About Journal

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ) is a global, scientific and open access journal. Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY), The first issue of Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ) was published in 1993 by the college of engineering – University of Mosul. The journal publishes Engineering Science articles at an average rate of two issues/year (Bi-annually). AREJ publishes original and valuable engineering research papers aiming at developing the knowledge in the fields of applied engineering science.  Al-Rafidain Engineering...
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Journal Information

Publisher: College of Engineering, University of Mosul

Email:  drjssm@uomosul.edu.iq

Editor-in-chief: Prof. Dr. Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar

Print ISSN: 1813-0526

Online ISSN: 2220-1270

Voxelization Parallelism Using CUDA Architecture

Sura Nawfal Alrawy; Fakhrulddin Hamid Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2020, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.126643.1015

The voxelization process is an essential stage in three dimensional (3D) graphics pipeline. Its implementation should precede displaying objects in the pipeline. In this paper, different Voxelization algorithms are modified and parallelized to accelerate the operation of this stage. The 3D Digital Differential Analyzer (DDA) algorithm is used for line voxelization. This algorithm is utilized in triangle filling using the scan-line and the edge-function algorithms. The first one is designed to produce lines in parallel while the second can produce voxels. All these algorithms are parallelized using CUDA architecture and implemented on GPU processor. The actual implementation of these algorithms is examined and optimized according to the occupancy and block size metrics. The experimental results show that the acceleration amount of 3D DDA was about 4352x max compared to the OpenGL implementation, and the edge function implementation has been executed at a higher speed than the scan-line for object triangles voxelization.

A Prototype for Temperature Sensation System for Arm Amputee Handicap

Mohammad Tarik Mohammad; Basil Mahmood Shukr Agha

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2020, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 12-16
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.126537.1010

The upper limb disability experience includes both the loss of functional skills as well as a hand's sensation. Sensation ability, it’s very important to human experience and helps him to reach a good interaction with surrounding. Also, Feedback from robot arm is very important for understanding the protection for the robot arm and providing contact between human and arm. Research studies to regain sensation through many technics This paper proposed a heat sensation system, this system transfers the heat at the end of each robot arm finger to a specific position. The heating pad is used to generate similar temperature at fingers. System sensation was tested and evaluated to reach the desirable response. The results show the ability of the system to transfer temperature on a healthy position at handicapped.

Strengthening and Rehabilitation of Concrete Prisms Using GFRP Sheets

Ashtar S. Al-Luhybi; Bayar J. Al- Sulayfani

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2020, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 17-23
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.126531.1008

The use of external strengthening by fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) technology has significantly increased in recent decades. This is because (FRP) has the properties that make it the most suitable option for strengthening and rehabilitation of damaged concrete structures instead of using traditional materials such as steel plates. In this paper, the behaviour of non-reinforced concrete beams externally wrapped with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) sheets has been examined. Fourteen unreinforced concrete prisms were cast with a rectangular section of (150 × 125 mm) and a length of (760mm), these specimens were divided into five group. First group was not externally wrapped with GFRP sheets (control specimens), and the remaining groups were GFRP wrapped with a variable number of GFRP layers (thickness of wrapping). In the first stage of study, the prisms have been tested and the effect of external wrapping and increasing the wrapping thickness on the behaviour of prisms was observed. In the second stage, the unwrapped concrete prisms that were tested and failed (control specimens) were rehabilitated by externally wrapping them with one layer of GFRP sheets. The results have shown that wrapping with GFRP sheets increased the capacity of the prisms and failure load had reached to (342.5%) for prisms wrapped with three layers when compared to the control specimens. It was also noticed that there was an increase in the toughness of the prisms by increasing the number of GFRP layers. The results have shown that there was a decrease in the failure load of the four layer wrapped prisms, and this was due to the early failure of the prisms due to the debonding of the GFRP sheets from the prism surface. The damaged specimens which were later rehabilitated have shown an increase in load carrying capacity compared to the control specimen.

A Survey Paper on Six Phase Induction Motor Drive

Myasar Salim Alattar; Ahmed Nasser B. Alsammak

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2020, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 24-31
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.126535.1009

This paper introduces different topics about six phase induction motor drives. It describes a different methods used for analyzing and representing induction motor model, by using (d-q-o) modelling and (x-y-o) some papers discussed motor model and its characteristics, controlling speed of motor and efficiency improvement. some techniques of control strategy such as (direct torque control, field oriented control, indirect field oriented control and sliding mode control etc. will be present to improve motor operation.as well this paper will present some techniques for voltage generation used to drive motors, some methods are implemented for this purpose depending upon quasi voltage generation, pulse width modulation, and space vector pulse width modulations etc are also discussed.

