Print ISSN: 1813-0526

Online ISSN: 2220-1270

Keywords : KEYWORDS

Softened Truss Model Theory for the Analysis of Fibre Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams and Corbels - E

S. A. Al-Ta; N. S. H. Al-Husaini

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 12-23
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.89966

Reinforced concrete members may be subjected to axial load, bending moment, shear and torsion. However the behaviour of these members under shear or combined shear and torsion is a complex phenomenon.
In this study the softened truss model theory is applied for the analysis of fibre reinforced concrete deep beams and corbels. The theory is more promising than the strut and tie model which satisfies the equilibrium conditions and to some extent materials constitutive relationships. While this theory, considers the equilibrium, compatibility, materials constitutive relationships and the degrading effect of the diagonal tension cracks on the compressive strength of cracked reinforced concrete element when subjected to biaxial compression-tension stresses. The previously developed algorithms for the analysis were modified by incorporating the effect of short discrete steel fibres on the behaviour and strength of concrete subjected to shear.
Fibre reinforced concrete deep beams and corbels were analyzed using the adopted algorithm and materials constitutive relationships. The predicted effects of the shear span / depth ratio, volume fraction of steel fibres and the longitudinal steel ratio on the shear strength of fibre reinforced concrete deep beams and corbels showed good agreement with published experimental results.
Keywords: corbel, deep beam, reinforced concrete, shear, softened truss, steel fibres.

Manufacturing of Bricks from Soil and Crushed Limestone by Compression- E

M. O. Amin; M. A. M. Khidir; A. M. Taher

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 24-32
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.89972

The environmental impact due to cement and burnt clay industries are increasing continuously, also cement concrete blocks and burnt clay bricks are increasingly becoming costly due to excessive cost of fuel required to manufacture the cement or burning the clay, while the soil suitable for construction is available everywhere in the world.The paper presents the results of an experimental investigation undertaken at Mosul Technical Institute to assess the potential for unfired compressed earth bricks using locally soil as construction material stabilized with crushed limestoneobtained from the waste of masonry factories. The wet soilmolded into bricks by manual press known globally as CINVA-RAM,exert high pressure. The press was manufactured locally for the research purposes conducted in the institute.Different percentages of crushed limestone by weight (passing sieve No.8) were added namely (4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 %) to the soil obtained from 20 km west of Mosul to reduce its expansiveness if any, and in a trial to improve its characteristics[1].The results showed increase in compressive strength at 4% and sharp decrease with higher percentages.
Keywords: Unfired compressed earth bricks, CINVA-RAM press, crushed limestone

Systolic Video Stream Object Detector Using FPGA-E

Dr.Shefa A. Dawwd; Ula T. Salim

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 33-43
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.89977

Object detection is important operation used in multiple applications such as computer vision, image and video processing, security, artificial intelligent, and several other areas.However, in these applications, it is not easy to realize real-time frame rates and fast invariant detecting function under changing object states such as position and size using software implementations. So that to solves these problems and speed up the highly intensive calculation required, In this paper simple and efficient template matching algorithm architecture of a video streaming application for object detection is proposed,it is based on using Sum of Absolute Differences (SAD)withPyramid Sum of Absolute Differences (PSAD) as similarity measures and a systolic array design using sliding window operation, where each video frame is divided into slides and feeds through the window by using a suitable first in first out(FIFO) buffers instead of the sliding window across the video frame. The implementation operation is done by using combination of software and hardware co-design that is based by using pipelining technique, data recirculation , and single instruction multiple data (SIMD) operations. The results for both SAD and PSAD algorithms showed the best match can be found at the template (window) size is 19×19 bits/pixel and with accuracy detectionrate of100%.

Keywords: FIFO, FPGA, Object detection, Pipeline, PSAD, SAD,Sliding window, Systolic array, Template matching, Video stream.

A Robust Method for New Object Detection in Video Surveillance Systems

Dr. Ahlam Fadhil Mahmood; Loma Akram Hamdai

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 213-224
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.88214

Video surveillance systems is a powerful tool for public safety and with the increasing need for more security in airports, banks, schools and other critical environments, the demand for video system is growing rapidly. Sides from the intrinsic usefulness of begin able to segment video streams into moving and background components, detecting moving blobs provide a focus of attention for recognition, classification and activity analysis, making these later processes more efficient since only “moving” pixels need to be considered. In this paper an efficient moving object detection method using modified Horprasert model for video surveillance system is present. The modified dynamic thresholds are able to detect a new object with it's shadow through different video stream in terms of light conditions. It consists of background model, distortion of brightness, color calculations and classification. Four regions are segmented depending on the thresholds foreground (moving object), background, highlight background and shadow. The proposed automatic threshold depends on background computations of brightness and is thus expected to achieved better classification performance.

Keywords: Horprasert model; background subtraction; background model; Video Surveillance.

Design of Dual Band Circular Polarization Stacked Microstrip Antenna for GPS Applications

Dr. Yessar E. Mohammed Ali; Ahmed J. Abdul Qader

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 225-232
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.88215

In this paper dual-band microstrip antenna for Global Positioning System (GPS) application is designed.This design contents on two circular patch ( upper circular patch, lower circular patch) printed on a two-layer substrate of an FR4 dielectric layer, and cutting a crossed-slot in the upper patch and four I slots in the lower patch.The antenna can work at GPS Ll band (1.575GHz) and L2 band (1.227GHz).The design achieved an approximately impedance bandwidth of 15.8 MHz for L1 for two ports, while L2 band is 11.8 MHz for two ports with maximum gain of 2.54dBi and 1.177dBi in the L1 and L2 band respectively for two ports.The resulting circular polarization (with axial ratio ≤ 3 dB) has been found to meet that required for this application.The VSWR is approximately1.1 (VSWR ≤ 2) for L1 and 1.2 for L2.Results were obtained above using the software CST, which shows that this antenna can meet the demands of the signals of satellite navigation system.The antenna dimensionsare (70*70 mm2). The structure is compact and has a good application prospect. The results with low-profile characteristics make the antenna suitable for GPS applications.

Keywords: microstrip antenna, GPS antenna, Circular polarization, dual-band antenna, Global Positioning System.

Automatic Brain MRI Slices Classification Using Hybrid Technique

Dr. AhlamFadhil Mahmood; Ameen Mohammed Abd-Alsalam

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 198-212
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.88213

This paper presents an intelligent classification technique to identify normal and abnormal slices of the magnetic resonance human brain images(MRI). The prtoposed hybrid technique consists of four subsequent stages; namely, dimensionality reduction, preprocessing, feature extraction, and classification. In the initial stages, the enhancement and removed unwanted informationare applied to provide a more appropriate image for the subsequent automated stages. In feature extraction stage, the most efficient features like statistical, and Haar wavelet features are extracted from each slice of brain MR images. In the classification stage, initially performs classification process by utilizing Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) and secondly Feed Forward Neural Network (FFNN) is used to classify the braintissue to normal or abnormal.
The proposed automated system is tested on a data set of 572 MRI images using T1 horizontal transverse (axial) section of the brain. Hybrid method yields high sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 100% and overallaccuracy of 95.66% over FIS and FFNN. The classification result shows that the proposed hybrid techniques are robust and effective compared with other recently work.

Keywords: Brain Tumor Classification; Fuzzy Inference System; Feed Forward Neural Network; MRI .

Synthetic CharacteristicsOf Traditional Historic Houses Entrances In Old City Of Mosul

Dr. Emad Hani Ismaeel

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 63-83
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.88205

The traditional and heritage houses of Mosul old city have significant architectural value represented by their distinctive characteristics. The main entrances and gates of these buildings with their constructed features located in touch with alleys indicate the building importance and identify the social level of their residents. The paper aims to define the synthetic characteristics and relations of the detailed structural elements constituting the main entrances of the traditional houses in Mosul old city, by gathering, analyzing and classifying these elements in categories according to their architectural details and materials, in order to employ them in providing a digital data base to be used in documentation, reconstruction and conservation activities. The paper also aims to present guidelines and recommendations for creating the virtual objects library for the entire architectural elements of the building in Mosul old city. Research results showthe great diversity of structural elements and synthetic relationships of the heritage houses entrances in Mosul old city, with high harmony between these various elements, referring to the old architects attempts for enriching and improving the alleys heritage facades using architectural elements details, and systematic construction processes.
Keywords: Synthetic characteristics, Entrances, Traditional houses, Built Heritage, Mosul Old City

Evaluation Study of the Election Strategy of the ThematicRoutes in the Urban Renewal Project for Mosul Old Town

Dr. N.T. Alkymakchy; H. H. Alsoofe; Dr. E. H. Alallaf

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 19-36
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.88201

تحاول الدول والحكومات الإفادة من المخزون الحضاري والثقافي الذي تزخر به المدن والمعالم القديمة، وتعمل على تنميته لغرض تحقيق العديد من الأهداف الاجتماعية والاقتصادية.وتتميز مدينة الموصل القديمة بغنى في الإرث الحضاري والتراثي يتمثل في النسيج الحضري والشواخص المعمارية التي تنتشر فيه.وعلى الرغم من أن العراق قد اهتم بالتجديد الحضري للعديد من مدنه منذ أكثر من عقدين من الزمن متخذا وسائل وسبل شتى؛ إلا أن نسبة كبيرة من تلك التجارب لم يكتب لها النجاح،في حين كانت الأهداف المتحققة لما أنجز منها متواضعا بالقياس إلى المبالغ والجهود والوقت المبذول في إعداد الدراسات والتصاميم الخاصة بتلك المشاريع. ولعل جملة الدراسات الأخيرة المتعلقة بالتجديد الحضري لعديد من مدن وقصبات العراق (ومنها دراسة مشروع التجديد الحضري لمدينة الموصل القديمة المنجز نهاية عام2009) مثال واضح على تلك المشاريع التي اهتم بها البلد مؤخرا.ومع أن تلك الدراسة قد قامت بإعداد مسوحات لواقع الحال تبنت من خلالهااستراتيجية تحديد جملة من المحاور (الرئيسية)والتي شكلت شرايين أساسية في هيكل الرقعة الحضرية لمدينة الموصل القديمة إلا أن تلك الإستراتيجية بقيت مبهمة وذات نزعة ذاتية وبعيدة عن واقع حال النسيج الحضري، إذأنتلك الدراسة قدمت رؤية لتحديد تلك المحاور مستندة في ذلكإلىطبيعة تلك المحاور وتواجد مجموعة من الوظائف والفعاليات ضمنها بحيث تعمد لاحقا إلى تطوير تلك المحاور بالاستناد إلى وجود تلك الفعاليات فيها. تحاول هذه الورقة تقويم استراتيجية انتخاب تلك المحاور من خلال المقارنة بين ما توصلت إليه مشروع التجديد الحضري لمدينة الموصل القديمة من ناحية، وما بين واقع حال مسحي لعدد من تلك المحاور من ناحية أخرى، لمعرفة مدى تطابق إمكانيات واقع الحال مع رؤية الدراسة أنفة الذكر وبالتالي تحديد مدى صحة وكفاءة تلك الاستراتيجيات. لقد توصل البحث إلىأن واقع الحال بعيد كل البعد عن ما اقترحته تلك الدراسة في انتخابها للمحاور وبالتالي فان الإستراتيجية التي اعتمدتها خلت من مصداقية الارتباط مع الإمكانيات التي يمكن أن يوفرها الموقع.

كلمات دلالة:الاستراتيجية التصميمية،استراتيجياتهالتجديد الحضري ،تقويمالاستراتيجيات، الحفاظ ، التراث العمراني، مدينة الموصل القديمة

Effect of Recirculation Ratio, Organic Loading and Suspended Solids Loading on the Efficiency of the Trickling FiltersWith Plastic Media

Dr. K. K. Al-Ahmady; E. S. M. AL-Dabag

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 147-157
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.88209

In this research, an experimental laboratory plant was constructed in order to evaluate the effect of recirculation ratio, organic loading and suspended solids loading on the removal efficiency of trickling filter with plastic media. The plant consisted of four biological trickling filter which were similar in shape, each with a volume equal to (35 liters). Synthetic wastewater was used to operate the plant. To study the impact of recirculation ratio on the system, three of these plants (first, second and third) were operated on recirculation ratio of (100%, 200% and 300%) respectively, whereas the fourth operated without recirculation. To study the effect of increase organic loading, the study program was divided into nine stages, in the three continuation following stages the organic loading rate was steady then increasing in the three suffix continuation following stages thus until ultimate ninth stage, beginning with (1.5 kg COD/ then (2.1 kg COD/ and up to (2.7 kg COD/ The results of the study revealed that; theremoval efficiency of the biological trickling filter increase when the recirculation operation was exist, and the efficiency increased when increase recirculation ratio, so the average efficiency of first stage removal of organic loading was in the trickling filters (first, second, third and fourth ) (84.5%, 86.3%, 87.5%, 80%) respectively. The results also showed that; increasing organic and suspended solid loading decreases removal efficiency of organic matter, ammonia and phosphate.

Passing Behavior on Rural Two-Lane Highways

Ayman A. Abdul-Mawjoud; Gandhi G. Sofia

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 123-134
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.87334

Passing Behavior on Rural Two-Lane Highways
Ayman A. Abdul-Mawjoud Gandhi G. Sofia
College of Engineering College of Engineering
University of Mosul-Iraq University of Al-Mustansriya-Iraq
Passing on rural two-lane highways is one of the most important driving tasks.
More than 28000 vehicles were observed and the passing maneuvers were recorded of 10
two-lane highways in northern Iraq during June and July months of 2005. It was found
that the number of passing maneuver increase as the flow rate for both directions
increase up to 1500 veh/hr flow rate. The passing maneuvers decreases with the increase
in flow rate. The increase in flow rate causes an increase in demand of passing and
decrease in passing supply. Volume of around 212 veh/hr gives a balance between
demand of passing and passing supply.
Keywords: flow rate, passing maneuvers, rural highway, two-lane highway.
الاجتياز في الطرق الخارجية ذات الممرين
د. أيمن عبد الموجود د. غاندي صوفيا
كلية الهندسة / جامعة الموصل كلية الهندسة الجامعة المستنصرية
تعتبر عملية الاجتياز في الطرق الخارجية ذات الممرين واحدة من اهم مهمات قيادة المركبات. تم ملاحظة اكثر من
00222 مركبة وتسجيل مناورات الاجتياز لعشرة طرق ذات الممرين في شمال العراق خلال شهري حزيران وتموز
0222 . تبين ان عدد مناورات الاجتياز يزداد والى معدل جريان 0222 مركبة/ساعة, مناورات الاجتياز تقل بزيادة معدل
الجريان, الزيادة في معدل الجريان يسبب في زيادة على طلب الاجتياز ونقصان في تجهيز الاجتياز. ان الحجم المروري
بحدود 000 مركبة/ساعة تعطي التوازن بين الطلب على الاجتياز وتجهيز الاجتياز.
الكلمات الدالة: معدل الجريان, مناورة الاجتياز, الطرق الخارجية, الطرق ذات الممرين.

