About Journal

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ) is a global, scientific and open access journal. Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY), The first issue of Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ) was published in 1993 by the college of engineering – University of Mosul. The journal publishes Engineering Science articles at an average rate of two issues/year (Bi-annually). AREJ publishes original and valuable engineering research papers aiming at developing the knowledge in the fields of applied engineering science.  Al-Rafidain Engineering...
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Journal Information

Publisher: College of Engineering, University of Mosul

Email:  drjssm@uomosul.edu.iq

Editor-in-chief: Prof. Dr. Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar

Print ISSN: 1813-0526

Online ISSN: 2220-1270

Utilizing BIM 4D in Improving Project Execution Scheduling A Realistic Project for the Mosul Municipality as a Case Study

Mwafaq Yousif Ibrahim; Dhuha Abdulgani Al-kazzaz

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.128695.1068

The architectural projects in Iraq, designed according to the traditional method, face problems of the delay in the completion of work and the increase in the cost. The paper adopts the implementation of BIM system in the field of architectural design as one of the leading digital systems for estimating project scheduling accurately. The research problem was to identify the requirements for applying BIM 4D (one of the BIM tasks) in architectural projects in Iraq. The research goal was to determine the requirements of applying BIM 4D in public sector projects in Iraq. The research identifiedthe most important prerequisites, for examples: the adoption of Iraqi codes in defining the libraries of components involved in the design, the definition of the detailed components of building to take into account the local market such as manufacturers, setting determinants that require cooperation and communication between the relevant government agencies and the diverse design teams during the design phase to avoid future conflicts, and ensuring early participation of the contractor in the design stages.

The Use of Computerized Parametric Typology in the Generation of Single-Family Housing Designs

Doaa Mosab Attarbashi; Dhuha Abdulgani Al-kazzaz

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 19-36
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.129156.1077

In the era of digital architecture, parametric design plays a fundamental role in the generative architectural design process. The most important of its benefits are that it allows a visual representation of the design process, a designer interaction during the construction of the parametric model using visual codes, the representation of steps sequentially and logically, in addition to the ability to adapt the model according to the client’s requirements and the designer's wishes, and to generate various design solutions and alternatives for the same model.
Parametric Typology is an approach that combines typological design with computational parametric techniques in order to produce various designs that belong to a specific building type. The research problem revolves around the application of parametric Typology to generat initial designs for local housing. Previous studies have proposed different approaches in the implementation of parametric typology to designs ranging from urban scale, individual buildings, to building elements. The research presented a theoretical framework, drawn from previous studies, to clarify the concepts and techniques of parametric typology method. The methodology was applied to build parametric model using a visual algorithm in grasshopper software. Prototypes for single-family housing had been generated as a functional type that occupies the largest space in cities; in addition there is a huge demand for it. As a result of the study, initial models were implemented with variety of parametric in terms of the placement of activities and the number of spaces.

Settlement Analysis of machine foundation Under Reciprocating Load using FEM

Noor Khalid Alhasso; Qutayba Nazar Qasim

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 37-43
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.128010.1057

The analysis of the machines foundations is an important issue in the geotechnical engineering as the foundations of the machine provide a strong platform for the machines to work in a smooth manner with minimal maintenance requirements. The process of analyzing of the machines foundations requires more attention since it includes not only the static loads but also the dynamic loads that result from the unbalanced forces that the machine generates or its vibratory motion. Of course, this movement load is transferred to the soil through the foundation and its effect can be calculated using the principles of kinetic soil and vibration theory. Here, the search deals with the study of analyzing machines foundations under the influence of kinetic loads taking into consideration the type of soil and its condition, the shape of the foundation and its location from the surface of the earth, the type of kinetic load projected and the method of analysis. In this study, and for the purpose of achieving what has been mentioned with using finite element method (program Plaxis 2D V8.6 ) three types of sandy soil (Loose, medium and dense) were taken. The effect of dynamic loads on different types of machine foundations (square, rectangular, and strip) was studied and under the influence of a different dynamic frequency (5,10,15, 20 Hz) was studied and the effect of a group of these factors on the amount of displacement of the machine foundation was studied and these results were compared with the maximum Amplitude when resonating with a special parameter called Normalized Displacement.
         It is noted from this study that the value of the displacement decreases by increasing the values of the (L / B) ratio of the foundation for the same frequency for the three soil states, , and that the increase the value of the elastic modulus (E), the Normalized displacement value approaches the number (1), that meaning it approaches the resonance at the frequency ( 5 Hz) for the case of the square foundation more than the rectangle and the strip , and for the remaind of the frequencies (10, 15, 20 Hz) the Normalized displacement value will be less compared to the frequency (5 Hz) as well as less variation between the cases of different foundations shape.