Water Management under Deficit Irrigation

Haqqi Ismail Yasin; Entesar M. Ghazal

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2020, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 32-40
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.126551.1011

Depending on the production function, irrigation water cost function and the sale price of yield, previously, lengthy mathematical expressions have been developed to estimate the optimal levels of water used in deficit irrigation, that would maximize yield (Wm), under water limiting (Ww), and under land limiting (Wl) and the amount of water that leads to income equal to income of Wm when land is limited (Wel), and that leads to farm income equal to farm income of Wm when water is limited Wew . Therefore, in this paper, firstly the previous lengthy expressions for (Wel) and (Wew) were simplified. Secondly, simple expressions for both (Wel) and (Wew) were derived under presence of rainfall. Thirdly, very simple mathematical relations between (Wm & Wl) and (Wm & Ww) were derived in order to determine much easier expressions than those previously derived for Wel, and Wew respectively, with and without rainfall.

Comparative Rheological and Mechanical Characteristics of Different Warm-Mix Asphalt Additives Under Aging Conditions

Salim Abdullah Khalid; Abdulrhem Ibrahem Al-Hadidy

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2020, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 41-48
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.126842.1025

This study compares the rheological and mechanical characteristics of three different kinds of warm-mix asphalt additives (WMAA) namely: natural zeolite (NZ), synthetic zeolite (SZ) and manufactured zeolite (MZ). 40/50 Dora penetration grade bitumen and one dosage of each WMAA were chosen. The resultant WMA binders were subjected to penetration, softening point, ductility, elastic recovery, Furol viscosity, elastic modulus, temperature susceptibility, aging, cracking index, compatibility, extensional viscosity, and shear strength tests. Test results depict that the rheological and mechanical characteristics of NZ and MZ binders are better than SZ binder against resistance to high and low temperature effects.

A Comparison Study of the Most Important Types of the Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems(FACTs)

Hasan A. Adnan; Ahmaed N. Alsammak

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2020, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 49-55
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.126854.1027

The Flexible Alternating Current Transmission systems(FACTs) devices is power electronics constructed system used to increase the capability of the transmission line. It has several types with different functions for example: SVC, STATCOM,DSTATCOM, TCSC, SSSC, IPFC and UPFC. The Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) used to control the active power of the transmission line by injecting controllable ac voltage in the series with the transmission line. The Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) employed to control the reactive power by injecting adjustable ac current in the transmission line. The Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) consists of SSSC and STATCOM linked by DC capacitor, it controls both active and reactive power flow of the line. This paper presents a simulation study to compare between SSSC, STATCOM and UPFC by inserting each device separately on a 100 MVA, 500 KV, four busses power system. Each converter is designed by 48-pulse multilevel inverter to reduce harmonics contents of the line voltage. This study has been done using MATLAB / SIMULINK package.

Design and Implementation of a Prototype Automatic Reading System for the Consumers’ Electrical Energy Meters

mohammed Samir Mohammed alsoufi; Dhafir A. Alneema

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2020, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 56-60
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.126753.1019

The research aims to design and implement a prototype for an automated system that reads electrical energy meters for the consumers and collects these readings in a central unit via the World Wide Web (the Internet). This is done by adding a camera that automatically captures the meter reading of the electric meter as an alternative to the mobile meter reader. This meter reading image is processed and the value of the meter reading is extracted by using a Raspberry Pi device and the Python language depending on OCR (Optical Character Recognition) algorithm and then sent via Internet and collected from all consumers through the Internet cloud in a database in the Central Electricity Department. After collecting this information, it can be used to monitor electrical loads, record invoices, and give reports about loads and costs to consumers, and thus participate in rationalizing electrical energy consumption.