Finite-Element Analysis of HSC. Moderately Deep Beams Using Plastic-Damage Model under Cyclic Loading

I. A. S. al-Shaarbaf; L. Kh. K. Al-Hadithy; H. M. A. Al-Bahadly

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 83-97
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.87327

Finite-Element Analysis of HSC. Moderately Deep Beams Using
Plastic-Damage Model under Cyclic Loading
I. A. S. al-Shaarbaf L. Kh. K. Al-Hadithy H. M. A. Al-Bahadly
Assistant Professor Assistant Professor PhD. Student
Department of Civil Engineering, AL-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq,
This paper presents a numerical investigation of high-strength concrete beams moderately deep
subjected to imposed inelastic cyclic deflection .Three cantilever beams having cross section of
200 x 400 mm were selected from the experimental work carried out by I-Kuang Fang , et. al. Test
variables included were shear span to depth ratio, ratio of longitudinal reinforcement at top and
bottom faces of the beams and loading histories. The cyclic simulation performance of the selected
beams were found using the plastic- damage model for concrete developed by Lubliner and Lee &
Fenves . The model adopts the concepts of fracture – energy – based damage and stiffness
degradation in continuum – damage mechanics . Two damage variables, one for tensile damage
and the others for compressive damage , and yield function with multiple – hardening variable are
introduced to different damage states . The uniaxial strength function are factored into two parts,
corresponding to the effective stress and the degradation of elastic stiffness . A simple consistent
scalar degradation model is introduced to simulate the effect of damage on elastic stiffness and its
recovery during crack opening and closing . It was found that the ABAQUS model accurately
predicts the experimental response under cyclic loading up to the yielding of the steel bars . The
prediction is less accurate at post yielding stages .This difference is due to the severe damage of
the concrete in tension and compression during loading cycles . Also the prediction of the region
damage within the moderately deep beams matches the experimental results . Cracks propagation
(opening & closing ) and stress distribution during cycles were very well predicted specially the
formation of the compression struts and its development into the concrete beams . The
contribution of stirrups with the plastic-hinge zone is about 30% of the latest half – cycle peak
load and the developing of the plastic – hinge zone were about 051% of the beam height which
were well estimated compared to the experimental results . The back bone of load-displacement
curve predicted by the ABAQUS model shows a close correlation with the experimental results
into the inelastic range .
Keywords : ; Crack; Cyclic loading; High concrete strength; Moderately deep beams; Numerical
analysis; Plastic damage; Stiffness degradation .
التحليل بطريقة العناصر المحدده للعتبات متوسطة العمق ذات الخرسانه عالية المقاومه
باستخدام أنموذج التضرر اللدن تحت تأثير الاحمال الدوريه
د. احسان علي صائب الشعربا ف د. ليث خالد كامل الحديثي حسين محمد علي البهادلي
قسم الهندسه المدنيه / كلية الهندسه/ جامعة النهرين
تم في هذا البحث دراسة سلوك العتبات الخرسانيه المسلحه عالية المقاومه المتوسطة العمق المعرضه الى انحرافات دوريه لدنه .
I- اختيرت ثلاثة نماذج من العتبات ذات مقطع بابعاد 011 ملم * 011 ملم من البحث المختبر الذي اجري من قبل مجموعة
حيث اعتبرت المعاملات التي تمثل كل من نسبة فضاء القص الى العمق و نسبة حديد التسليح الطولي في الوجه . Kuang Fang
السفلي الى حديد التسليح في الوجه العلوي و كذلك أنموذج احمال متكرره متعددة الانماط .لغرض الوقوف على تأثير تغييرها
Lee , Lubliner على سلوك هذه العتبات. اعتمد في التحليل أنموذج التضرر اللدن و الذي تم تطويره من قبل الباحثين
يعتمد هذا الأنموذج مبدأ أنموذج التضرر على اساس طاقة الانكسار و مبدأ تدهور جساءة العنصر في ميكانيكية . Fenves و
تضرر الاجسام . تم تمثيل هذا التدهور بواسطة معاملين احدهما للتضرر الحاصل نتيجة الشد والاخر لتضرر الانضغاط .
اعتمدت معادلة الخضوع مع عدد من معاملات التقوية بعد بلوغ الخضوع لتمثيل كافة حالات الضرر المحتمل . كانت معادلة
المقاومة احادية البعد ممثلة بجزئين يعود احدهما الى الاجهاد المؤثر والاخر الى انحدار الجساءة المرنة . أنموذج الانحدار الذي
اعتمد كان لتمثيل تأثير الضرر على الجساءة المرنة واستعادة جزء من مقدارها اثناء فتح وغلق التشققات . وجد ان استخدام
يعطي تصورا جيدا لسلوك العتبات المختارة ومدى مطابقتها مع النتائج ABAQUS الأنموذج المذكور بالأستعانه ببرنامج
المختبرية لغاية حد خضوع حديد التسليح . اما سلوك هذه العتبات بعد الخضوع فكان اقل دقة مما هو عليه قبل خضوع حديد
التسليح وهذا التصرف يعزى الى تدهور مقاومة خرسانة قشرة المقطع مع قسم من لب المقطع مختبريا في حين ان النموذج
الرياضي يبقى محتفظا ببعض الجساءة مما يؤدي الى اظهار مقاومة اعلى في مراحل تسليط الاحمال المتكررة الاخيرة . اظهرت
النتائج التحليلية تطابقا جيدا لمنطقة المفصل اللدن ومدى توسعها مع تكرار تسليط الاحمال وكذلك بالنسبة لتطور تشكيل
التشققات وتوزيع الاجهادات داخل جسم العنصر الخرساني اضافة الى نسبة مشاركة حديد مقاومة القص في تحمل جزء من
مقاومة المقطع الكلية للقص .

Practical Private Cloud Testbed for Studying The Effects of A Botnet Attack

Dr. Mohammed Basheer Al-Somaidai; Noor Raad Saadallah Al-Hankawi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 73-82
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.87324

Practical Private Cloud Testbed for Studying
The Effects of A Botnet Attack
Noor Raad Saadallah Al-Hankawi Dr. Mohammed Basheer Al-Somaidai
College of Engineering
University of Mosul
Many universities and organizations are considering the idea of migrating their
data centers to cloud computing. Among the many cloud computing deployment models;
the private cloud is the preferred one for such organizations since; it maintains their
controllability and enhance security of their servers. Albeit, there are still some risks of
attacks. One of these is the Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) where a large amount
of compromised hosts called botnet attacks a specific server causing its service
degradation. A test bed for a private cloud computing network was built in the lab
making use of Oracle VM Virtual Box as a virtualization environment. This test bed was
subjected to a DDoS attack of the SYN-Flood type in multiple scenarios of bots
percentage deployment. The same attack was carried out on an Opnet simulation model
of the test bed. The results of the practical testbed and the simulation model confirm the
devastating effects of such attacks as the botnet size increases.
Keywords: Botnet; DDoS attack; Hypervisor; Private Cloud Computing; SLA;
أنموذج تجريبي عملي لشبكة حوسبة سحابية خصوصية
لغرض دراسة هجوم شبكة بوتات عليها
نور رعد سعد الله الحنكاوي د. محمد بشير عبد الله الصميدعي
كلية الهندسة
جامعة الموصل
تعتزم الكثير من الجامعات والمؤسسات تحويل مراكز بياناتها الى الحوسبة السحابية ويعتبر أنموذج الحوسبة
السحابية الخصوصية الاكثر تفضيلا في مثل هذه المؤسسات لانه يتيح سيطرة أكبر وامنية أحكم من بقية نماذج الحوسبة
السحابية. وعلى الرغم من ذلك لا يخلو هذا الانموذج من بعض الهجمات ومنها هجوم حجب الخدمة الموزع حيث تقوم
مجموعة كبيرة من حواسيب المؤسسة ا لم ص اب ة ب م ه اج م ة م خ د م م ع ي ن لغ ر ض خ ف ض أو ح ج ب خ د م ات ه ع ن ا لم ؤ س س ة . ب ن ي
في المختبر أنموذج تجريبي عملي لشبكة حوسبة سحابية خصوصية اعتمادا على البيئة الافتراضية التي تقدمها برمجية
من SYN-Flood وتم تعريض هذا الانموذج العملي لهجوم حجب الخدمة الموزع من نوع Oracle Virtual Box
خلال عدة سيناريوهات يمثل كل منها نسبة معينة من الحواسيب المصابة. تم محاكاة نفس الهجوم على الانموذج العملي
و أ ث ب ت ا لن ت ائ ج ا لع م لي ة و ن ت ائ ج ا لم ح اك اة الا ث ار ا لك ار ث ي ة لم ث ل ه ذ ا Opnet من خلال انموذج محاكاة بني باستخدام برنامج
النوع من الهجمات وخصوصا مع ازدياد نسبة الحواسيب المهاجمة.

Dynamic Analysis of Curved Box Girder Bridges

Dr. Ayad A. Abdul Razzak; Zeena A. Mohammad

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 98-108
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.87329

Dynamic Analysis of Curved Box Girder Bridges
Dr. Ayad A. Abdul Razzak Zeena A. Mohammad
Assistant Professor Assistant Lecturer
Mosul University/ Civil Engineering Department
A higher order finite strip formulation based on the auxiliary nodal line
(A.N.L.) technique for a dynamic analysis of curved box-girder bridges is presented.
Newmark’s equations of numerical integration have been applied depending on the
values of the coefficients ( , ), and adopted in the current study with a value equal to
(0.5, 0.25) of a curved box girder bridge with simple support and exposed to the traffic
of the moving vehicles represented by the system of the moving force. Where the
dynamic interaction between the vehicle and the bridge is neglected.
The study has also required the application of Newmark’s method to find out the
dynamic response values represented by (deflections, dynamic amplification factor,
Impact factor) to solve the issues related to the bridge loaded by moving vehicles model.
Each system is composed of a suspended mass joined with a damper and a spring of
stiffness in addition to the unsuspended mass.
Keywords: Curved Box Girder Bridges, Dynamic Analysis, Finite Strip.
التحليل الديناميكي للجسور الصندوقية المنحنية
الدكتور أياد امجد عبد الرزاق زينة عادل محمد
أستاذ مساعد مدرس مساعد
جامعة الموصل /قسم الهندسة المدنية
طبقت طريقة الشريحة المحددة ذات النسق العالي مع تقنية الخط العقدي المساعد لإجراء التحليل الديناميكي
التي ) , ( لجسور صندوقية منحنية. واستخدمت طريقة )نيومارك( للتكامل العددي بالاعتماد على قيم المعاملات
5( لج س ر ص ن د و ق ي م ن ح ن بسيط الإسناد المعرضة لمرور .. اعتمدت عليها الدراسة الحالية بقيمة مساوية ل) 5.0 و 0
المركبات المتحركة والمتمثلة بنظام القوة المتحركة ويتم بإهمال الاقتران الديناميكي بين المركبة والجسر. كما تطلبت
الدراسة تطبيق طريقة )نيومارك( لإيجاد قيم الاستجابة الديناميكية المتمثلة ب)الإزاحات، عامل التكبير الديناميكي، عامل
الصدمة( لحل المسائل المتعلقة بالجسور المحملة بالمركبات المتمثلة بنظام الكتلة المعلقة الذي يأخذ الاقتران الديناميكي
بنظر الاعتبار إذ تتألف ك ل م ن ظ و م ة م ن ك ت لة م ع لق ة م ر ت ب ط ة ب م خ م د و ب ن اب ض ج س اء ة ف ض لا ع ن ا لك ت لة غ ي ر ا لم ع لق ة .
الكلمات الدالة: الجسور الصندوقية المنحنية، التحليل الديناميكي ، الشريحة المحددة ذات النسق العالي.

Hanging Gardens of Babylon or Hanging Gardens of Ninewa A Comparative Study of Their Landscape Spatial Characteristics

Dr. Ahmed Yousif. AlOmary

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.87154

Hanging gardens of Babylon is one of seven wonders of the Ancient World. It is
mentioned that these gardens were constructed at the ancient city of Babylon by
Nebuchadnezzar II, who ruled between 605 and 562 BC. The gardens were mentioned in
the Roman and Greek historians’ writings and descriptions of height were given. The
gardens were surrounded by a strong wall with stadiums connected with stairs
surrounded by arches and filled with trees and flowers. The gardens were irrigated from
Euphrates through manmade pumps. There are no cuneiform texts mentioning these
gardens, however, they are the only wonder based on these legendary information. On
the contrary, some archeologists states the hanging gardens are within Ninewa
archaeological location in Kuyunjik hell, near the Sennacherib and Ashurbanipal
palaces based on scenes of a garden constructed on a column of arches drawn on a tablet
and other cuneiform texts in Ninewa. The current study is comparing the data of both
locations and reviewing the available information in addition to providing more
evidences to support the existence of hanging gardens in Ninewa. This is done through
examining the spatial characteristics of the two locations from a landscape perspective.