Evaluation of Acceleration Noise Parameter as a Traffic Flow Performance Indicator for Multi-Lane Urban Highways

Mohammed Hussein Naef; Abdulkhalik M. Al-Taei

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 44-52
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.128127.1059

This study was conducted to use acceleration noise as an alternative measure to the level of service on multi-lane urban highways located within Kirkuk City. The study provides a simplified and easy way to evaluate the level of service (LOS) instead of the extended methodology proposed by the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM-2010). Ten (10) multi-lane urban segments were chosen within the study area for collecting the required field data. Moving Vehicle Method (MVM) with a digital camera equipped with a built-in GPS receiver were utilized to collect field data. Acceleration noise takes the form of an exponential function (y = ex) when associated with traffic flow variables (traffic volume, density, and speed). Final results have revealed that acceleration noise could be used as a surrogate measuring the level of service for multi-lane urban highways within the ranges of the level of service LOS A-LOS C.

Energy Efficiency Enhancement for Residential Sector: Case Study of Lighting in Iraq

Yasir M.Y Ameen; Omar Sharaf Al-Deen Al-Yozbaky; Majid S. M. Al-Hafidh

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 53-62
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.127999.1056

The electrical energy crisis is a global problem that all developing countries face in general and Iraq in particular. A lot of body in the literature holds that lifestyle and consumption choices strongly affect residential energy consumption. Hitherto releasing energy savings in households is not simple. Previous studies indicate that the lighting requirements for the residential sector consume a significant amount of Iraq’s energy resources. In this study, the authors analyzed the energy consumption of 48 samples of residential loads at different dwellings in the country. In addition, the simulation study based on the DIALUX Evo 8 lighting software has been conducted, which shows the energy consumption savings for various types of luminaires. The results clearly show that a relatively large portion of lighting system consumption is because of the poor distribution of lighting fixtures and the use of relatively high-consuming traditional lighting luminaires. The study deduces that the energy efficiency of the lighting system may be improved by about 60% by simply replacing the traditional lighting systems with modern LED-technology-based systems. It is also necessary to redistribute lighting fixtures using state-of-the-art lighting software for achieving adequate levels of lighting and visual comfort for humans.

Hydraulic Properties Downstream Multi-Opened Sluice Gate

mohammad yasin Al-Qattan; Ahmed Y Mohammed

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 63-68
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.127108.1037

In this paper four gate openings and fifteen operating scenarios in terms of the difference in the arrangement of working gates were studied. The Expansion Ratio (e) which is (the ratio of total width of the channel to the total width of the working gates) was calculated for each scenario. It can be seen that when the value of (e) was the largest possible, which is (5.34), the value of the discharge coefficient (Cd) was also as high as possible, reached to (0.845). Also, the value of the contraction coefficient (Cc) was the highest value, (0.693). The increasing in the value of (e) means that the number of openings that work is less. Both (Cd) and (Cc) are decreases when Froude Number increased for all scenarios of gate worked operations.