Design and Performance Evaluation of Lattice Daubechies Wavelet Filter Banks for Less Complex Cognitive Transceivers

Samar A. Yasser; Dr. Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar; Qutaiba I. Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2020, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 61-69
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.126799.1021

Wavelet Packet Based Multicarrier Modulation (WPMCM) system uses usually a prototype filter bank multicarrier. The Daubechies-D10 filter bank (D10FB) is the basic framework of multicarrier modulation (MCM) transceiver system. In this paper, Lattice structures of exact Daubechies-D10 wavelet filter are adopted to design a prototybe filter bank realized for a proposed structure of WPMCM transceiver system. Magnitude and phase responses of the exact Daubechies-D10 LPF and the proposed structure are compared. They are nearly the same in the passband with improved roll-off characteristics of the magnitude response of the proposed. Whilefrom the results, it appears that the proposed WPMCM structure possess low speed of operation, less complexity and less power consumption.It is also noticed from SNR comparison, that the performance evaluation of the proposed WPMCM transceiver system is a moderate between other two previously issued structures.

Design Analysis of Turbo Decoder Based on One MAP Decoder Using High Level Synthesis Tool

Amer T. Ali; Dhafir Abdul Fatah Alneema

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2020, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 70-77
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.126801.1022

High Level Synthesis (HLS) tool does not only simplify the designing operation and rapid prototyping but also allows the designers to explore large number of design’s techniques such as parallelism, pipeline, memory partitioning and many other techniques. Turbo decoder based on Maximum APosterior Probability (MAP) algorithm is designed in this work using Vivado HLS. The normal turbo decoder with two MAP decoders were implemented with and without parallelism and proposed a new design of turbo decoder with one MAP decoder and it was designed with and without parallelism using different window technique in HLS tool which it is not explored previously. These designs were implemented for different frame size in this work. A comp-arison in latency and resource utilization where done and how a tradeoff done between these two parameters to reach the specific design that we need. The new design produces better results.

Eichhornia and Ceratophyllum Monitoring System Based on IoT for Iraqi’s Irrigation projects

Nassr Myasar Abdullah; Rabee Hagem

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2020, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 78-84
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.126877.1030

Advancments in technologies can help solve many problems. Internet of Things (IoT), a recent technology, can be employed to tackle the problems with irrigation systems in Iraq that suffer from agricultural pests. Such pests are known as emergence of bushes and weeds, such as (Eichhornia and Ceratophyllum), that spread in waterways, stream and river back, estuaries, irrigation channels, gates, and systems.They basically impedethe flow of water and affect the fucntion of pumps, gates and sprinklers, and can evencause them to stop working. Agricultural pests, in addition, consume huge amounts of water that Iraq critically needs, especially in the years of drought and lack of rain.The present study shows the deisgn of a system, for monitoring and controlling the agricultural pests, that uses IoT Wi-Fi Photon board with a GUI (Graphical User Interface) which is supported with an early notification system.The reasons for the growth of these pests and their spread are discussed in this study. Moreover, there are two methods suggested to limit the emergence of the Ceratophyllum plant and detect of the Eichhornia from an early stage. The results showed that the proposed system is feasible.

Planning and Decision Making Under Uncertainty (Mosul Reservoir Optimal Operating Policy- Case Study)

Mohammed Awni Khattab; Kamel A. Al-Mohseen

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2020, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 85-96
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.126885.1032

This study is concerning the planning and decision making process of water resources projects under uncertainty. It includes a mathematical analysis to optimize the operation of the Mosul reservoir sought to achieve two conflicting goals, diverting water from for irrigation and releasing water for hydroelectric generation. Four methods of solutions have been implemented. These are: weights, constraints, goal attainment, and step method. The results reveal that the used methods gave the optimal solution by allocating 5906 million cubic meters/ year for irrigation and 1600 Gw-hour/year for power generation ),(6236, 1555), (6188, 1558),and (6121,1568) under the given inflow conditions . The current study suggested that the average value of these solutions i.e (6113, 1570) can be taken as a compromise solution to the problem. It is believed that this solution has a good chance to be selected by the decision-maker, because it contains the least possible degree of subjectivity.

Comparing the Rules in Digital Algorithmic Generation Methods for Architectural Designs

Aseel Ibrahim AL-Habeeb; Dhuha Abdulgani Al-kazzaz

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2020, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 97-117
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.126470.1007

The paper deals with digital generative algorithmic systems. Its aim is to investigate the extent to which the difference between rule-based algorithmic systems affects the definition of rules themselves. To achieve this aim, the paper put forward a theoretical framework of rule-based systems including the characteristics of rules, and the way they work. The framework was adopted as a basis for the comparison of four common rule-based algorithmic design approaches in architecture. They are Shape Grammars, L-systems, Cellular Automata, and Swarm Intelligence Algorithm. The results showed that the differences between the rule-based algorithmic systems are slightly reflected in their rules. The similarities are identified in many rule’s properties and their way of work such as: using symbols in the representation of rules, using substitution rules in the generation process, using the same procedures included in rules, the possibility of rule’s repetition and rule’s termination. However, shape grammars showed some individuality, especially in the reference of rules to architectural precedents.