Nature of the Distributed of the Bed Sediment within Mosul Dam Reservoir, Iraq

Nadhir Al-Ansari; Issa E. Issa; Sven Knutsson

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 135-141
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.87336

Nature of the Distributed of the Bed Sediment within Mosul Dam
Reservoir, Iraq
Nadhir Al-Ansari Issa E. Issa Sven Knutsson
Lulea University of Technology, Sweden
Mosul Dam is one of the biggest hydraulic structures in Iraq. It was constructed in 1986
on the Tigris River in the north of Iraq. The initial storage capacity and water surface
area of its reservoir reaches 11.11 km3 and 380 km2 respectively at the maximum
operation level 330 m a.s.l. The dam was operated in 1986. A total of 56 samples were
collected from the bottom of Mosul reservoir covering most of the reservoir area. The
results of the analysis of these samples revealed that they were composed of gravel
(3.8%), sand (15%), silt (55.5%) and clay (25.7%). The distribution of these sediments
indicates that the silt portion represents the highest followed by clay and then sand.
However, sand percentages are the highest in the northern zone of the reservoir where
the River Tigris enters the reservoir and decreases gradually toward the dam site. In the
meantime, silt percentage decreases toward the dam site while the finer fraction (i.e.
clay) increases.
Keywords.Mosul dam, reservoir sedimentation, sediment size distribution, sediment
طبيعة توزيع رسابات القعر في خزان سد الموصل - العراق
عيسى الياس عيسى نضير الانصاري سفن كنتسون
جامعة لوليا / السويد جامعة لوليا / السويد جامعة لوليا / السويد
سد الموصل واحد من اكبر المنشآت الهيدروليكية في العراق كان قد انشىء عام 6891 على نهر دجلة شمال العراق.
سعة الخزين الاولية والمساحة السطحية لبحيرته يصل 66.66 كم 3 و 393 كم 2 على التوالي عند اكبر مستوى للتشغيل
333 م فوق مستوى سطح البحر. ست وخمسون عينة من رسوبيات قعر الخزان كانت قد جمعت لتغطي معظم مساحة
البحيرة. نتائج التحليل الميكانيكي لهذه الرسوبيات اظهرت ان نسبة الحصى كانت% 3.8 والرمل % 15 والغرين
55.5% والطين % 25.7 . نتائج توزيع الرسوبيات بينت ان نسبة الغرين هي اعلى من الطين والرمل بينما ان نسبة
الرمل كانت اعلى في الجزء الشمالي للخزان في المنطقة التي يدخل فيها نهر دجلة الى البحيرة وتقل تدريجيا

Fuzzy Classification of ECG Signals Using A QRS-Like FIR Filter Bank with Lattice Structures

Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar; Rasha Waleed Hamad

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.87316

Fuzzy Classification of ECG Signals Using A QRS-Like
FIR Filter Bank with Lattice Structures
Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar Rasha Waleed Hamad
Department of Computer Engineering- College of Engineering-University of Mosul- Mosul-
Significant features of the ECG signal include the P wave, the QRS complex, and
the T wave. This paper focuses on the detection of the QRS complex. A 1st order
Gaussian derivative function has a similar shape to QRS complex part of the ECG. In
this paper, an FIR filter bank is efficiently designed with lattice structures for QRS
features extraction, using Gaussian function with standard deviation value .
ECG features are taken after three-level decompositions of the proposed filter bank.
Significant energy values of the filter bank output coefficients are calculated and
treated as crucial points for identification of the diseases/disorders in the ECG signal.
Such values are used for the design of a rule-based fuzzy classifier.
Keywords: ECG signal, QRS complex, 1st order Gaussian derivative function, FIR filter
bank, lattice structures, fuzzy classifier.
ذو إستجابة FIR التصنيف المضبب للإشارات تخطيط القلب باستخدام جرف مرشح
وبهياكل متشابكة QRS مشابهة لشكل
د. جاسم محمد عبد الجبار رشا وليد حمد
قسم هندسة الحاسوب- كلية الهندسة- جامعة الموصل -الموصل- العراق.
يركز هذا البحث على الكشف عن . T وموجة ، QRS عقدة ، P تشمل موجة ECG السمات الهامة للإشارة
في هذا البحث، تم تصميم اجراف مرشحات من نوع .QRS مشتقة دالة كاوس تمتلك شكل مشابه ل .QRS تركيبة
.σ = وذلك باستخدام دالة كاوس بقيمة الانحراف المعياري 4.5 ،QRS مع هياكل متشابكة لاستخلاص سمات FIR
اخذت بعد ثلاثة مستويات من التحليل. وتم حساب قيم الطاقة لمعاملات الاخراج لجرف المرشح و تم ECG سمات
تلك القيم تم إستخدامها لتصميم قواعد المصنف .ECG اتخاذها نقطة حاسمة لتحديد الأمراض/ الاضطرابات في إشارة

The Optimum Conditions For Fluoride Removal From Drinking Water Using Nalgonda Method (Flocculation And Sedimentation)

Dr. Kossay K. Al-Ahmady; Zainab A. Znad

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 38-47
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.87315

تحديد الشروط المثلى لإزالة الفلوريد من مياه الشرب باستخدام طريقة
نالكوندا )التخثير والترسيب(
قصي كمال الدين الاحمدي زينب علي زناد
جامعة الموصل الكلية التقنية كركوك
كلية الهندسة- قسم هندسة البيئة قسم هندسة البيئة والتلوث
تعد طريقة نالكوندا من الطرق الفعالة في ازالة الفلوريد وخصوصا لتراكيز الفلوريد الاولية القليلة والمتوسطة
المتواجدة في مياه الخام. تم في هذا البحث ايجاد وتحديد الشروط المثلى لإزالة الفلورايد من خلال دراسة العوامل
المؤثرة على كفاءة نزع الفلوريد والمتمثلة ب )تركيز الفلوريد الاولي، الرقم الهيدروجيني، كمية الشب المضافة، الية
التحريك وزمن المزج لعمليتي التلبيد والتخثير، وزمن الترسيب(. اثبتت نتائج البحث ان التركيز الاولي للفلوريد لا يؤثر
بشكل كبير على الكفاءة، حيث بلغت كفاءة الازالة ) 88 %( عند تركيز فلوريد اولي ) 3( ملغرام/ لتر، في حين كانت كفاءة
الازالة مساوية ل ) 88 %( عند تركيز فلوريد اولي ) 01 ( ملغرام/ لتر وعند نفس ظروف القياس. كذلك لوحظ خلال البحث
تقارب )pH( تأثر كفاءة الازالة بمقدار حامضية وقاعدية الوسط، حيث كانت كفاءة الازالة مساوية ل ) 88 %( عند قيمة
مساوية ل ) 4( و) 9( وعلى التوالي )pH( 7(، في حين انخفضت نسبة الازالة الى ) 77 %( و ) 83 %( وعند قيم (
ولنفس ظروف القياس. كما لوحظ خلال البحث تأثر كفاءة الازالة بكل من كمية الشب المضافة، زمن المزج، وزمن
الترسيب. حيث تم الحصول على افضل كفاءة ازالة عند زمن مزج سريع يساوي ) 0 دقيقة( وزمن تلبيد وتخثير يساوي
8 دقيقة(. كذلك وجد انه من الممكن الحصول على كفاءة الازالة نفسها عند زيادة فترة المزج السريع لغاية ) 3 دقيقة( (
ومن ثم الانتقال الى عملية الترسيب مباشرة. واخيرا تم خلال البحث تعيين زمن الترسيب المثالي، حيث تم الحصول على
افضل كفاءة ازالة عند زمن ترسيب يساوي ) 0 ساعة( وعند ظروف القياس المختلفة.
The Optimum Conditions For Fluoride Removal From Drinking
Water Using Nalgonda Method (Flocculation And Sedimentation)
Dr. Kossay K. Al-Ahmady Zainab A. Znad
University of Mosul College of Technology, Kirkuk
College of Engineering, Environmental Eng. Department Environment and Pollution Eng. Department
The Nalgonda method is one of the effective methods for fluoride removal, especially
with low and medium initial fluoride concentrations. In this research, the ideal
conditions were found through studying the factors that affect the fluoride removal
efficiency (initial fluoride concentration, pH, alum dose, mixing time for flocculation and
coagulation processes, and the sedimentation time). The research results proved that
initial fluoride concentration does not significantly effect the efficiency. As the removal
efficiency amounted to (88%) for the initial fluoride concentration of (3) mg/L. While
the removal efficiency was equal to (86%) for an the initial fluoride concentration of (10)
mg/L. pH value was proved to be effective, as the removal efficiency was equal to (85%)
when the (pH) value is equal to (7), while the removal decreased to (72%) and (63%)
when the (pH) values were equal to (4) and (9) respectively. Alum dose, time of mixing,
and the time of sedimentation were also affecting on the removal efficiency. Best
removal efficiency obtained at the times of mixing and flocculating equal to (1 min) and
(5 min) respectively. Also it was found that it’s possible to get the same removal
efficiency when increasing the period of rapid mixing to (3 min) and then directly move
to the sedimentation process. Finally, the ideal sedimentation time has been set, best
removal efficiency has been achieved a sedimentation time equal to (1 hour) and at the
different measurement conditions.
Keywords: Flouride removal, Drinking water, Nalgonda method, Flocculation, Sedimentation

Design and FPGA Implementation of Two-Dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform Architectures Using Raster-Scan Method

Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar; Zahraa Talal Abed Al-Mokhtar

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 60-72
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.87323

Design and FPGA Implementation of Two-Dimensional
Discrete Wavelet Transform Architectures Using Raster-Scan
Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar Zahraa Talal Abed Al-Mokhtar
Dept. of Computer Eng., College of Eng., University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq
In this paper, an FPGA implementation of a 2-dimenional discrete wavelet
transform (2-D DWT) is proposed to efficiently construct the corresponding twodimensional
architecture by using the raster-scan image method for any given
hardware architecture of one dimensional (1-D) wavelet transform filter. The
proposed method is based on lifting scheme architecture. The resulting architectures
are simple, modular and regular for computation of one or multilevel 2-D DWT.
These architectures perform both low pass and high pass filter with multiplierless
coefficients calculation. In addition they require a small on-chip area to download the
architectures on FPGA Board (Spartan-3E). The proposed 2-D architecture consists
of: external memory, Row 1-D arithmetic module, column 1-D arithmetic module and
internal memory unit. The row and column 1-D arithmetic units are designed
utilizing Biorthogonal filters (5/3 and 9/7).
Keywords: 2-D DWT, FPGA implementation, Lifting scheme architecture, Rasterscan
للتحويل المويجي المتقطع ذي البعدين FPGA التصميم والتنفيذ باستخدام
بطريقة المسح النقطي
د. جاسم محمد عبد الجبار زهراء طلال عبد علي المختار
قسم هندسة الحاسوب – كلية الهندسة - جامعة الموصل – الموصل - العراق
FPGA 2- ) بإستخدام D DWT( في هذه البحث، تم اقتراح تنفيذ بنية التحويل المويجي المتقطع ذي البعدين
1- (. وتستند D( بكفاءة من خلال أسلوب صورة المسح النقطي لأي بنية مادية للتحويل المويجي ذات البعد الواحد
الطريقة المقترحة على معمارية مخطط الرفع. البنية الناتجة كانت بسيطة ونموذجية ومنتظمة لحساب مستوى واحد أو
2- )، هذه البنية يمكنها تنفيذ عمليات مرشح الإمرار D DWT) عدة مستويات من التحويل المويجي المتقطع ذي البعدين
الواطيء ومرشح الإمرار العالي مع إجراء الحساب للمعاملات بدون مضارب. وبالإضافة إلى ذلك فإنها تتطلب مساحة
يتكون الهيكل ذي البعدين المقترح من: الذاكرة الخارجية ووحدة .(Spartan-3E) نوع FPGA صغيرة على رقاقة
حساب الصف ذات البعد الواحد ووحدة حساب العمود ذات البعد الواحد بالإضافة الى وحدة الذاكرة الداخلية ذات البعد
9) ثنائية التعامد.

Artificial Neural Network for Single Reservoir Operation

K. A. Al-Mohseen; A. R. M. Towfeeq

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 29-37
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.87313

شبكة عصبية اصطناعية لتشغيل نظام خزن منفرد
كامل علي عبد المحسن ايمن رافع محمد توفيق
قسم هندسة السدود والموارد المائية / جامعة الموصل
يهدف البحث الحالي الى الاستفادة من مخرجات نموذجين رياضيين هما )نموذج للبرمجة الداينمية التصادفية
الذين تم استخدامهما في ايجاد سياسة )ISDP و )نموذج للبرمجة الداينمية التصادفية الضمنية )ESDP الصريحة
التشغيل المثلى لنظام خزن منفرد )خزان سد القائم المقترح على نهر الخوصر( لبناء نموذج شبكة عصبية اصطناعية
لغرض ايجاد علاقة تربط بين حجم الخزين الابتدائي والجريان الوارد الى الخزان من جهة وكمية المياه المطلقة وحجم
الخزين النهائي من جهة اخرى.
وكانت من نوع ESDP اعتمد نموذجين لشبكتين عصبيتين اذ تبنت الاولى مدخلات ومخرجات نموذج
.2-01- وكانت معماريتها بالشكل 2 ISDP 2-6-2 . اما الشبكة الثانية فقد استخدمت مدخلات ومخرجات نموذج
أظ ه ر ت ا لن ت ائ ج ان ه ن اك ت و اف ق ا ج ي د ا ب ي ن ا لم خ ر ج ات ا لم س ت ن ب ط ة م ن ا لش ب ك ت ي ن ا لع ص ب ي ت ي ن م ع م خ ر ج ات ا لن م و ذ ج ي ن
لإيجاد التوافق بين حجم الاطلاق المستنبط من الشبكة (R حيث اجري تحليل احصائي بالاعتماد على معامل التحديد ( 2
وقد تبين ان قيمة هذا المعامل هي 1.9.0 في حين اعطت الشبكة ESDP العصبية وحجم الاطلاق المستنبط من نموذج
الثانية معامل تحديد مقداره . 1.81 والذي يعبر عن مدى التوافق بين مخرجات الشبكة العصبية وتلك المستنبطة من
وهذا يدلل على امكانية ايجاد سياسة التشغيل المثلى للخزان باستخدام تقنية الشبكات العصبية ISDP نموذج
الكلمات الدالة: البرمجة الداينمية، شبكة عصبية اصطناعية، تشغيل الخزانات.
Artificial Neural Network for Single Reservoir Operation
K. A. Al-Mohseen A. R. M. Towfeeq
Dams & Water Resources Engineering Department
Mosul University
The current paper aims to explore the capability of Artificial Neural Network
models (ANN) to calculate the optimal operating policy of a single reservoir system
(Al_Qaim reservoir on the Al_Khosar River). The ANN models proposed in this
research were making use of the outcomes emerged from two Stochastic Dynamic
Programming (SDP) models suggested by previous study on the same reservoir system
i.e. Explicit Stochastic Dynamic Programming and Implicit Stochastic Dynamic
The two ANN models have been used to find pattern between inflow and initial
storage of the system in one hand, and the release and the final storage of the system on
other hand. It is found that the topology of the first model which adopted the attributes
of the ESDP is 2-6-2, while that which was implemented the ISDP attributes has a 2-10-2
ANN topology.
The final results prevail that good agreement have been exist between the output
(release) of the proposed ANN models and those obtained by the two (SDP) models with
coefficients of determination 0.934 and 0.803 respectively.
Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Dynamic Programming, Operation reservoir.

Stress Distribution In Two Layers Of H.V.D.C Cable Insulation For Cooling Outer Conductor

Farook K. Amouri; Mohammed R. Almallah

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 38-49
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.87320

Stress Distribution In Two Layers Of H.V.D.C Cable
Insulation For Cooling Outer Conductor
Farook K. Amouri Mohammed R. Almallah
B.Sc. M. Phil Ph. D B.Sc. M.Sc Ph. D
Professor in High Voltage and Machine Senior engineer in the General Directorate of
Engineering, a dean of College of Engineering, Electricity Transmission Northern,
Mosul University, Iraq. Ministry of Electricity, Iraq.
E-mail: E-mail:
In DC transmission, Stress inversion is a complex phenomena occurring in the
cable insulation seriously hampering the design of HVDC cables. Radial variation of the
temperature dependent DC conductivity, forces the stress inversion under certain
conditions. A new proposed power cable with two insulation layers (XLPE and oil) with
forced coolant oil has been analyzed under DC voltage to improve the performance of
DC cables.
The new proposed cooling method increase the ampacity of the cable, reducing
space charge affection and reducing the radial temperature drop which is in turn
causing less variation in DC stress distribution.
Keywords: Cooling, DC Power Cable, Electrical Stress.
توزيع الاجهاد ضمن طبقتين من عازل قابلوات الضغط العالي ذات التيار المستمر
ذات التبريد الخارجي للموصل
د. محمد رامز الملاح أ.د. فاروق خليل عموري
مهندس أقدم في الشركة العامة لنقل الطاقة للمنطقة الشمالية أستاذ في هندسة الضغط العالي والمكائن الكهربائية
إن تصميم قابلوات نقل الطاقة الكهربائية ذات التيار المستمر تلاقي صعوبة حقيقية بسبب التغير الكبير في توزيع
الجهد الكهربائي على العازل. حيث ان توصيلية العازل تتغير اعتمادا على التوزيع الحراري للعازل والذي يؤدي الى تغير
XLPE( توزيع الجهد الكهربائي قطريا. تم في هذا البحث دراسة القابلو المقترح والذي يتكون عازله من طبقتين
و ا لز ي ت ( ح ي ث ي ت م ض خ ا لز ي ت لي ب ر د ا لق اب لو .
الطريقة الجديدة المقترحة في تبريد القابلو تزيد من القدرة المنقولة وتقليل تأثير شحنة الفراغ كما تقلل من
التدرج الحراري للعازل قطريا والذي بدوره يؤدي إلى تقليل تغير الجهد الكهربائي.