The Effect of Intermittent Constant Water Application on Soil Infiltration

Shamsaldeen Mohamed khroofa; Dr. Younis Mohammed Hassan

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 69-77
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.127633.1050

In this research ,20 laboratory experiments was carried out on a column of soil with dimensions (30 cm *30 cm *45 cm) on two types of soil loamy sand and loamy ,in order to study the infiltration characteristics of the soil under sprinkling application with constant application rate under continuous and intermittent application at three constant application rates (31,52.4 and68)mm/hr ,with four cycle ratios(cr=1,1/2,1/3,1/4) for loamy sand soil and application rate (31,52.4)mm/hr and  three cycle ratios(cr=1,1/2,1/3) for loamy soil for each application rate , the study focused on two basic factor : the time to ponding ( )and the infiltration characteristics after ponding time .the study showed that using intermittent application method improves infiltration characteristics as it leads to increase in time to ponding ,this increased ranged between (3.22% to 155%)for loamy sand soil and (13.77% to 239.67%) for loamy soil at circle ratio equal  as compared with continuous application in addition to increasing the accumulative infiltration rate depth at any time for example at 180min actual application time the accumulated infiltration depth increased by (3.26% to 47%)for loamy sand soil and (10.24% to 26.94%) for loamy soil using intermittent application (cr =   ) as compared with continuous application.

Life Losses Estimation Due to Hypothetical Momentary Mosul Dam Failure & Prepare Emergency Flood Action Plan for Mosul City

Mustafa Salim Mustafa; Thair Mahmood Al-Taiee

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 78-89
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.127901.1053

The life loss resulting from the momentary hypothetical failure of Mosul Dam for the area between Mosul Dam extending to the south of Mosul City was estimated depending on inundation maps resulting from flood wave simulation using IBER hydrodynamic model for storage elevation scenarios (300, 310, 320, 330 and 335) meters above sea level. The estimated number residents exposed to the flooding risk at minimum and maximum Mosul Lake storage elevation scenarios for the left and right sides of Mosul City were (257886-749625) person and for the residential communities between Mosul Dam and Mosul City were (10685-47925) person respectively. Saqib Ehsan (2009) approach was used to estimate the life losses for the study area. The human losses were estimated when there was no available warning time for minimum and maximum lake storage levels to be (17452 & 372958) persons respectively. The distances between safe places from the river center were calculated to be (3.09) km for the right side and (5.27) km for the left side of Mosul City at the lake storage elevation of 335 meter above sea level, so the average flood rise velocity and flood survival time till flood were recession completely was calculated for all the lake storage scenarios. An emergency notification action plan has been proposed for the Mosul Dam failure scenario with the most important recommendations and procedures to be under consideration during the flood disaster.

Using the Submerged vanes to control the sediment entering branch channel with 30° angle with the direction of the main channel

Ehsan Elewy Salman; Mwafaq Younes Mhammad

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 90-95
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.128056.1058

A common problems faced by the side intake channels are sedimentation and sediment entry. These cause problems as limiting the flow ability in irrigation channels, and threatening to waterway block when the water level is low. This laboratory study was conducted to find out the effect of using one-row immersed vans in the main channel to control the sediments amount of entering the intake channel at an angle  with two sand concentrations at granular diameter rate (  = 0.5mm). The first concentration flow rate was (1.8 ) And the second (2.22 ). The results showed that the use of a single row of submerged vans reduces the sediment amount that entered the intake channel by (35-65)% of the total sediments that were fed by the feeder channel for both concentrations. This indicates that use of submerged vans has a positive role in entry process and sediment transfer to branched channels.

The Use of Artificial Neural Networks In The Analysis of Seepage and Slope Stability for The Proposed Qaim Dam on The Khosar River

Farah Khazaal Saeed; Kamel Ali Almohseen; Abdulwahab Mohammad Younis

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 96-104
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.128204.1062

In this study, two Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were built to predict the amount of seepage and the factor of safety for the upstream and downstream slopes of the Qaim Dam, which was proposed to be constructed on the Khosar River.  Two cases have been taken into consideration to analyze the operation of the dam, making use of previous study used Geo-Studio 2012 program studying the stability and the seepage through dam body and its foundation. Thus, two neural networks have been proposed, the first one was for the steady-state case of the reservoir water level and the second was for the rapid drawdown of the reservoir water level. The first ANN gave a coefficient of determination for the seepage process of (0.996),while these coefficients for upstream and downstream slopes were (0.957), and (0.925) respectively. The second ANN deals with calculation of the factor of safety for the upstream slope in a rapid drawdown case, which was (0.976). Sensitivity analyses were also conducted to figure out the most effective variables. It is shown that the most effective factor was the angle of internal friction for the soil.