Soil Reinforcement Using Natural and Synthetic Fibers (A Review)

Abdulrahman Hani Aldaood; Amina A. Khalil; Ibrahim Mahmood Alkiki

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2020, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 118-125
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.126506.1006

Soil reinforcement is one of the important techniques in geotechnical engineering, which is used to enhanced the engineering properties of soil. Soil reinforcement means, addition of natural or synthetic fibers to soil which act as tension members and sharing together with soil to sustain the applied loads. In soil reinforcement technique different types of fibers having different shapes can be used. The fibers used in soil can be having a shape like staples, chips, yarns, crumbs, bristles/hairs and other shapes. In the present time the using of fibers (especially natural fibers) in the earth construction works represent one of the cost-effective and environmentally friendly ground improvement techniques. The main objective of this paper, is to review the definition, mechanism, and application of using fibers in soil reinforcement through different scientific papers published in this subject. Further, the advantages and executive problems related to using fibers in soil reinforcement were discussed.

Testing of the Homogeneity of Precipitation Time Series in Selected Regions of Iraq

Samah Mohammed Qasim; Abdulwahab Mohammad Youns; Omar M. Mahmood-Agha

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2020, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 126-137
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.127033.1035

Precipitation data are subject to many tests and assessments before being used for studies in the field of water resources, hydrological processes, and climate change research to ensure their reliability and quality. Homogeneity tests are considered as a useful tool to control the reliability and quality of data. In this study, a homogeneity test was performed for the monthly rainfall data distributed over different regions of Iraq. Homogeneity was examined using four tests: Pettit, SNHT, BRT and VNRT at a confidence level of 5%.The results showed that the time series for the winter months of the Ramadi, Baghdad, Hilla, Khanaqin and Karbala stations were heterogeneous, while the time series of the Al-Nakhaib, Wetba, Baghdad and Tal Afar stations during the spring months were statistically heterogeneous according to the SNHT test. While the Pettitt test showed heterogeneous results for the stations of Nasiriyah, Basra, Khanaqin and Kirkuk for the winter months. Al-Rutba, Khanaqin, Tal Afar,Sinjar,Mosul and Karbala for the spring months. The data for all stations were homogeneous, using the BRT test for the winter and spring months. VNRT test showed the heterogeneity of the data for the Samawah stations for the months of winter, Ramadi, Nakhab, Tal- Afar and Najaf for the months of spring. The current study also showed that the precipitation of all stations are classified as useful, with the exception of the Al-Nukhaib and Najaf stations, which have been classified as doubtful .

Analysis of Rainfall Drought Periods in the North of Iraq Using Standard Precipitation Index (SPI)

Anass M. M. Rasheed

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 60-72
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.28187

In this research, the standard precipitation index (SPI) was used to analyze rainfall records between 1941 - 2002 for nine metrological stations in the north of Iraq. In addition, digital maps of average drought magnitude and average drought intensity for the study region had drawn by using geographic information system (GIS). It is concluded that 56% of the study period were drought years.

The Effect of Power Swing on Distance Relays Performance

Atheer Habash Abosh; Abdul Ghani A. Abdul Ghafoor

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 5, Pages 43-48
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43386

The distance relay is suffering from under-reach in its performance. This is because of some transient disturbance, which may happen when the power flows and swings. Besides that the power swings as a consequence of some fault cases. In this paper a new distance relay has been suggested and modeled for detecting stable and unstable power swings.
This relay is known as out of step relay (OOS). The method employed is to measure the rate of change of the positive sequence impedance of the relay which supervise the trip signal that comes out of the distance relay. It allows the distance relay to work, if it detects an unstable power swing or a fault. On the other hand it blocks it if the power swing is stable. The new relay have been modeled and simulated using MATLAB-SIMULINK software programs.
The performance of this relay has been tested on an equivalent two sources system. The results prove that the suggested relay is active and fast. Thus overcoming the limitation of the distance relay in case of under-reach. The results also show that the new relay has the ability in discriminating between the types of faults, that occur during power swings.
Key Word: Power swing, Distance relay , Out of step protection technique.