Optimization of Power Consumption in Cloud Data Centers Using Green Networking Techniques

Dr. Qutaiba I. Ali; Alnawar J. Mohammed

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 13-27
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.87317

Optimization of Power Consumption in Cloud Data Centers
Using Green Networking Techniques
Dr. Qutaiba I. Ali Alnawar J. Mohammed
Email: Email:
Computer Engineering Dept., College of Engineering, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq.
In this paper, a neuro-based predictor is proposed with a prediction algorithm to
estimate the required number of active servers simulating the Green Networking
objectives. The inputs of such predictor are the CPU utilization of the servers in the data
center and the variations of the incoming demands with the number of users’ variation.
During the work, different demand profiles of ClarkNet traffic traces are simulated on
OPNET14.5 Modeler to obtain the required training values of servers’ CPU utilization
and clients’ throughput. Also, Green Networking objectives are defined to maintain the
Power Management Criteria (PMC) which guaranteed that all CPU utilization must be
greater than 30%. Taking into account that a maximum number of 100 servers are used
in such local data center, an ON/OFF control algorithm is then suggested for the power
management of different servers in data center to fulfill the previous Green objectives.
The Power saving is finally evaluated since it has been noticed that the power saving
percentage can be increased from 17.33% to 85.33% of a total power of 75 k watts when
the number of the operating servers is decreased from 80% to 5% of the overall servers.
Keywords: Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Cloud Computing, Data Centers,
Green Networking, Power Consumption.
الإستهلاك الأمثل للقدرة في مراكز البيانات السحابيه بإستخدام
تقنيات الشبكات الخضراء
د. قتيبة ابراهيم علي النوار جاسم محمد
Email: Email:
قسم هندسة الحاسوب، كلية الهندسة، جامعة الموصل،الموصل، العراق.
في هذا البحث، تم اقتراح متنبيء قائم على استخدام الشبكة العصبية مع خوارزمية لتقدير العدد المطلوب من
الخوادم النشطة محاكية أهداف الشبكات الصديقة للبيئة )الخضراء(. مدخلات هذا المتنبيء هي نسبة استغلال وحدة
المعالجة المركزية للخوادم في مركز البيانات، بالاضافة الى التغير في مقادير الطلبات الواردة من عدد من المستخدمين.
و تم بناء نماذج مختلفة لشبكة مراكز ،ClarkNet أثناء العمل، تم تسليط نماذج مختلفة من الطلبات الواردة الى خوادم
للحصول على القيم المطلوبة للتدريب وهي نسبة OPNET Modeler البيانات باستخدام برنامج المحاكاة 14.5
الاستغلال لوحدة المعالجة المركزية للخودام ونسبة الحمل المسلط من قبل العملاء. أيضا تم تعريف أهداف الشبكات
الخضراء بالحفاظ على معايير ادارة الطاقة المتمثلة بأن تكون قيم نسبة استغلال وحدة المعالجة المركزية للخوادم أكبر
من 03 ٪. بعد الأخذ بعين الاعتبار أن الحد الأقصى لعدد الخوادم في مركز البيانات المقترح في العمل هو 100 خادم ،
لإدارة استخدام الطاقة من قبل خوادم مختلفة في مركز البيانات لتحقيق أهداف الشبكة ON/OFF اقترحت خوارزمية
الخضراء السابقة الذكر. أخ ي ر ا تم تقييم معدل تقليل صرف الطاقة حيث من الملاحظ أن نسبة تقليل صرف الطاقة ازدادت
من % 17.33 الى % 85.33 من مقدار صرف الطاقة الكلي المقدر بحوالي 57 كيلوواط عندما يقل عدد الخوادم التي
تكون في حالة عمل من % 80 الى % 5 من عدد الخوادم الكلي.

Preparation and Study of SnO2 MOM Structure by The Thermal Vacuum Evaporation Deposition

Omar Ghanim Ghazal; Dr. Luqman Sufer Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 99-111
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.86990

Resistive switching random access memory is one of the novel nonvolatile memory
technologies that, has a promising future for replacing the conventional FLASH memory. In
this work a detailed study made about the types of operations and understanding the
mechanisms of the resistance changing in the device. SnO2 thin films are deposited by using
Thermal Vacuum Evaporation deposition method at room temperature on Al/glass substrate
to produce Al/SnO2/Al/glass device structure. Optical properties are taken to measure the
optical band gap of SnO2. Resistive switching is observed by taking current voltage readings
at room temperature. RRAM cell showed unipolar resistive switching behavior with no
overlapping between reset and set voltage (1.5V, 2.5V respectively) ,also between high and
low resistance states (7.7KΩ,106Ω). Good retention and endurance are obtained and the ratio
between HRS to LRS has been found to be at least (41) within 21 cycles

The Effect of Unbalance on the Cyclic Stresses of a Flexible Rotor Mounted on Oil-Film Bearings Using Finite Elements Technique (ANSYS)

O. A. Mohammed; A. M. Abdullah; Kh. E. Hammo

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 34-43
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.87004

Eccentricity problem is considered as one of the most important and common
repeated problems in rotary shafts in all machines. This will lead to generation of
vibration and extra loads on bearings. Also a non-uniformity can occur in distribution of
applied load on all the surface of the bearing which being concentrated on one or two
sides of the bearing surface. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of
the unbalance on the values of stresses and deflections for a flexible rotor supported by
oil film bearings. Various rotational speeds and unbalance effects has been taken in to
consideration. A dynamical model of the system has been built. The parameters of
journal bearing have been determined using MATLAB/ simulink software. ANSYS
program has been used for the analysis of the stresses produced during rotation.
Keywords: Unbalance, Eccentricity, Simulation, Rotor Shaft.

Effect of the hydraulic detention time and the volumetric ratio of anaerobic to aerobic zone on the efficiency of the upgraded activated sludge units using (Bardenpho) system

Abeer.T. A. H. AL-Abdaly; Dr. K. K. Al-Ahmady

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 97-109
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.87020

In this research, five experimental plants have been established and operated using
synthetic domestic wastewater in order to study the effect of some operational
parameters on the removal efficiency of organic and nutrients pollutants in Bardenpho
Process. The results of the research proved that the removal efficiency of organic,
nitrogen, and phosphorus materials were higher in the reactors that work by Bardenpho
process comparing to the ordinary activated sludge system. Also the biological sludge
resulted from Bardenpho reactors has better settling characteristics. Likewise, the pH
values in the plants work by Bardenpho process were lower than those in the plant that
work by ordinary activated sludge system. The results of the study also shown that the
removal efficiency of organic materials in the Bardenpho reactors increases by the
reduction of volumetric ratio of the anaerobic to aerobic zone, in contrast, the
concentrations of Nitrate, Ammonia, and Phosphate decrease by the reduction this ratio,
in addition, the value of SVI decreases by increasing the size of anaerobic zone. On the
other hand, The results also proved that increasing the hydraulic detention time (HRT)
lead to increase the efficiency of removing organic, nitrogen, and phosphorus materials
of the biological reactors that work by Bardenpho process. Moreover, increasing the
HRT leads to increase value of the sludge volume index (SVI) at all of the Bardenpho
and ordinary activated sludge reactors. In contrast, the value of pH drops by the
increasing of hydraulic detention time.

Stress analysis on main landing gear for small aircraft

Dr. Rui Pires; Prof .Dr. S. M.J.Ali; A.S. A. Al-banaa

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 26-33
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.87009

Main landing gear is important part in aircraft, its help the aircraft to takeoff
,landing, and taxing in the ground .This part subject to high stress at landing due to
impact, there are two important force act on landing gear during touch, Normal force
and a spin-up back force .Normal Force is a great force that act on landing gear and its
generate due to Normal impact and its cause to bend landing gear to up , this force can
be calculated form Newton second law, and the spin-up back force generated at touch
when the tire not rotate causing the landing gear leg to bend to backward the value of
this value can be assumed equals to 0.5 from the normal force. In this study this forces
type are considered to make stress analysis of the landing gear for Cessna 152 during
touchdown time, after that three model are considered to reduce value of stress on this
landing gear by keeping the dimension and material as on original model and making
positive curves on the landing gear leg, and shown that when making the positive curve
this will reduce the value of the stress and deflection on the landing gear depending on
the principle of bending moment in the beams.

Radiation Effect on MHD Mixed Convection Flow Along an Isothermal Vertical Wedge Embedded in a Porous Medium with Heat Generation

Dr. Saddam Atteyia Mohammad

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 57-68
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.86998

This paper study the effect of radiation on a steady mixed convection flow of a
viscous incompressible electrically conducting and radiating fluid over an isothermal
vertical wedge embedded in a porous medium. The governing nonlinear partial
differential equations and their boundary conditions are transformed into a nonsimilar
form by using a suitable dimensionless variables. The system of nonsimilar equations is
solved numerically using a finite difference method. The present results of local Nusselt
number are compared with previously published work for the case of Darcy solution.
The comparison is found to be in excellent agreement. The present results showed that
as the wedge angle parameter increases the local Nusselt number increases. Increasing
in the value of the square of the Hartmann number leads to decreasing the value of the
local Nusselt number. Increasing in the value of the radiation parameter leads to an
increase in the value of the local Nusselt number. Increasing in the value of the heat
generation parameter leads to decreasing the value of the local Nusselt number.
Increasing in the value of the radiation parameter in the presence of the square of the
Hartmann number and the heat generation parameter has a similar effect on the local
Nusselt number presented above but with less values.

Freehand Drawings versus CAD Drawings in the Conceptual Architectural Design Phase

Dr. Dhuha Abdulgani Abdulaziz Al-kazzaz

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 56-79
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.87025

In the last decade, the value of freehand drawing as a design tool in both education and
practice is open to debate as a result of the accessibility of digitised drawing tools such as
CAD systems and the relative ease with which a design can be presented and realised
using computerised techniques such as parametric modelling and rapid prototyping.
The conceptual design stage is the most critical in the design process. Despite the fact
that most of the widespread computer aided design systems (such as AutoCAD and
3DSMax) are primarily directed towards the more detailed stage of design process. Even
so, there are architects today who have abandoned the use of a pencil and paper, turning
to the computer during the creation of their design concepts.
The paper investigates the limitations of Computer Aided Drawing (CAD) systems
which make them unable to satisfy what freehand drawings are doing for the initial
design phase. To achieve this aim, the first section of this paper puts forward a
framework for the main roles of freehand drawings through the conceptual design
process. The second section investigates the capabilities of computer aided drawing tools
to achieve these roles by depending on the theory and practice of the use of CAD tools at
the initial design stage. The third section concludes the weakness and strength of
computer aided drawing systems in the conceptual design phase. The paper ends with

Finite Element Analysis of Draw Beads in Deep Drawing Processes

Dr. Muhsen Jaber; Dr. Azal Refa; Alaa Dahham

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.87017

The design optimization of deep drawing process in manufacturing is proposed
to control the final shape of the work piece after elastic spring back. The manufacturing
process design problem is formulated to minimize the difference between the shape of the
desired work piece geometry and the final analysis. This paper aims to predict the
wrinkling and thinning (necking) failure and to study the effect of using draw bead on
the thickness distribution along the cup. In this paper to analysis the deep drawing
process with draw beads the FEM code (ANSYS) version 12.1 packages is used, which is
able to simulate various metal forming processes such as deep drawing. The best results
and the low variation between the maximum thickness and minimum thickness is found
at the half circle shapes of Draw Bead and itَ s about 10.4% thinning and 26.5%

Stochastic Dynamic Programming Model for Single Reservoir

A. R.M. Tawfiiq; Dr. K. A. Al-MohseenA

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.87035

The present research aims to study the feasibility of using a Stochastic Dynamic
Programming model "SDP" to calculate the optimal operating policy for a single
reservoir system.
The study required to write two computer codes; one is for Deterministic Dynamic
Programming "DDP" and the other is for Stochastic Dynamic Programming "SDP"
using MATLAB platform.
A comparison study has been conducted between the optimal operating policies
obtained from the two models. The results revealed that the SDP outputs were more
realistic than those obtained by DDP, as the first gives the reservoir operator more
flexibility to deal with the variation of the inflow to the reservoir, while the second is
Additionally, a simple nomographhas been introduced to assist the operator of the
reservoir to manage a wide variety of inflow scenarios.

WiMAX Mesh Topology with Modified Fair Centralized Scheduling and Routing Algorithms Based on Testing Feature of Down-Node Group

Dr. A. I. A. Jabbar; Z. K. Farej

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 79-98
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.86994

Multiple access interferences are the major limiting factors for the performance of
multihop WiMAX based Mesh Network (WMN). The routing algorithms play an
important role in reducing such interferences among the nodes of the WMN. In this paper
a new Routing Tree Construction Algorithm (RTCA) which is based on Balancing the data
and Parallelizing the routes of the data from nodes to BS is proposed and called Balanced-
Paralleled RTCA (Bala-Para-RTCA). This algorithm has a new Down-Node Group
Testing (DNGT) feature. This feature increases the conversion of primary into secondary
interferences which (in conjunction with directivity) can be avoided significantly by the
Modified Fair Relay Centralized Scheduling (MFRCS) algorithm, as a result concurrent
transmissions over a certain slot will be increased. So system performance is enhanced in
terms of scheduling length, links concurrency ratio (LCR) and average transmission delay
(ATD). Without directivity and relative to the standard Breadth First Tree (BFT) RTCA,
the simulation results of the proposed RTCA show concurrency ratio enhancement of
15.38% and 19.4% without and with DNGT respectively

Numerical and Experimental Study of Counter Flow Cooling Tower Performance with Difference Packs Porosity and Configuration

Dr. D. Al. D.H. Alwan; Dr. I. W. MaidA; A. H. Soheel

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 6, Pages 101-115
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.82397

This study presents an experimental and numerical investigation of the performance of a forced draft counter flow cooling tower with two kinds of wire mesh packing. The packing used in this study is wire mesh with small square holes (WMSSHSP) and expanded wire mesh with diamond holes (EWMDHSP) configurations. In the numerical investigation, the two dimensional CFD model with finite volume scheme has utilized the standard (k-ε) turbulence model to computes the air properties, while one-dimensional model is usedto get the water properties. From the results it is concluded that the (EWMDHSP) enhance the performance of the cooling tower. That is due to the pressure drop in the (WMSSHSP)is higher than that for the (EWMDHSP) because air resistance of the former pack is higher than the latter pack.The agreement seems to be acceptable between the numerical and the experimental results.
Keywords: cooling tower, packing, wire mesh, performance, heat and mass transfer

Design an Embedded Web Server for Road Traffic Monitoring

Sahar Lazim Kadoory

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 6, Pages 46-59
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.82384

This paper proposes a prototype system for road traffic monitoring purposes using Wireless sensor networks (WSN) which consists of relatively inexpensive sensor nodes capable of sensing and wireless communication. A Web server is embedded into WSN nodes to provide a flexible remote monitoring based on web browser. WSN nodes and Embedded Web Server (EWS) have been implemented using UBICOM IP2022 network processor. The reference design includes complete source code written in C-language. The web pages which are required for the web server have been developed using HTML together with CGI scripts by implementing them as C functions within the web server. A practical implementation of the system has been tested and its operation is validated through simulation using OPNET 11.5. The simulation results have declared that the wireless LAN IEEE.802.11b is very suitable for the system’s environment and the utilization of EWS’ CPU is 55%. This means that EWS can afford the network load without dropping. The results also indicates that the average throughput, delay, and response times are in the reasonable rang.