Improving the Cultivated Area for the Ramadi Irrigation Project By Using Water Evaluation and Planning Model (WEAP)

Abu Baker A. Najm; Isam Mohammed Abdulhameed Al-bayati; Sadeq O. Sulaiman

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 105-114
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.128248.1063

In this study, the water evaluation and planning WEAP model was used to improve the Ramadi irrigation project with 28342 hectares and annual budget 326 million / year for the period (2018-2019). The results showed the total water used was 111.5 million /year and equalled 34.2% of Ramadi irrigation budget. The annual production was 39.3 million Kg/year for Ramadi irrigation, and total economic returns 16.04 million $/year. The study proposal two scenarios to improve the cultivated area. The first scenario increased water volume of the current year from 111.5 million /year to 272.12 million /year, which caused increased in annual productivity from 39.3 million Kg/year to 144.57 million Kg/year, and economic return rose from 16.04 million $/year to 65.25 million $/year. The second scenario record increased in annual production for the current year from 39.3 million Kg/year to 192.27 million Kg/year and economic return from 16.04 million $/year to 86.79 million $/year when using additional pumps for project 2, 3 and project 5. Also, the convey loss increased from 16.72 million /year for the current year to 48.47 million /year when applying the second scenario, which equals 15% from the water budget of Ramadi irrigation.

Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Drought Using the Standard Precipitation Index for the Northwestern Region of Iraq

Samah Mohammed Kasim; Abdulwahab Mohammed Youns; omar Muqdad Mahmood-Agha

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 115-127
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.128386.1066

The purpose of the study is to meteorological drought analysis using a standard precipitation index (SPI) in (9) climatic stations spread over the northwestern part of Iraq for the period from 1981 to 2018. Analysis was done at different time intervals and different SPI thresholds. The study showed that the percentage for wet and dry years is 48.54% and 51.46%, respectively, when rated SPI-12 = 0, and this percentage improves for short periods of time to reach 59.94% and 40.06 for wet and dry years respectively when rated SPI-6 (7-12) ) = 0. It was found that the classification of moderate humidity and moderate dryness is prevalent during that period and at all classifications and time periods, while the classification of severe dryness and extreme drought appears clearly and clearly in short time periods, especially in the stations of group (A) and (B).

Empirical Equations for Estimation of Water Distribution Uniformity Coefficient in Case of the Alternate Setting of Sprinkler Laterals

Haqqi Yasin; Zeyad Ayoob Sulaiman; Ahmed Ali Al-Ogaidi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 128-139
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.128679.1067

Among the operating and management practices that can increase the uniformity of water distribution in the portable sprinkler irrigation systems is the alternate setting of sprinkler laterals. Shifting the laterals by half the distance between laterals results in a single alternate set and shifting the laterals by half the distance between the sprinklers results in double alternate set. Data representing 66 patterns of water distribution for a single sprinkler of different types of sprinkler heads were used. By choosing many suitable sprinklers spacing and using Microsoft Excel to implement the field distribution that free of dry spots, the following coefficients were computed: uniformity coefficient, uniformity coefficient of single and double alternate set, distribution uniformity, distribution uniformity of single and double alternate set and coefficients related to sprinklers spacing. Then, using the nonlinear regression analysis provided in SPSS, empirical relationships were derived to estimate both the single and double uniformity coefficients and the single and double distribution uniformity with determination coefficients of 0.783, 0.810, 0.720, and 0.766, respectively. The spacing coefficients that lead to the maximum values ​​of the different uniformity coefficients were determined based on inferred equations. In addition, the functions proposed in previous studies used in estimating the single and double uniformity coefficients with determination coefficients of 0.608 and 0.539, respectively as well as the single and double distribution uniformity coefficients with determination coefficients of 0.584 and 0.491, respectively showed low accuracy as compared with the ones proposed in the current study.

