

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43268

Abstract
The present paper describes the results of testing folded and flat ferrocement panels reinforced with different number of wire mesh layers. The main objective of these experimental tests is to study the effect of using different numbers of wire mesh layers on the flexural strength of folded and flat ferrocement panels and to compare the effect of varying the number of wire mesh layers on the ductility and the ultimate strength of these types of ferrocement structure. Seven ferrocement elements were constructed and tested each having (600x380mm) horizontal projection and 20mm thick, consisting of four flat panels and three folded panels. The used number of wire mesh layers is one, two and three layers. The experimental results show that flexural strength of the folded panels increased by 37% and 90% for panels having 2 and 3 wire mesh layers respectively, compared with that having single layer, while for flat panel the increase in flexural strength compared with panel of plan mortar is 4.5%, 65% and 68% for panels having 1, 2 and 3 wire mesh layers respectively. The strength capacity of the folded panels, having the particular geometry used in the present study, is in the order of 3.5 to 5 times that of the corresponding flat panels having the same number of wire mesh layers. Both types are also analyzed using finite element method to check the flexural stresses in these panels under self weight and cracking load.

Keywords: Ferrocement, Flat Panel, Folded panel, Mortar, Wire Mesh.

Study the Transverse Vibration of a Beam With Different Length

Ziad Shakeeb Al-Sarraf; Sabah Mohammed Jamel Ali

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 83-91
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38471

Abstract
A numerical solution to the frequency equation for the transverse vibration of a beam (Simply Supported with symmetric overhang) is done. It is proposed two limiting cases of a beam with no overhang, and no span. This agrees with the cases in which the supports are at the nodal Points of a freely vibrating beam. Also the numerical results compared with the analytical solutions for this study are coincident.
An approximation to the solution of the frequency equation for beams with small overhang is presented and compared with the numerical solution. This approximation is quite useful to determine a beam’s flexural stiffness (EI), or modulus of elasticity (E), by free vibrating of a simply supported beam.

Key word : Transverse vibration, beam, frequency

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