Keywords: Embedded Web Server (EWS), Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), Traffic Monitoring, Network Processor, UBICOM IP2022, CGI Program.

Effect of Using Anaerobic Selectors on the Performance of Continuous Flow Activated Sludge Systems

Dr. Kossay K. Al-Ahmady; Hanan Haqe Ismaeel

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 6, Pages 88-99
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.82367

In this research, four experimental plants have been constructed and operated in order to study the impact of using the anaerobic selectors on the behavior and efficiency of the extended aeration activated sludge system. The study program was divided into three stages. In the first stage, the experimental plants were run on the hydraulic retention time of the aerobic reactor equals to (32) hours, whereas, the hydraulic retention times in the biological aerobic reactors for the second and the third stages were (24 and 18) hours respectively. The results of the study revealed that; adding the anaerobic selectors improves the properties of the aerobic biological treatment in terms of removing soluble organic materials (CODs) and the efficiency of removing phosphor (PO4). The results also showed that,the organic and phosphorus removal efficiency increases with increasing the hydraulic retention time of the anaerobic selector. In contrast the values of the sludge volume index (SVI) decreases with this increasing. Higher removal efficiencies were recorded in the experimental stations that include anaerobic selector, which operates on a hydraulic retention time of (120 min) followed by the plant with the selector of (60 min) detention time and in the last place the plant that include selector, which operates on a hydraulic retention time of (30 min).
Keywords:Anaerobic selector, Activated sludge, HDT,SVI, Phosphorus removal, Organic removal

Design Characteristics of the Written Inscriptions in Islamic Architecture

D. Ahmed Abdel WahedThanoon; D. Hassan Mahmood Haj Kasim

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 6, Pages 54-70
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.82151

Buildings in Islamic architecture are characterized in general, in employing written inscriptions in many aspects of the building; as the external elements (facades, entrances, minarets, domes ...) as well as the internal elements of the building (mihrabs, minbars, columns, walls and ceilings of the Interior…).
Employing written inscriptions has many characteristics which can be classified into two groups: the first are related to the architectural aspects, as position within the building, method of execution, building materials, the second group are related to aspects of Fine Art for the calligraphy as type of font, size and proportion ...Both characteristics contributed to enhancing the various functions provided by this writings as defining the building, and its creator, or its symbolic significance of meaning according to building type or inscriptions' position or theme.
The research aims to detect and identify design characteristics of employing inscriptions within the architecture of the Congregational mosques and Multifunctional complexes (Which include the addition of a school or Mausoleum, or both at the mosque) which are related architectural aspects, and to show dissimilarity of those characteristics depending on the local styles within Islamic architecture, in order to come up with recommendations to help implementing this knowledge in future designs of contemporary Islamic architecture.

Keywords: Islamic architecture, written inscriptions, Arabic calligraphy.

structural response of aflanget bolted join under the effect of various parameters

saad ahmed younis; rafi khalil albazzaz

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 6, Pages 13-25
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.82661

The present work describes the structural analysis performed on a preloaded bolted joint configuration. The joint modeled was comprised of two L-shaped structures connected together using a single bolt. Each L-shaped structure involved a vertical flat segment (or shell wall) welded to a horizontal segment (or flange) and the structural shape under Uniaxial tension load , loaded at upper end and fixed support from other end, Steel bolted joint has been used. Experimental investigation was carried out on bolted joint to determine the influence of several factors on the bolted-joint response. The factors considered included bolt preloaded , washer-surface size, washer material(steel or brass) . Joint response is reported in terms of displacements, gap opening, and surface strains or stress by using strain gages technique to measure and to distribute strains on joint surface. The experimental results were compared with analytical results by using finite element structure analysis technique (F.E) i.e. using (ANSYS) program. Results have been presented that the maximum principle stresses by FEM analysis are less than actual stresses (≤10%). the strength of bolted joint increase by using hard steel washer 30mm . The standard preload 75% from proof strength for bolt material is the optimum value . Most of the factors studied were determined to have minimal effect; however, the washer surface size affected the response significantly.
Keywords: Flanged bolted joint , Finite Element Method , ANSYS.

Landscaped Estimation of the Ancient Mercuriferous Career Potentialities in the Algerian Northeast for Its Bio-Restoration

Fadel jamel; Abdemadjid Sadek; Latrche Filali; Azouz Mounir

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 6, Pages 126-135
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.82410

The bio-restoration project of the mercurial career of Guenicha zone operating in the region of Azzaba must not only take into account the potential of the site but also its integration into the surrounding landscape. To achieve this result we performed a qualitative estimation of the potentialities of the site to understand better the structuring of the space and these various affectations. We took into account the current occupation of grounds to locate the precious elements, the curiosities susceptible to remain constant in the landscape and to highlight sectors or zones of an exceptional fragility which we call "sensitive sectors or zone" where any intervention can influence the visual atmosphere of the landscape. The zoning allowed us to reveal two landscaped bulks represented by the plain of Azzaba and the career of Guenicha. At first time we identified their components. To increase the visibility of the site, we shall create the dominances which characterize them and we arrange the transitions between them. In the last we will link the study area with the surrounding landscape by offering the most sensible choice of a pardon to restore the soil and also achieve the integration with the surrounding landscape.
Keywords: Visual Field of View Points, Landscape unit, Azzaba, Algeria

Utilization of Cement Kiln Dust (CKD) as a Partial Replacement of Cement in Mortar and Concrete

I. H. Hassan; O. M. Abdul-Kareem; Ahmed Yasin Shihab

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 6, Pages 72-87
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.82390

This research examines the potential of using cement kiln dust (CKD) as a blended cement material to study the effects of this partial replacement on the most important properties of cement paste, mortar and concrete. The levels of replacement of cement by an equal amount of the (CKD) dust were (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30)% by weight. A reference cement paste, mortar and concrete mix were also prepared for comparison. The tested properties included the initial setting time of each cement paste and the compressive and tensile strengths of mortars and concrete. Water curing was used for all specimens and the strength tests were carried out at (3, 7, 28) days. Results of experimental data reveal that (CKD) can be effectively used as a partial cement material. The initial setting time of the cement paste is decreased with the increase of (CKD) content due to the high amount of lime and alkalis in (CKD). Besides, the compressive and tensile strengths of the blended cement and concrete specimens were also found to be comparable to the strengths of the reference mixes at all levels of replacement. Generally, it was indicated that the compressive strength decreased with the increase of (CKD) content. The (10)% replacement level had the best results in the compressive strengths of mortars and concretes at all ages in comparison to the reference mixes, also this level of substitution had a significant effect on the tensile strength of the mortars and concretes at early ages. It was noted that (15)% (CKD) replacement maintained the higher tensile strength of mortars at (7, 28) days, whereas a (25)% (CKD) had a similar effect but at (3, 28) days.
Keywords: Cement Kiln Dust (CKD), Partial Replacement, Utilization.

Congregational Mosques Classification Using Pattern Recognition Method

Dr. A. H. Al-Jameel; Dr. M. D. Younis; R. M. Hamed

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 6, Pages 71-87
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.82365

Congregational Mosques Classification is an important issue for Islamic Architecture studies which introduced many different classifications.Thispaperaims to introduce a new classification of the congregational mosques using the pattern recognition digital technique. The cases selected for the study covers most of the period and space of the Islamic for a more objective and accurate classification. Thepaper takes up an unsupervised texture image classification algorithm which uses a competitive neural network.The classification is done by assigning data to one of the fixed number of possible classes then classifying image segments into a given number of classes using segments features by usingKohonen competitive neural network and through a process of self-organization, configures the output units, representing the selected congregational mosques, into a spatial mapincluding the resulted classificationtypes.The conclusions support someknownstatements and contradict others within Islamic Architecture Theory, so certain modifications are needed according to the concluded statements after corroborating them in future studies.
Keywords: Congregational Mosques Classification, Digital Techniques, Pattern Recognition.

Position ControlOf Robot ArmUsing Genetic Algorithm Based PID Controller

Majed D. Youns; Salih M. Attya; Abdulla I. Abdulla

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 6, Pages 19-30
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.82374


It is known that PID controller is used in every facet of industrial automation. The application of PID controller span from small industry to high technology industry.The aim of this paper is to design a position controller of arobot armby selection of a PID parameters using genetic algorithm. The model of a robot armis considered a third ordersystem. And this paper compares two kinds of tuning methods of parameter for PID controller. One is the controller design by the genetic algorithm, second is the controller design by the Ziegler and Nichols method. It was found that the proposed PID parameters adjustment by the genetic algorithm is better than the Ziegler & Nichols’ method. The proposed method could be applied to the higher order system also.

Keywords:Robot arm, Genetic algorithm(GA), PID controller, Ziegler-Nichols (ZN)Method.

Genetic Algorithm (GA) Based Optimal Feedback Control Weighting Matrices Computation -ENG

Abdulla I. Abdulla; Jamal M. Ahmed; Salih M. Attya

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 5, Pages 25-33
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.79574

Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) is one of the most interesting control techniques adopted as a control strategy in state feedback. These types of techniques achieve good results but suffer from the problem of trial and error involved in the computation of weight matrices. The trial and error technique leads to hard tuning of the LQR controller parameters. This of course will lead to difficulty in reaching the optimal system performance.
The paper attempts to solve the above difficulty via the selection of the LQR weight matrices using Genetic Algorithm GA. This proposed solution will avoid the trail and error involved in the state feedback technique. The proposed solution has been adopted in the design of position controller of a robot arm and the results of computer simulation have shown that the proposed solution fulfill specifications, for minimum overshoot , settling and rising times.

Keywords: Robot Arm,Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) Genetic Algorithm(GA)

Effect of Type and Position of Shear Reinforcement of High-Strength Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams -ENG

Omar Qarani Aziz; Sinan Abdulkhaliq Yaseen

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 5, Pages 69-79
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.79576

Abstract This paper reports experimental data on the behavior and strength of high-strength concrete deep beams reinforced with shear reinforcement. Tests were conducted on eight reinforced concrete deep beams with stirrups in different type and positions using high-strength concrete (compressive strength of about 85.0 MPa). The beams measured 1400 mm long, 100 mm wide and 300 mm deep, and were tested under two point loads. The test variables were type and position of web reinforcements [Shear stress of vertical stirrups (vfy), Shear stress of horizontal stirrups (hfy) and Shear stress of inclined stirrups (αfy)] within shear span, within middle span(between two point loads) and along the beam. Conventional steel bars were used as longitudinal reinforcement in this investigation. The test results indicated that beams with vertical and inclined shear reinforcement within the shear span (B4) resisting the ultimate load of about 417.90kN. While beams with horizontal shear reinforcement (B3), shear reinforcement between two point loads (B7), and the beam without shear reinforcement (B8) resisting, 255.77, 260.18 and 250.55kN respectively. All the beams failed in shear and the optimum position of stirrups is the shear span for high strength concrete deep beams and with combination of vertical and inclined stirrups.
Keywords: Concrete; Deep beams; High strength; Position; Shear; Stirrups.

Hydrological InformationExtraction for Dams SiteSelection usingRemote Sensing Techniques and Geographical Information System-ENG

Huda A.M. Thanoon; Khansaa A. Ahmed

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 5, Pages 102-114
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.79580

The aim of this study is to investigate and demonstrate the use of remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques to create athematic assessment in order to locate a best dam site in Al-Tharthar basin northern Iraq. Automated derivation of multi thematic layers to describe the characteristics of the catchment was performedwith aid of several softwares (Erdas 9.1, Arc GIS 9.3, Global Mapper 11 and Surfer 9). Gathering all these data has to construct database of the catchment area to decide the locations of the proposed dams. Three locationswere chosen.Dam site one was chosen to be the best site since it is provide lesser length with more lake storage and has substantial of foundation material for dam construction.Furthermore, various calculation regarding the design of the dam, its parameters was investigated.

Keywords:Remote sensing, GIS, DEM,Dams sites selection.