Handling the Error in Weighing Signal

Abdelkader Faris Abdelkader Al Shalji; Fakhrulddin Hamid Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 140-145
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.128292.1064

The paper presents and discusses how to use some  software techniques to handle the  error in the  weighing signal that  is  produced from a load cell . The load cell is the best sensor used to  transform the weight to an electrical signal.   In  industry the production of an accurate  weighing signal suffers from a noisy environment. Different sources of noise like electromagnetic fields from machines, motors,   microwaves and power lines  in addition to tempreture variations and humidity have significant effects on weak electrical signals produced by load cells. The software filtering is adopted to reduce or remove  the unwanted effects. The measured combined error is 0.416% when the load is 6000g. The error normal distribution has a sigma improvement equals to 6.922%. With the adaptive hardware gain the measurement time is reduced by about 20%.

A Survey on Smart Monitoring System of Environment Based on IoT

Raghad Hazim AlSheikh; Rabee Mwafaq Hagem

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 146-158
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.128944.1072

This paper introduces different topics about Air pollution monitoring based on IoT (internet of things). It describes different methods used for monitoring and measuring Air pollution using different techniques. Some papers discussed Air pollution monitoring using (Arduino uno, Raspberry or ESP8266, PIC microcontroller). All would be presented to improve air monitoring efficiently and to clarify the tools used in each technique giving the differences between one technique and another. Reducing air pollution is necessary for the future, and cities around the world are using technology and smart city initiatives to take on the problem because it is considered as the major environmental risk factor for human health. Air pollution causes heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer and acute lower respiratory disease. Therefore, it is important to reduce traffic and output from factories to decrease pollution

Real-Time Signature Recognition Using Neural Network

Ahmed Mamoon Fadhil; Mayada Faris; Ali Al-Saegh; Mohammad Mohammad

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 159-165
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.129871.1088

The human signature is an important biometric feature that is used to identify human identity. It is essential in preventing falsification of documents in numerous financial, legal, and other commercial settings. The computerized system enters many aspects of our life, security is one of them, continues developing in computer vision and artificial network leads researcher to develop computerized signature recognition. This paper proposed a real-time algorithm for signature recognition. It is based on client and server operation.in which, client agent captures a signature and sends it to the server through the network. The server receives data and performs processing on it. Processing algorithm is based on weightless neural network. It is chosen for its simplicity and few numbers of sample required for training. The algorithm is tested and evaluated and show the ability to process 4.7 images per second.

The Effect of Educational, Economical Level, Household Size on Indoor Domestic Water Consumption of Some Residential Areas in Mosul city for 2011- 2013, 2018

Ahlam Zeki Ameen Kassabbashi; Abdulmuhsin S. Shihab; Ahmed Yaseen Shehab

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 166-178
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.126639.1014

The research presents the site surveying data for per capita indoor water consumption that carried out in Mosul city, Iraq.
 A questionnaire containing over 30 questions was developed to collect a precise information on household characteristics (family size, number of children, income and educational level of house parents), with daily  indoor water consumption, according to the days of the week, taking into consideration water supply continuity, in addition to the built and site area of the house. Over 132 households of standalone, houses with different characteristics were obtained.
The data showed abnormal distribution due to a Non-parametric statistical analysis. Indoor water consumption revealed a positively significant relationship with family size, site area and built area of the house. Whereas, there were a negatively correlation with number of children, monthly income of householder and their educational level, were tabulated, No significant relationship with number of interrupted supply days was observed. Statistical regression analysis elucidated that the educational level of householder followed by family monthly income, family size, the built area and the site area were the crucial weighted factors affecting the indoor water consumption.

Analysis of Rainfall Drought Periods in the North of Iraq Using Standard Precipitation Index (SPI)

Anass M. M. Rasheed

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 60-72
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.28187

In this research, the standard precipitation index (SPI) was used to analyze rainfall records between 1941 - 2002 for nine metrological stations in the north of Iraq. In addition, digital maps of average drought magnitude and average drought intensity for the study region had drawn by using geographic information system (GIS). It is concluded that 56% of the study period were drought years.