Experimental Study of the Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams under Repeated Loads

Dr.Bayar J. Al Sulayfani; Muna M .Abdullah; Samier S. Shmas

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.31560

Concrete behavior subjected to repeated loads is differs than the one subjected to static loads. Repeated loads caused crushing in some part of concrete due to loading and unloading process. Concrete behavior under static loads is affected by adding steel fibers, which improved many properties especially concrete tensile strength. These improvements are studied in this research under the effect of repeated loads, by testing simply supported fibrous reinforced concrete beams with dimensions (1000x150x160) mm, reinforced with different percentages of steel fibers (0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0%). Repeated loads were applied to the beams through two points and for many cycles up to failure. The physical properties and compressive strength of the concrete used was found by casting standard cylinders (150x300) mm for the different percentages of fibers. All the results show improvements in beams behavior due to fiber addition to the concrete under repeated loads, by increasing the deflection, strain, ductility and energy dissipation due to increasing of added fibers percentages.

Keywords : Repeated load, Reinforced Concrete, Beams, Steel fiber

Use Of Bentonite Clay As A Coagulant Or A Coagulant Aid With Ferrous Sulfate For Synthetic Turbidity Removal

Mohammad S. Hassan; Musa’b A. Al- Tamir

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2006, Volume 14, Issue 4, Pages 46-58
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2006.45374

In this study the bentonite clay has been used as a coagulant and coagulant aid with ferrous sulfate in turbidity removal for different initial synthetic turbidity of Tigris River samples of (10- 500) ntu, The study revealed the efficiency of using bentonite clay as a coagulant alone in removing turbidity with a dose not more than 30 mg/l, Also the study reveled the improvement of ferrous sulfate efficiency for removing water turbidity when bentonite clay used with it in a dose of 7.5 mg/l of bentonite and 5 mg/l of ferrous sulfate. The regression analysis showed that the most important variables affecting on turbidity removal were initial turbidity followed by settling time and bentonite clay dose then finally ferrous sulfate dose.
Key Words: Ferrous Sulfate, Iron Salts, Bentonite Clay, Coagulation, flocculation, Coagulant aids, Turbidity removal, Water Supply

The Effect Of Adding Ethanol To leaded Gasoline on The Performance of Spark Ignition Engine

Dr. A.R Habbo; Mr.H.S Hammodi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 33-43
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.31631

أُجريت هذه الدراسة لمعرفة تأثير إضافة مادة الايثانول بنقاوة 99.2% إلى الكازولين المرصص على أداء محرك احتراق داخلي يعمل بشمعة القدح متمثلاً بعزم المحرك والاستهلاك النوعي للوقود وكذلك كمية الملوثات المنبعثة منه عند ظروف تشغيلية مختلفة شملت كل من نسبة الانضغاط وتوقيت إعطاء قدحة الاشتعال. أُجريت التجارب العملية باستخدام الوقود الجديد (الايثانول + الكازولين المرصص) وبنسب حجمية مختلفة لمادة الايثانول ابتداءً من نسبة 10% وانتهاءً بنسبة 50% وبزيادة مقدارها 10% في كل مرة لبيان تأثير إضافة مادة الايثانول إلى الكازولين المرصص على أداء المحرك وكمية الملوثات المنبعثة منه.
تم إجراء التجارب العملية عند نسب انضغاط مختلفة وهي11:1, 10:1, 9:1 بينما تم تغيير وقت إعطاء القدحة بواقع 5 درجة من درجات عمود المرفق. وتم تثبيت سرعة المحرك ((2000 دورة لكل دقيقة وعند النسبة المكافئة ( ) .
بينت النتائج إن إضافة الايثانول إلى الكازولين المرصص أدى إلى زيادة عزم المحرك والاستهلاك النوعي للوقود مع حصول زيادة طفيفة في درجة حرارة غازات العادم وخصوصاً عند إضافة الايثانول إلى الكازولين المرصص بنسب 30% فما فوق، وصاحب هذا الأداء انخفاض في نسب الملوثات الناتجة من المحرك. كما بينت النتائج أيضاً أن زيادة نسبة الايثانول المضافة إلى الكازولين المرصص عملت على رفع نسبة الانضغاط التي يمكن للمحرك أن يعمل عندها مع غياب ظاهرة الصفع (knock) المعروفة آثارها السلبية على المحرك.