Directivity with Efficient Routing and Centralized Scheduling Algorithms for WiMAX Based Mesh Networks-ENG

Dr. A. I. A. Jabbar; Dr.Ziad Khalaf

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 5, Pages 53-68
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.79575

Multiple access interference is a major limiting factor for the WiMAX based Mesh Network (WMN) performance. A backbone model equipped with directional antenna for WMN with two routing tree construction algorithms, Paralleled (Para-RTC) and Balanced-Paralleled (Bala-Para-RTC) are proposed here in conjunction with fair centralized scheduling algorithm and efficient link selection criteria in certain time slot,this is an important task to minimize the effect of secondary interferences for a WMN. The use of directivity with these routing algorithms increases concurrent transmissions by making use of spatial reuse, this will result in higher system performance in terms of schedule length and Channel Utilization Ratio CUR. The results also show, that using the Para and Bala-Para RTC algorithms, without directivity, will give CURs of 15.4% and 14.3% respectively, (i.e an improvement of 3.6% & 2.5% over the 11.8% CUR).When the standard Breadth First tree routing BFT is used), and with directivity it will give the same CUR of 18.2%, (i.e an improvement of 2.8% relative to the 15.4% CUR when the BFT is used).
Keywords:WiMAX, WMN, Para-RTC, Bala-Para-RTC, CUR, Schedule Length

Use of Fenton's Reagent for Removal of Organics from Ibn Al-Atheer Hospital Wastewater in Mosul City-ENG

A. F. Q. Al-Harbawi; M. H. Mohammed; N. A. Yakoob

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 5, Pages 127-135
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.79585

An experiment study on removal of organics by using Fenton's reagents has been introduced. The effect of operating conditions such as pH, reaction time, H2O2 to Fe(II) ratio (W/W), on the efficiency of Fenton process was investigated. The monitored sample taken from wastewater of Ibn Al-Atheer Hospital in Mosul city, has its concentrations of COD and BOD5, about 663 and 150 mg/l respectively. The oxidation of organic materials in the wastewater is pH dependent and the optimum pH was 3.0. The favorable H2O2:Fe(II) ratio was 1.2:1, and the COD removal rate increased with the increase of Fenton dosage at the favorable H2O2:Fe(II) ratio. The removal efficiency of COD became 93% and improved the biodegradability of wastewater from 0.226 of influent to 0.618 of effluent.
Keywords: Fenton, hospital wastewater, organic materia

Neural Network Based Pipelined-Parallel Generation of PWM Signals Suitable to Drive Three Single Phase UPS-ENG

Shefa A. Dawwd; Basil M. Saied

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 5, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.79422

A reliable technique has been proposed to generate a real time pulse width modulation (PWM) signals in order to drive three – single phase uninterruptible power supply (UPS). The PWM patterns have been generated using field programmable gate array (FPGA) and based on selective harmonic elimination method. These patterns are used to drive the six of switching power transistors of the voltage source inverter to produce three – single phase UPS. In order to solve the problem of the complexity of the nonlinear transcendental equations, an intermediate steps have been taken, using artificial neural network (ANN). This will overcome the problem of the off line solution and therefore obtaining the required data to solve the obstacle solution from off line to on line. Therefore, the trained ANN is implemented in a parallel hardware by using FPGA. The benefits of using FPGA to perform ANN are promising and the technique becomes very attractive. It allows a real time, simple, fast, reliable and efficient design with low hardware costs. Finally generating selective harmonic elimination pulse width modulation (SHEPWM) patterns as a real time signals are become visible.
Keywords: Field programmable gate array, Selective harmonic elimination pulsewave modulation, Neural networks

Applying Multi-Parity Code To The Quantum Security Protocol BB84 Under Different Types Of Attacks-ENG

Dr. A. I. A. Jabbar; Ahmed I. A

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 5, Pages 34-53
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.79569

Quantum Key Distribution QKD mechanism is based on the principles of quantum mechanics to guarantee the secure exchange of secret keys between users. In this paper, the BB84 protocol is simulated, and the enhancement of the protocol using multi-parity instead of single parity is introduced with the error correction unit.The sub-blocklength is changed dynamically in an adaptive way and according to the QBER values, also this study takes into account the channel effect on the protocol by applying four types of channels (perfect channel, low noise channel, medium noise channel and high noise channel) and all channels are assumed to be lossless.The study includes also the effect of three types of attacks (PNS, IR, PNS & IR attacks) onto the protocol performance.The simulation results show that (IR) attack have the strongest effect on the BB84 performance.
Keywords : BB84, QKD, Multi-Parity, Quantum Cryptography, Security, PNS, IR, PNS & IR, attack.

A framework for exploration in design computing Methods

Dr. Dhuha Abdulgani Abdulaziz Al-kazzaz

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 5, Pages 74-97
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.79421

In recent decades, new design methods have emerged in architecturaldomaindepending on the computer as a design tool.The ill-defined nature of architectural problem and the designer subjective preferences have required the use of objective methods of knowledge analysis such as exploration.Previous studies on design computing have described exploration in relation to varied design operations; the most important of them are the search and evaluation processes.
The paper puts forwarda theoretical framework for exploration in designcomputing which is able to differentiate the use of explorationamong various computational tools.It definesthe aims of exploration, the roles of exploration in a design process, the sequence of exploration activities in a design process, and the executor of exploration.The roles of exploration include searching both the design problem space anddesign solution space; whereas in the latter, exploration is a tool of generating and evaluating design alternatives.The framework is used to identify the tasks of exploration in some design computing tools.

Keywords:exploring design problems, exploring design solutions, generatingdesign alternatives, evaluating design alternatives.

The Effect of Heat Treatment onElastic-PlasticBehaviorand Absorbing Energy for L-shaped Mild Steel Under CompressiveAxialLoad-ENG

Ayad Arab Ghaidan

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 5, Pages 115-126
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.79581

The paper deals with the experimental investigation to crushing collapse behaviour of thin-walled mild steel L-shaped structural under compressive axial load. The aim of this paper is to show that the increase of plastic region will be on the account of elastic region for L-steel plates under compressive axial load by using heat treatment (Tempering). The result has shown a decrease in elastic region withan increase in plastic region during crushing L- steel plates which caused an increase in absorbing energy. Details of the deformation processes were examined by using theoretical, experimental andthree-dimensional finite element models. The effect of heat treatment processes were presented to increase plastic region with absorbing energy during crushing plates, Heat treatment is a very useful process to improve absorbing energy with decreasing size of plates. Static load-deformation curves were compared with those obtained from theoretical model based on perfect plasticity and finite element simulations using nonlinear ANSYS program and obtained by quasi-static tests. Conclusions have been given concerning the agreement between the results of finite element simulations and the static once.

Keywords: Heat treatment processes, Axial crushing, ANSYS, L-shape plate, Finiteelement.

Mechanical Properties of Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) with Mineral Admixture-ENG

Nuha H. Al-Jubory

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 5, Pages 92-101
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.79579

Reactive powder concrete (RPC) is a special type of concrete, it is rather a mortar than an actual concrete mixture, because traditional coarse and fine aggregate are replaced by very fine sand with particle size in range of (150-400)µm.
In the present experimental investigation, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength of plain reactive powder concrete and reactive powder concrete reinforced with 1% and 2% steel fiber are compared, by using local available material and curing in 20°C and 80°C, and the experimental study was curried out on a two sets of samples. Each set consisted of (54) cubes of (50×50×50mm), (18) cylinder of (100×200mm) and (18) prism of (50×50×300mm). The results show that the maximum compressive strength is 74 MPa with 2% steel fiber and curing in 20°C. The addition of steel fiber by 1% and 2%increased the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength.
Keywords: reactive powder concrete, steel fibre, compressive strength, flexural strength, tensile strength

Estimating Runoff Coefficient for Water Harvesting atTal-Abta Area- Nineveh Governorate

Dr.Ahmed Y.Hachum; Zahraa. GH

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 5, Pages 41-52
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.79414

The presentresearch aimstoestimatetheamountofsurfacerunoffandrunoffcoefficientin Tel-Abta areawest oftheprovinceofNineveh for the purpose of designing and management of small scale rainwater harvesting systems. Daily rainfall data at Tel-Abta for the period (1996 – 2012) are used. The mean annual rainfall for this period is 164 mm. Two computer codes, using EXCEL Programming are developed; one is based on the SCS CurveNumberMethod "SCS- CN" and the other one is based onthe method of Threshold Rain "TR". The study revealed that the TR method resulted in average annual amounts of surface runoff greater than that of the SCS method (23 mmversus 16 mm; respectively).On average, the runoff coefficient at Tel- Abta is in the range of 0.062 to 0.24. Finally, simple equations were proposed to estimate, at Tel Abta area, the runoff coefficient dependingonthe characteristics of the monthlyrainfallin thestudyarea.
Keywords: Water harvesting, Runoff Coefficient, Threshold Rain Method, SCS Curve Number Method, Rainfall analysis

Effect of Hydraulic Detention Time and WaterTemperature onthe Removal Efficiency of Organic and Nutrients Pollutants InDuckweed Based Wastewater Stabilization Ponds

Dr. Kossay K. Al-Ahmady; ZenaA. AL-Shrefy

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 5, Pages 63-73
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.79419

This study deals with the effect of some operational parameters on the removal efficiency and behavior of duckweed based wastewater stabilization ponds. The results of the study showed that; covering the oxidation ponds with duckweed improve their ability to treat higher organic and nitrogenous loads. In addition, there is a relationship among the hydraulic detention time and each of the removalefficiency of organic and nutrients. Decreasing the hydraulic detention time decreases the removal efficiency of organic.On the other hand, the results of research also showedthat; increasing nitrogen and phosphor load leads to decrease removal efficiency of nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate, and increases removal efficiency of ammonia. Temperatures have also impact on the organic and nutrients removal and the concentration of dissolved oxygen in effluent. Highest removal and dissolved oxygen concentrations were recorded at the temperature of (26°C), and these values decrease with increasing or decreasing the temperatures.

Keywords: Duckweed; Stabilization ponds; Nutrient removal; HDT;Temperature

Eye Localization in a Full Frontal Still Image-eng

Ghassan Ahmad Ismaeel AL-Dabbagh

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 109-120
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.77381


In this paper the detection of human face and eye in still frontal color images is discussed. Firstly; the preprocessing required step is accomplished. It includes image resize, RGB to gray-scale conversion, image binarization, noise removing and small objects removing. Then a proposed algorithm is applied for face localization by detecting the face edges using the detection of the pixel color change in the binary image. Finally, the normalized cross correlation is applied to find the accurate position of eyes within the localized area of the face.

Keywords: Eye detection, Face detection, Face recognition, Image processing,
Pattern recognition.

Exploring New Features for a Wavelet Neural Digital Modulation Recognition System-eng

Dr. Ahmed Maamoon Alkababji

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 96-108
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.77378

Modulation recognition has been an important problem in both commercial and military wireless communication. Modulation recognition can be divided into two categories: identification between categories and identification in category. In this work a system is proposed for identification between categories of different digital modulated signals using a combination of discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and the linear predictive coding (LPC) with the probabilistic neural network (PNN) as a classification tool. It was found that the proposed system out performed any of the existing systems by using six DWT decomposition levels and 20 LPC coefficients. The symlet 20 wavelet filter proved to be the best candidate. The results showed that a 100% recognition can be achieved at a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 2db for the digitally modulated signal.
Keywords: Modulation recognition, Wavelet, linear predictive coding, Probabilistic neural network.

Vibration analysis of hybrid laminated composite beam-eng

Omar A. Mohammed

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.77211

In this study, the effect of number of carbon layer, its position and orientation angle of the laminate on the natural frequency and mode shape for hybrid fiber (carbon/glass) with epoxy composite laminates are investigated. Numerical analyses are carried outto study vibrationbehavior of composite laminated beams using ANSYS 13 software.The results show that the natural frequencies increased when the number of carbon layerincreases and decreased when the carbon layer position changes from the surface towards mid-plane, also; the natural frequencies change with changing orientation angle.
Keywords: natural frequency, composite beam, vibration analysis, FEM

Design and Multiplierless Implementations of9th order linear-PhaseBireciprocal Lattice Wave Digital Wavelet Filter Banks -eng

Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar; Rasha Waleed Hamad

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 68-88
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.77276

In this paper, a filter bank structure for the implementation of infinite impulse response (IIR)discrete wavelet transform (DWT)is proposed. Bireciprocal lattice wave filters(BLWDFs) are utilized in a linear-phase design of 9th order IIR wavelet filter bank (FB). Each of the two branches in the structure of the BLWDF bank realizes an all-pass filter. Filters of this bank belong to the intermediate design group, maintaining linear-phase property with best roll-off characteristics in their frequency responses. The design is first simulated using Matlab7.10 programming in order to investigate the resulting wavelet filter properties and to find the suitable wordlength to represent the BLWDF’s coefficients in quantized forms for best selection of some prescribed performance measures. All adopted measures show an excellent closeness to some typical cases. Each coefficient in the resulting structure is realized in a multiplierless manner after representing it as sum-of-powers-of-two (SPT). Multiplications are then achieved by only shift and add. Multiplierless FPGA implementations of the proposed IIR wavelet filter banks are also achieved with less complexity and high operating frequency.
Keywords: Bireciprocal Lattice Wave Filters (BLWDFs), Bireciprocal Lattice Wave Discrete Wavelet Filter Banks (BLW-DWFBs), IIR Wavelet Filter Banks, Scaling and Wavelet Functions, Linear Phase Processing, FPGA Implementations.

Optimization of Solar-Driven of a small Absorption Air Conditioning System- eng

Dr. A.S. Dawood; H. A.Yousif

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 42-56
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.77270

This research deals with the optimum design of an absorption cooling system with cooling capacity of 2 ton refrigeratio driven by solar energy and using Lithium Bromide as absorbent and Water as refrigerant. The present system uses water for cooling the absorber, condenser and for heat transfer in the evaporator. A mathematical model is built to simulate a solar collector system and absorption system, in addition to design flat plate solar collector, f-chart method is used to find the optimum required solar collector area to air condition a space in the establishment with eight hour per working day. The coefficient of performance (COP) has been taken as a measurement to find the optimum internal operation conditions, by examining the performance of absorption system with varying temperatures to the generator, absorber, condenser, evaporator and effectiveness of a solution heat exchanger to obtain the optimum values of these operation conditions and also obtain maximum value of the COP. The result show that the collector area has a large effect on the actual useful heat gain and auxiliary heat to the system, and a collector area 26m2 is enough to operate absorption system more than eight hours by using a water storage tank with a capacity of 1.5 m3 and depending on weather data of Mosul city. The results also show that the generator temperature had a great effect on the absorption and solar collector systems.
Keywords: absorption system, solar energy, water- lithium bromide solution, air conditioning, optimization.

The concept of interior design and the changing movements Privacy elected of architectural movements of modern and postmodern

Dr. Oday Ali Al-Juboori

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 67-88
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.77209

Interior design is considered as a concept that accompanied the theory and practice of architecture. It is represented as a form of manifestation of Architecture ,which influenced and affected by the intellectual trends and theory of architecture in their quest for the formation of modern architecture since the beginning of the twentieth century.
This paper discusses the historical concept development of interior design in the period, in which modernism and postmodernism was formed. The aim of this paper to detect the most prominent aspects that define the concept of interior design, and down to determine the particularity of each movement with respect to the interior design vision. These aspects were: the nature of the interior design and essence, the goal of the design procedure,the relationship of interior design with interpretation, its sources, and its design determinants.
Keywords: interior design, interior, interior space.

Enhancement of DI Compression Ignition Engine Performance and Emission Using Diesel – Water Emulsion as Fuel -eng

Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 29-41
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.77216

Emissions from diesel engines(rail, marine, construction equipment and other non-roadmobile sources) presently account for a significant part of themajor pollutants (SOx, NOx, VOC, PM, CO, and noise) thatare responsible for smog and for human health impacts.
The objective of this work is to identify effective ways to reduce emissions from direct injection Fiat diesel engine.The approach used here is the combustion of water-diesel emulsion in diesel engine, at different water ratios, at constant engine speed and variable engine load. The second set of tests was at constant load and variable engine speed. The results show improvement in NOx, UBHC, CO and CO2 reductions with increasing water emulsion percentage to 20%, accompanied with brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) reduction also.

Keywords: water-diesel emulsion, performance, emissions, PM, noise.

Comparison the Values of Stresses for the Mode I Stress Intensity Factor for a Double Edge Cracked Tension (Isotropic & Orthotropic) Plates-eng

Ahmed M. Abdullah

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 14-28
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.77213

No one can deny the fact that cracked plates modeling is important to detect structural damage. The strength calculation of different constructions is troubled by various defects, which accelerate the formation of cracks as well as the process of fracture. This research presents a comparison between the results obtained by FEA techniques for isotropic and orthotropic plates,, general solutions for model-based approach which represents the cracked plates that subjected to a tensile load for determining the stresses,,. The finite element formulation is carried out in the using analysis section of the "ANSYS 12" package to obtain the stresses and compare the results.

Keywords: Finite Element, Cracks Simulation, ANSYS, Plates.