The Effect of Power Swing on Distance Relays Performance

Atheer Habash Abosh; Abdul Ghani A. Abdul Ghafoor

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 5, Pages 43-48
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43386

The distance relay is suffering from under-reach in its performance. This is because of some transient disturbance, which may happen when the power flows and swings. Besides that the power swings as a consequence of some fault cases. In this paper a new distance relay has been suggested and modeled for detecting stable and unstable power swings.
This relay is known as out of step relay (OOS). The method employed is to measure the rate of change of the positive sequence impedance of the relay which supervise the trip signal that comes out of the distance relay. It allows the distance relay to work, if it detects an unstable power swing or a fault. On the other hand it blocks it if the power swing is stable. The new relay have been modeled and simulated using MATLAB-SIMULINK software programs.
The performance of this relay has been tested on an equivalent two sources system. The results prove that the suggested relay is active and fast. Thus overcoming the limitation of the distance relay in case of under-reach. The results also show that the new relay has the ability in discriminating between the types of faults, that occur during power swings.
Key Word: Power swing, Distance relay , Out of step protection technique.

Experimental Study of the Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams under Repeated Loads

Dr.Bayar J. Al Sulayfani; Muna M .Abdullah; Samier S. Shmas

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.31560

Concrete behavior subjected to repeated loads is differs than the one subjected to static loads. Repeated loads caused crushing in some part of concrete due to loading and unloading process. Concrete behavior under static loads is affected by adding steel fibers, which improved many properties especially concrete tensile strength. These improvements are studied in this research under the effect of repeated loads, by testing simply supported fibrous reinforced concrete beams with dimensions (1000x150x160) mm, reinforced with different percentages of steel fibers (0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0%). Repeated loads were applied to the beams through two points and for many cycles up to failure. The physical properties and compressive strength of the concrete used was found by casting standard cylinders (150x300) mm for the different percentages of fibers. All the results show improvements in beams behavior due to fiber addition to the concrete under repeated loads, by increasing the deflection, strain, ductility and energy dissipation due to increasing of added fibers percentages.

Keywords : Repeated load, Reinforced Concrete, Beams, Steel fiber

Use Of Bentonite Clay As A Coagulant Or A Coagulant Aid With Ferrous Sulfate For Synthetic Turbidity Removal

Mohammad S. Hassan; Musa’b A. Al- Tamir

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2006, Volume 14, Issue 4, Pages 46-58
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2006.45374

In this study the bentonite clay has been used as a coagulant and coagulant aid with ferrous sulfate in turbidity removal for different initial synthetic turbidity of Tigris River samples of (10- 500) ntu, The study revealed the efficiency of using bentonite clay as a coagulant alone in removing turbidity with a dose not more than 30 mg/l, Also the study reveled the improvement of ferrous sulfate efficiency for removing water turbidity when bentonite clay used with it in a dose of 7.5 mg/l of bentonite and 5 mg/l of ferrous sulfate. The regression analysis showed that the most important variables affecting on turbidity removal were initial turbidity followed by settling time and bentonite clay dose then finally ferrous sulfate dose.
Key Words: Ferrous Sulfate, Iron Salts, Bentonite Clay, Coagulation, flocculation, Coagulant aids, Turbidity removal, Water Supply

Compressive and Tensile Strength of Natural Fibre-reinforced Cement base Composites

Dr M. A. Ismail

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 42-51
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.44954


This paper describes the effect of the addition of various volume fraction (0-%4) of short natural fibres on the behavior of the composites. An experimental work has been carried out to study the mechanical properties of Roselle fibre-reinforced cement composites. The results show that the tensile strength of composite increases, (this increase in strength is about 53%), while the compressive strength decreases as the fibre volume fraction is increased.
Keywords: Cement , Composites ,Compression , Mechanical Properties Natural Fibre ,Roselle Fibre, Strength, Tensile.

Evaluating performance of Hydrus-1D model in simulating evaporation from soil surface for different wetting intervals

Muzahim M. Abid; Eftikhar A. Alani; Entesar M. Ghazal

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2015, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 31-43
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2015.101073

In this study, Hydrus-1D model was used to simulate the evaporation from the soil surface for different wetting intervals for northern region(sandy loam and clay loam) using input for climatic data , and data of class Apan evaporation.The results showed that data of pan evaporation class A can be relied on in simulating and calculation of evaporation from the soil surface, where the standards of statistics (IOA, R2) calculated on the basis of evaporation pan class A data are better for the wetting intervals (2,4, 8, 16 ) days compared with the values of those standards based on full climate data and both types of soil. The study also showed that the wetting intervals and their impact on evaporation from the soil surface and evaporation stages reasonably agree with the results of field experiments that have been made in this area.