Evaluating performance of Hydrus-1D model in simulating evaporation from soil surface for different wetting intervals

Muzahim M. Abid; Eftikhar A. Alani; Entesar M. Ghazal

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2015, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 31-43
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2015.101073

In this study, Hydrus-1D model was used to simulate the evaporation from the soil surface for different wetting intervals for northern region(sandy loam and clay loam) using input for climatic data , and data of class Apan evaporation.The results showed that data of pan evaporation class A can be relied on in simulating and calculation of evaporation from the soil surface, where the standards of statistics (IOA, R2) calculated on the basis of evaporation pan class A data are better for the wetting intervals (2,4, 8, 16 ) days compared with the values of those standards based on full climate data and both types of soil. The study also showed that the wetting intervals and their impact on evaporation from the soil surface and evaporation stages reasonably agree with the results of field experiments that have been made in this area.

Corrosion Protection of Steel Pipe Samples Buried in Soil

Haitham M. Wadullah

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 5, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.32798

The types of corrosion protection on corrosion resistance of steel pipe samples buried in soil have been studied in this research. Samples of unprotected carbon steel are used with other protected by different corrosion protection such as galvanic coating, rubber coating and two types of cathodic protection (impressed current and sacrificial anodes). The weight loss technique is used as a function of the corrosion rate (mdd).
The results, which have been obtained, show that the corrosion rates in the unprotected samples are high compared with the corrosion protected samples, and the maximum corrosion resistance is found to be at the cathodic protection systems.

Key words: Corrosion protection, Samples of steel pipe, Buried in soil

Concepts Architecture For Architectural Students

Imad M. M. Azhar Al-Bakari

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 4, Pages 80-93
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.45256

Formation of concept in Architecture Design is something unusual to many student and most projects been designed with no knowledge of how to use concepts properly.
This research introduce meaning and form of concepts in Architecture. Range and scope in Academic and professional work. Also problems, which face student such as Communication, Adaptation, and the correct type, show types of concept. Research also shows types of concept and concepts hierarchies.
Applied part of this research will deal with some student' projects. Who adapt concepts. And to analyze forms and types of their concepts through different tables. Inter views have been made with students of fourth year to discover how students had been arrived to final solution

Effect of cavity on Stress distribution and Settlement under Foundation

A. A. Khalil; S. A. Khattab

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 14-29
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43621

In this research the effect of cavities on the stability of foundation has been studied using non-linear finite elements analysis through the programs PLAXIS2D, and PLAXIS3D. The study included a number of variables represented by shape, size, sectional area, location, and depth of a single cavity under the base of footings. The effect of the above variables on settlement and stress distribution was studied on isolated square, round and strip footing.
Results showed that the shape and volume of the cavity has an effect on the settlement and concentration of stress under the footing for the chosen cavity sections (Circular, Ellipse1, Ellipes2, Loaf, Square) when the cavity is situated at a depth less than twice the width of strip foundation or 1.5 times the width/diameter of isolated square/circular footings. The study also showed an increase in the values of settlement and concentration of stress at what may be termed as the critical depth under the footing. It was also concluded that there exists a zone that may be called the critical zone below the footing (zone of radial shear and failure plane). If a cavity is situated within this zone then it will have a serious effect. Large value of settlement were recorded for cavities situated within this zone under the footing.

Keywords: Cavity, Settlement, Stress, Finite Element.

Optimal Neuro-Fuzzy D.C. Motor Speed Control

Assist lecture. Hameed A; Assist lecture. Hameed A

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 73-86
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.72801

This work deals with investigating of d.c. motor speed controlled by a buck-boost converter. Open loop system is tested. Aneuro-Fuzzy controller with random number and type of membership function is designed to control the speed of the d.c. motor as a closed loop system. Because of the lack of a clear and a known way for selecting the type and number of membership function in case of fuzzy control, An Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System which comprises a fuzzy inference structure and neural network learning ability is modified to control the speed of the motor. The technique is used to select the optimal number and the best type of membership function for the fuzzy system. The process is carried out through testing four types of membership functions with different numbers (3,5,…etc) for each type and computing the absolute error for each case comparing their results to choose the smallest among them. Then the chosen root is applied to control the system for the rest time of control. The technique is applied to two loads (motors).

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