Design and Multiplierless Implementations of9th order linear-PhaseBireciprocal Lattice Wave Digital Wavelet Filter Banks - eng

Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar; Waleed Hamad

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 68-88
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.77406

In this paper, a filter bank structure for the implementation of infinite impulse response (IIR)discrete wavelet transform (DWT)is proposed. Bireciprocal lattice wave filters(BLWDFs) are utilized in a linear-phase design of 9th order IIR wavelet filter bank (FB). Each of the two branches in the structure of the BLWDF bank realizes an all-pass filter. Filters of this bank belong to the intermediate design group, maintaining linear-phase property with best roll-off characteristics in their frequency responses. The design is first simulated using Matlab7.10 programming in order to investigate the resulting wavelet filter properties and to find the suitable wordlength to represent the BLWDF’s coefficients in quantized forms for best selection of some prescribed performance measures. All adopted measures show an excellent closeness to some typical cases. Each coefficient in the resulting structure is realized in a multiplierless manner after representing it as sum-of-powers-of-two (SPT). Multiplications are then achieved by only shift and add. Multiplierless FPGA implementations of the proposed IIR wavelet filter banks are also achieved with less complexity and high operating frequency.
Keywords: Bireciprocal Lattice Wave Filters (BLWDFs), Bireciprocal Lattice Wave Discrete Wavelet Filter Banks (BLW-DWFBs), IIR Wavelet Filter Banks, Scaling and Wavelet Functions, Linear Phase Processing, FPGA Implementations.

A Novel Design and FPGAImplementation of TheBiorthogonal 5/3 Filter Bank-eng

Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar; Zainab R. Al-Omari; Rasha W. Hmad; Noor M. Al-Lila

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 87-95
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.77372

In this paper, the DWT introduced through the design of the biorthogonal 5/3 filter bank using the lattice structure. The lattice coefficients of the proposed structure are very suitable for implementation using shift- only operations (with a single shift and add operation) instead of multipliers to perform multiplications. This results in a recognizable hardware saving when implementing such lattice structurehardwarly. The designed filter bank implemented using Matlab programming for verification. Matlab programsare also used to find the PSNR values that are taken for a group of standard gray scale images as objective criteria for efficiency, resulting in high PSNR values of around 55dB. The efficiency of the results also measured subjectively, for some standard gray scale images by comparing the original input images with the resulting onesfromcombining both analysis and synthesis sides of the proposed DWTstructure.Theefficient FPGA implementation of such design is consideredto show its simplicity.
Keywords: Bio 5/3 Filter Bank, DWT,Lattice Structures,FPGA Implementation.

A Study on the Effect of High Temperature on Some Mechanical Properties of Concrete and Cement Paste with Added Silica Fume and Reinforced with Glass Fiber

Eman Khalid; Mona Mobarak; Samer Sami Majeed

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.77093

In this research an experimental study was conducted to explore the effect of high temperature on the some mechanical properties such as compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of concrete with added silica fume and reinforced with glass fiber and it as compared with normal concrete. Mixes were prepared by adding silica fume of (0%,5%,10%,15%,20%) by weight and glass fiber of (0%,0.75%,1%,1.5%,1.75%) by volume . Compressive strength and tensile strength of mortar with the same percentage of silica fume and glass fiber was also studied. The result shown increased concrete compressive strength with increased of silica fume until (15%) and decreased at (20%) for both cases with and without heat . Also results shown increased concrete compressive strength with increased of glass fiber until (1%) and decreased at (1.5%,1.75%) for both cases with and without heat.
Keywords :Compressive and Tensile strength, Glass fiber, High temperature, Silica fume

Design and simulation of Differential Transimpedance Amplifier (TIA) Based on 0.18 µm CMOS Technology-eng

Dr. Luqman Safar; Muna Samir Zaki

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 121-131
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.77383

The transimpedance amplifier is realized in a 0.18μm CMOS technology. The TIA uses a shunt-shunt feedback topology, differential TIA because it reaches a higher bandwidth than a conventional one. The TIA also has a variable gain to increase the bandwidth of theamplifier . The TIA has a maximum gain of 73 dBΩ, bandwidth 3.1GHZ, bit rate 5Gb/s and input-referred current noise of 5 pA/√Hz. Eyejitter at bit rate 5Gb/s equal to 5ps (peak to peak).

Keywords:transimpedance amplifier (TIA) , Berkeley Short Channel Igfet model (BSIM model) , Advanced design system (ADS) .

Mullah Abdullah Gas turbine Performance Improvement Using Steam Injection Technique -eng

Dr. A. R. Habbo Mohammed

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 57-67
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.77272

In this study a thermal analysis and performance evaluation was carried out to investigate the benefit of using steam injection technique to Mullah Abdullah simple gas turbine generators (North of Iraq). Mullah Abdullah simple gas turbine generators was modeled and simulated to observe its performance including power output, thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption. Thereafter, the simulation was carried out to investigate the performance of the suggested unit when a steam injection technique is used. The suggested method has been investigated and its results compared with a simple cycle results. The results indicates that the power out of the present Mullah Abdullah simple gas turbine can be held constant (37.5 MW) even the ambient temperature increase from 15 °C to 45 °C for the whole year by injecting a suitable quantity of steam, depending on ambient temperature, in its combustion chamber. The injected steam is generated by the heat recovery steam generator which extracts the thermal energy available in the exhaust gases.
Keywords:- Gas turbine, steam injection, heat recovery steam generator

Khassa Chay Stream Flow Forecasting by Markove Autoregressive AR. Model.(eng)

Dr. Cheleng A. Arselan; Jasim M . Kadir

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 99-110
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.75576

In this research a successfull analysis of the monthly mean of Khassa Chay stream flow record for the period (1941-2001) was adopted, then the Markove Autoregressive AR model was fitted to the resulted stochastic component of the seies, then suitable tests were done to detect the order of the model. Also another decision whether the parameter of this model should be constant or periodic was decided after testing the model. The parameters of this model were found and used to generate the monthly flow for 56 years ahead. It was concluded that Markove AR scheme is adequate to describe the structure of the monthly mean Khassa chay stream flow and the periodic type of this model is more realistic than the constant type because the high sensitivity to errors.

Keywords: Stochastic component , Autoregressive MarkoveAR, Periodic, constant, Model parameters.

An Assessment of the Impact of Extension on Preservation of The Heritage Mosques in Mosul Old City

Dr.Hassan MahmoodHaj Kasim; Dr.Emad Hani Al-Allaf

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 64-81
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.75440

Heritage mosques of Mosul Old City (MOC) are characterized from other public buildings that it has a permanent function and its need for the extension over time. This renewed and vital need may conflict with preservation of these properties which is a priority of the conservation plan of MOC, however, many of such activities has enveloped a lot of mistakes that led to lose its heritage value, which constitutes a real risk to MOC characteristics.The research aims to assess preservation work performed on elected traditional mosques in MOC, and to define the impact of the expansion need in these buildings. Its phases has been analyzed through personal interviews with those responsible for preservation activities, field studies, and comparison with archive documents, to recognize the level of performing the preservation plans that carried out by participants.We found that most interventions have been carried out with reducing the heritage value of the building, especially when the actor attempted to achieve the extension to provide more space, without considering the principles of conservation theories included in the international charters. Methods, action plans, and strategies have varied due to the variety of official bodies, owners, funders, supervisors and the implementation methods. The final results indicated the absence of public and official awareness of the role of commitment to the standard preservation plans and policies, the lack of personnel experts sector of architectural heritage, and the inefficiency of the supervision provided by direct government authorities, official bodies and institutions to carry out the preservation activities.
Keywords: Preservation, Structural Extension, Preservation Assessment,Traditional Mosques

StudyTheEffect of Speed, Impinging Angle and Slurry Concentration on Erosion of Stainless Steel -316L

Hazim Mohammed Matloob; Abdulhaqq A. Hamed

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 25-34
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.75436

The main aim of the present research work is focused on the influence of key parameters, such as; impinging angle, rotational speed, and concentration of sand in water on the behaviour and characterization of erosion process of stainless steel-type 316L. In the current study, special erosion testing machine has been designed and constructed locally conforming to standard specifications. It was observed that, at a given impinging angle, concentration, and rotational speed, the variation of volume loss withaccumulative distance is generally linear and the erosion rate has been determined from the least square fit of the variation of erosion volume loss with accumulative distance. It was found that increasing the impinging angle increases initially the extent of erosion rate and reach maximum rate at angle of 60o. However, at higher impinging angle, there is a significant decrease in the erosion rate. The erosion rate increases considerably with increasing rotational speed from 550 r.p.m. to 1520 r.p.m.. It was also observed that increasing the concentration of sand particles to about 30 wt.%, increases the erosion rate. In all cases, the erosion rate is near a double after inserting the flow baffles compared to those cases without baffles, and has been attributed to increase of particles rotation and vortices in the flow.

Keywords: erosion; impinging; concentration; vortices.

Seismic Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Frames Using Pushover Analysis(eng)

Sofyan. Y. Ahmed

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 28-45
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.75445

Ten stories–five bays reinforced concrete frame (two dimensional beams and columns system) subjected to seismic hazard of the Mosul city/Iraq is analyzed. Plastic hinge is used to represent the failure mode in the beams and columns when the member yields. The pushover analysis is performed on the present building frame using SAP2000 software (V.14) to verify code's underlying intent of Life Safety performance under seismic effects. The principles of Performance Based Seismic Engineering are used to govern the present analysis, where inelastic structural analysis is combined with the seismic hazard to calculate expected seismic performance of a structure. Base shear versus tip displacement curve of the structure, called pushover curve, is an essential outcomes of pushover analysis for two actions of the plastic hinge behavior, force-controlled (brittle) and deformation-controlled (ductile) actions. Lateral deformations at the performance point proved that the building is capable of sustaining certain level of seismic load. The building clearly behaves like the strong column-weak beam mechanism, although the formed hinges are in the dangerous level according to Applied Technology Council (ATC-40) categories of structural performance and they need to be strengthened.
Keywords: Building frame, Nonlinear response spectrum, Pushover analysis, Reinforced concrete, Seismic performance.

Aggregate Production Planning Using Goals Programming(ENG)

Monim A. Gasim

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 78-89
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.75564


This paper investigates Aggregate Production Planning (APP) model in a multi-plant producing multi-product to satisfy portion of fully deterministic demand in several cities for short term planning horizon. A Preemptive Goal Programming (PGP) approach is proposed with different scenarios to solve the APP model with conflicting multi-objective functions in order to maximize the total net profit with limited investment (budget), limited storage space, production capacity, and resources of the company. The proposed PGP model is also used to minimize the total production, inventory, transportation and defective items costs with optimum transportation pattern. A model is optimality solved and validated for a small numeric example of production planning problem with the results of optimal solutions for different scenarios obtained using optimization software LINGO package.

Keywords: Aggregate production planning, Linear programming, Multi-objective criteria, Preemptive Goal Programming, Transportation .

Fresh and Hardened Properties of Self- Compacted Concrete at Different Curing Regimes(eng)

M. Abdul-Aziz; J. R. Al-Feel

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 46-58
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.75446

The aim of this study is to compare the properties of three self-compacted concrete (SCC) mixes, with normal concrete mix. For the SCC mixes, the cement was replaced partially with either limestone dust or clinker waste dust. Compressive strength, tensile splitting, and flexural strength tests were conducted at ages of 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 days to trace the strength development. Modulus of elasticity tests were conducted at 28-days. The test results showed that mixes containing lime-stone dust have better fresh properties than the other SCC mix. The compressive strength test results showed that the mix containing clinker waste powder give higher compressive strength. and mix containing eight percent limestone give higher tensile splitting strength and flexural strength than the mix has ten percent of limestone give for all curing regimes. The results showed that the modulus of elasticity is relatively lower than that for normal concrete and the voids volume in normal concrete is greater than that of SCC.

Keywords: Clinker dust, Compressive strength, Concrete, Fresh properties, Lime-stone

Prediction of Soil's Compaction Parameter Using Artificial Neural Network(eng)

RaghdanZuhair Al-saffar; Dr. SuhailI.Khattab; Dr. salem taib

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 15-27
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.75444

This research tackles the feasibility of using Artificial Neural Networks to capture nonlinear interactions between various soil parameters.In this study an attempt was conducted to predict the compaction parameter (γdmax& O.M.C) using database comprising a total of 177 case records of laboratory measurements.
Eight parameters are considered to have the most significant impact on the magnitude of compaction parameters have been used as the model's inputs; liquid and plastic limits,plasticity index, specific gravity, soil type, gravel, sand, and fines content. The model output is the maximum dry unit weight and optimum moisture content.
A Multi–layer perceptron trainings using the back–propagation algorithm, are used in this work. A number of issues in relation to ANN's construction such as the effect of ANN's geometry and internal parameters on the performance of ANN's models are investigated.A parametric study was conducted for the three models to investigate the effect of the input variables on the output of the model.
Based on statistical criterion, it was found that ANN's have the ability to predict the compaction parameter with a good degree of accuracy.

Keywords: soil, Compaction parameter, Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Back–Propagation Algorithm, Matlab..

A Novel Experimental Study of Single–Plane Balancing Method of Crankshaft without Phase AnglesData(ENG)

Mohammed Tariq Sulaiman ِم Abbood Al Taee

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 66-77
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.75561

In real machines, rotating parts are balanced using data of both phase anglesandvibration values. This paper presents an analytical solution of a novel single–plane balancing method using only two test runs oftrial mass without needing to use anydata of phase angles. In addition, a comparative experimental study for each ofthe proposed method and other two methods known as the three test runs andfour test runs has been performed. Throughout this study, an actual arrangement of a crankshaft of an electrical generator has been constructedfor the test purposes,moreover, a computer program based onthe proposed method analysishas been written using (C) Languageto calculate the magnitude and location of the requiredbalancing mass.Thisstudy showed that the proposed balancing method was very effective, practical and saving lots of time, cost and effortas it requires only two test runs.Inaddition, a small vibration meter oflight weight and low cost has beenused to achieve balancing.
Keywords: Single plane balancing, Balancing of crankshaft without phase angles.

Spatial Sustainability in Historical Urban Centers The role of Spatial Distribution of Mosques in the Spatial Sustainability in Mosul Old City

M.H. Aldewaje; Dr.T.H. Ali; Dr.O.H. Al-Nuaemi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 50-63
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.75438

The city represents a multi-systems physical entity associated with a range of relationships in various aspects, which organize space, time, meaning and means of communication through many elements. With the vast expanded rising of the concept of sustainability since the last decade of the 20th.Centaury, many trends are adopted in dealing with this concept within the urban environment. The idea of sustainable urban form, which refers to spatial and physical configuration whichaffects urban growth and capable of achieving compatibility with the changing and emerging needs, is the most dominant one. The elements of accessibility, proximity and functional mix are the basic meansof achieving sustainable urban form.
In Islamic city, the mosque was a key element, which urban facilities were gathered around it, it was not just a religious center, but it was an organizer of the spatial configuration of the Islamic city.The multiple functions of the mosque vary from a religious center to a social, political, cultural and educational center. For many Islamic cities, the urban growth has led to establishment of many mosques, where the city of Mosul is a good example for such case. These mosques played the role of multi-purpose centers in the districts they found.
The presented research tries to investigate the role of the spatial distribution of the Friday mosques in Mosul old city until the beginning of the 20th. Centaury in spatial sustainability. This will be done by adopting space- syntax approach and the concept of spatial sustainability focused on the spatial configuration of the city.
Keywords: Friday Mosque, Spatial Sustainability, Sustainable Urban Form, Islamic City, Mosul.