Concepts Architecture For Architectural Students

Imad M. M. Azhar Al-Bakari

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 4, Pages 80-93
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.45256

Formation of concept in Architecture Design is something unusual to many student and most projects been designed with no knowledge of how to use concepts properly.
This research introduce meaning and form of concepts in Architecture. Range and scope in Academic and professional work. Also problems, which face student such as Communication, Adaptation, and the correct type, show types of concept. Research also shows types of concept and concepts hierarchies.
Applied part of this research will deal with some student' projects. Who adapt concepts. And to analyze forms and types of their concepts through different tables. Inter views have been made with students of fourth year to discover how students had been arrived to final solution

Using Intelligent Techniquesin Sustainable Buildings

Sinan Mohammad Talee

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2019, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 39-55
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2019.164354

Intelligent techniques represent integration between building system and technology. The merge of these techniques within a building serves and eases our life. Intelligent techniques became a common concept that defines the highest levels of various standards, which determine indoor environmental health. In other words, they increase productivity, raise prosperity, as well as enhancing the efficiency of resources, cost, flexibility, and adaptability. Thus, intelligent techniques reflect the concept of sustainability, as their effects cover all the main building aspects of function, structure, and form. The study considers form as the most obvious affected aspect of a sustainable building, especially as the intelligent techniques and materials formed the building envelope.
 The research is conducted on case-study samples from the region of Arab Gulf, which have a hot desert climate that is similar to the third desert climate in Iraq. The study defines the research problem as The knowledge insufficiency of the formal aspect identifications (with various classifications) that affected by intelligent techniques of sustainable buildings in the hot desert climate. The research aims to determine the aspects affected by intelligent techniques of the sustainable building in general and to verify their role and impact on the formal aspect of the façade design that can achieve the sustainability standards. Further, the samples of the case-study location in the hot desert climate aim to employ results on our local architecture in Iraq particularly.
The study defines its own structure and methodology in order to achieve its goals and solve the research problem, by dividing the research into several stages. Starting from defining the concept of the intelligence, and exploring previous studies to represent the theoretical framework. Then, listing the case-study samples, and measuring them using the descriptive analysis method, by analyzing the critical contexts upon the selected samples. The research concluded important points of the impact of the intelligent techniques on the formal aspect of the building. As the harsh conditions of the hot desert climate represent itself as a main challenge in the process, building protection against solar radiation and incandescent is vital. That is possible by methods of stirring, resistance, modulation, the control of the intelligence and the sustainability of the exterior materials.

Corrosion Protection of Steel Pipe Samples Buried in Soil

Haitham M. Wadullah

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 5, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.32798

The types of corrosion protection on corrosion resistance of steel pipe samples buried in soil have been studied in this research. Samples of unprotected carbon steel are used with other protected by different corrosion protection such as galvanic coating, rubber coating and two types of cathodic protection (impressed current and sacrificial anodes). The weight loss technique is used as a function of the corrosion rate (mdd).
The results, which have been obtained, show that the corrosion rates in the unprotected samples are high compared with the corrosion protected samples, and the maximum corrosion resistance is found to be at the cathodic protection systems.

Key words: Corrosion protection, Samples of steel pipe, Buried in soil

Friction and indicated power measurement for diesel engine by ( aerial dynamometer

Mohammad Sami Ahmad

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 106-115
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.47288

The conventional methods - used for - measuring brake, friction, and indicated power are based on brake - off dynamometers which use hydraulic or electrical dynamometers .
The mentioned above methods use the measured torque to calculate the related power.
The present method and instrument are characterized by measuring the amount of pressure opposed by a compressor joined to the engine and a reservoir for a compressed air, thus; the engine speed decelerates with the increasing pressure . For a specified pressure and engine speed, power could be calculated.
In addition, friction power in the engine could be estimated by measuring the consumed current and effective voltage on an electrical driving motor when the diesel engine at run – off situation; no fuel supply. The whole present dynamometer had been designed and performed by the researcher as explained.

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