Buckling behavior of aluminum plate with circular and elliptical shapes of central cutout

Raid H. Matti; Dr. Rafi K. Al-bazzaz

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.75426

The present work performs mechanical buckling analyses and experimental investigation on square plates with central cutout with (circular and elliptical) shape and with different size under uniaxial compressive loading, clamped from the loaded sides and free from others. The plates were mostly used in aircraft structures, rocket and automobiles is aluminum alloy (Al-2024 T3) because it has a high strength to weight ratio. The determination of critical buckling load of metallic plate is an important factor in determining the structural stability, which consider the best examination for buckling behavior. Experimental investigation was carried out on square plates by using strain gages. The experimental results for buckling load were compared with analytical results by using finite element structure analysis technique (F.E.M) i.e. using (ANSYS) software. Results have been presented that the square plates with circular and elliptical cutouts decrease in buckling strengths as the cutout sizes were increased.

Gross Irrigation Water Requirement for Durum Wheat Crop (Sham 3) At Mosul Area In Season 2009/2010

Ahmed Azhor Thanoon

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 64-72
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.72800

This study aims to determine the gross irrigation water requirement GIWR for durum wheat crop (Sham3) using climate , crop, and soil in Mosul area .
The experiment was carried out in the field of the technical institute of Mosul for the cultivation durum wheat crop cv.Sham3 in season 2009/2010.
The consumptive water use was determined by multiplied the calculated reference crop evapotranspiration using Penman-Monteith equation based on climatological data for Mosul station which considered the nearest to the experiment , by a crop coefficient depended on the growth of stages ( initial , development , mid , and end stage) .
The GIWR was 175 mm.season-1 and determined based on the effective rainfall, consumptive water use , change in soil water storage in root zone , and efficiency of irrigation . Four irrigation treatments were used 100% , 50% , 25% from GIWR , and without irrigation , only rainfall .The results showed that the crop properties such as the grain yield increases with irrigated in full GIWR and reached to 5.5 t/ha ,While it decreases by 20% with irrigated in 50% from GIWR .

Keywords: Irrigation water requirement, Penman-Monteith, Durum wheat, Mosul.

The effect of circular holes on the natural frequencies of a beam using transverse vibration measurements method _ENG

Tariq Khalid Abdilrazzaq

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 13-24
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.72817

Defects influence in a negative way the service life of the structures. Thus, defect detection has been a considerable effort in order to eliminate this effect . In this study, the dynamical behavior of a cantilever beam, with different size of a hole, at different distances from the fixed end-for each case- have been measured, evaluated and compared with that of intact beam. It has been shown that the hole may be considered as a defect in most cases, which leads-in general- to decrease the stiffness, according to its size and place, hence affects the dynamic properties i.e., the natural frequencies and the mode shapes. A simulation process for the modal analysis using ANSYS program(release 12.1) is done in order to compare the results. In addition to that, a theoretical analysis is also done. The experimental results of the intact beam were compared with both the ANSYS program and the theoretical results. They showed an acceptable agreement between the three methods.

Keywords: transverse vibration, fault detection, beam crack, beam defect, beam vibration.

Assessment of Uplink Time Difference Of Arrival (U-TDOA) Position Location Method in Urban Area and Highway in Mosul City_ENG

Yehia R. Hamdy; Dr. Sami A. Mawjoud

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 54-65
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.72854

The aim of this paper is the assessment of the performance of U-TDOA Position Location (PL) method on a UMTS cellular system in Mosul city, Iraq. The study area is a (3×3 km) which covers the University of Mosul campus. Simulation is used to study and evaluate the performance of U-TDOA PL method in urban area and on a highway inside the city. The effect of terrain, multipath, signal to noise ratio (SNR), Geometric Dilution Of Precision (GDOP), shadowing and the configuration of base stations on the positioning accuracy are investigated. The study is conducted on a real coordinates with the distribution of UMTS BSs as the same existing 2.5 Generation Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE)Asiacell operator.
Keywords: U-TDOA, Position Location, UMTS.

Mechanical Properties of High Strength Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Dr. salim T. Yousif; hisaan Shams-aldeen

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 27-39
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.72717

In this research, five concrete mixes were prepared, made samples for compressive, Splitting, bending and modulus of elasticity test have been use five of silica fume percentages and three of steel fiber percentages. According to results of this study, addition of steel fiber cause increase in compressive strength, splitting strength, bending strength, modulus of elasticity, and increase the angle of stress-strain curve. Addition of silica fume cause increase in compressive strength, splitting strength, modulus of elasticity, increase the angle of stress-strain curve while cause decreasing in bending strength. The higher compressive strength percentage was (32%) as compared to reference sample prepared at ninety days with silica fume percentage (5%) and steel fiber (0.5%), The higher percentage for splitting strength was (42%) while the highest percentage for modulus of rupture (33%), The highest ratio for modulus of elasticity (27%).
Keywords: High strength concrete, Steel fibers, Silica fume, mechanical properties

Design and MultiPlierless Realization of ECG- Based Gaussian Wavelet Filter with Lattice Structures_ENG

Dr. Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar; Abdulhamed M. Jasim

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 66-77
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.72855

In this paper, the Gaussian function is selected as a mother wavelet function and utilized in the design of some corresponding filter banks. With a 1st derivation of the Gaussian function, a similar shape to QRS complex part of the ECG is achieved.It can be used for QRS feature extraction.Using thesymmetry property of the mother wavelet function, the designed FIR wavelet filter banks can be realized in highly-efficient lattice structures which are easy to implement. The resulting lattice structures reduces the number of filter banks coefficients and this reduces, in turn the number of multiplications and improves the filter banks efficiencies as it reduces the number of computations performed. Hardwarely, this leads to less-complex implementations. The resulting quantized multiplier values also lead to a multiplierless realization for such wavelet filter banks.
Keywords: ECG,Wavelet and scaling functions, Filter banks, Lattice structures, Multiplierless realization.

FlexuralStrength of Reinforced Concrete Slabs Strengthened and Repaired by High StrengthFerrocement at Tension Zone_ENG

Mohammed N. Mahmood; Hassan SideqThanoon

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 78-89
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.72859

This paper presents a study of the flexural behavior of strengthened and repaired reinforced concrete slabs by ferrocement. The study includes testing 17 simply supported slabs, which include 2 control slabs, 3 strengthened slabs and 12 repaired slabs. In the strengthenedslabs the effect of number of wire mesh layers of ferrocement on the ultimate load, mid span deflection at ultimate load and intensity of cracks were examined. In the repaired part the slabs were stressed to (70 %) of measured ultimate loadof control slab. The effectsof number of wire mesh layers, ferrocement thickness and the connection method between repaired slabsand ferrocementjacket on the ultimate load, mid span deflection at ultimate load and intensity of cracks were examined.
Keywords: Concrete, ferrocement, repair, slab, strengthening

Modulus of Rupture of Fully and Partially Reinforced Concrete Beams With Polypropylene Fibers

Samer Sami Majeed

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 40-51
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.72714

Abstract: -
In this research an experimental study was conducted to explore some mechanical properties such as compressive strength and splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of concrete mix with weighted mixed portions (1 : 1.5 : 2 / 0.35) reinforced with polypropylene fibers by (0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1.0%, 1.25%) as volume percentage comparing with normal concrete. Research also contain testing modulus of rupture and maximum deflection of polypropylene concrete beams with dimensions (100×100×500) mm with the same volume percentage and concrete beams with half depth fibrous concrete and the other half normal concrete and comparing with the modulus of rupture and maximum deflection of normal concrete beams.
Keywords: Compressive and Tensile strength, Deflection in beams, Modulus of elasticity, Modulus of rupture, Polypropylene fiber.

The impact of design concepts on thinking performance in urban design studio

Dr. E. H. Alallaf; H. H. Alsoofe; Dr. N.T. Alkymakchy

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 99-117
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.72808

Design concepts play a crucial role in guiding the mental action during the design task, because they represent the media which support the design goals and strategy, these concepts are vary according to the design circumstance, the type of building and the designer. It is difficult to capture these concepts through the design product in architecture and urban design that due to the difficulty of conceptual perception by the designer and the difficulty of delivering overall conceptual message from architect to others. This problem exacerbate in the students design behavior in architectural study, due to the inadequacy of the experience that they enjoy in the design work, and inappropriate election of the concepts to solve the design problem
This research attempts to draw the design action and its change during a design experiment carried out by students in the final stage of architectural study (in urban design studio), to highlight the variation between this action and the change of design concept to indicate preferences elements of this concept by the student in the message delivery to the recipient, and thus his/her success in completing the work.
The research tries to measure the thinking performance of the student within eight design sessions, through classifying design concept submitted by him/her and drop it into (Rasmussen) model of thinking performance Finally the research will try to find obstacles in the election of certain types of design concepts in urban design projects on the total thinking production.
Keywords: design concepts, architectural education, design thinking, productive thinking

The Implications of Modifying Traffic Circulation Down Town Amman CITY(English)

Wael H. Awad

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 146-156
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.67368


Urban regeneration requires collaboration of traffic engineers with urban planners and architects to provide decision makers with quantitative assessment of the impact of attempted changes in the urban setting. Simulating traffic is a very powerful assessment tool for both traffic engineers and urban planners to help decision makers in selecting the best alternative solution based on predefined criteria while saving resources with high level of precision and accuracy. In this research paper, six action plans were suggested: provide better pedestrian facilities; provide better parking facilities; organize loading and unloading operations; relocate terminals and public transport routes; propose new circulation plan; and relocate the Police Station on Faisal Street. In accordance with all actions, an optimal traffic circulation scenario (new circulation plan) was compared to the do-nothing circulation scenario (current circulation plan). Macro and micro measures of effectiveness are used to quantitatively compare between the two scenarios. Results showed notable improvements in favor of the proposed new circulation plan; however traffic conditions are expected to significantly improve if the demand implications of adopting the other actions were considered.

Hardware Realization ofArtificialNeural Networks Using Analogue Devices(English)

Sh. H. Husain; A.I. Khuder

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 77-87
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.67355

In this work the analogue neural network has been realized by electronic devices likeOperational Amplifiers and Field Effect Transistor (FET). The FET transistor has been utilized to self adjust weight function for neural network. By use of drain and source resistanceR_ds as function of applied voltage on the gate in linear characteristic region , this resistance has been connected to the input of Operational Amplifiers which becomes as weight function of neural network. Implementing these mentioned characteristics for both FET transistor and operational amplifier , the analogue neural network structure like neuron , weights function and activation function have been realized individually by using the National Instrumentmultisim 10 (NI) Software,then the analogue neural network has been trained successfully by using supervised learning rule like single layer perceptron learning rule and delta learning rule. The results, show good fulfillment of a neural network with analogue hardware devices and verifying the learning rules to train network.

Keywords:Analogue neural network, BP learning rule,Perceptron learning rule, NI circuit design suits software(NI multisim 10 software)

Two Dimensional Mathematical Model to Simulation Tigris River Upstream Third Bridge in Mosul City(Arbic)

Anas M. M. Rasheed; Dr. Nadira A. Mohammed

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 7-19
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.67341

The aim of this research is hydrodynamic analysis for Tigris river reach upstream the Third Bridge in Mosul city, and this reach have three islands changing the flow characteristics of Tigris river in the study area. Two dimensional mathematical model in SMS10.1 with geographical information system and satellite data are using to build the conceptual model for study area. The results showed that the efficiency of the mathematical model in analysis of Tigris river in the study area especially the results were presented by digital maps explain (water surface elevation, flow depth, shear stress, flow velocity, scour and deposition locations), in addition predications the shape of the Tigris river reach in the study area in the future.
Keywords: Tigris river, Simulation, Sediment transport, Flow analysis, SMS.

Design and Implementation of a Network on Chip Using FPGA(English)

Dr. A. I. A. Jabbar; Noor .Th. AL Malah

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 91-100
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.67356

The fundamental unit of building a Network on Chip is the router , it directs the packets according to a routing algorithm to the desired host. In this paper ,a router is designed using VHDL language and implemented on Spartan 3E FPGA with the help of Integrated software environment ( ISE10.1) . The utilization of the Spartan 3E resources is excellent ( for example the number of slices required doesn’t exceed 3%) .After that a (4×4) mesh topology network is designed and implemented using FPGA ( the number of slices is 43% of the available slices ) . An example is applied on the designed Network on Chip (NoC) which validates the design successfully .
Keywords: Router , SoC, NoC, VHDL, FPGA,VGA,MESH

Numerical Study of Refrigerant Flow in Capillary Tube Using Refrigerant (R134a)(English))

Dr. Amir S. DawoodAss; Salim Ibrahim Hasan

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 1-19
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.67350

The present research aims at buildingof a mathematical model using (Engineering Equation Solver) (EES) software to analyze the flow of the refrigerant R134a into two configurations of adiabatic capillary tubes (straight and helical coiled tubes) which are used widely in a household refrigerator, freezer and water cooler. The governing equations which depend on the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy have been coded in order to calculate the length of the single-phase flow region. Moreover, the two-phase regionhasbeen divided numerically depending on homogenous flow assumption after determining the boundary conditions and calculating the physical variables at each point of the numerical divisions by using successive substitution method using iteration loops. Finite difference scheme, the length of thetwo-phase region and the total length for the capillary tube have also been determined. The results show that the behavior of the flow is similar for both forms with regard to the distribution of variables (pressure and temperature drop, dryness fraction, velocity and entropy) over the whole length , while the helical coiled tube length for all cases is shorter than the straight tube at the same conditions. The main parameters that affect the size of capillary tube and the behavior of refrigerant through it have been shown. The tube length increased with the increase of (condenser temperature, degree of sub-cooling and tube diameter) and decreased with the increase of mass flow rate and roughness. The helical tube length increased by increasing coil diameter and coil pitch . The results of the present study agree with the experimental data of previous works with error not exceeding ±10% .

Keywords : Adiabatic capillary tube, Household refrigerators, R134a, EES, Helical, Two-phase flow.

Mixed convection Flow Along a Horizontal Permeable Lpate in Porous Medium With Variable Permeability-Surface Temperature And Concentration (English)

Amir S. Dawood; Saddam A. Mohammad

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 20-39
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.67351

The non-Darcy mixed convection from a horizontal permeable surface embedded in a saturated porous medium with the simultaneous heat and mass transfer has been studied. Uniform and variable permeability effects are also investigated. Variable surface temperature and concentration was considered as a surface condition. Nonsimilar governing equations are obtained by using a suitable transformation and solved numerically by a finite difference method. It is observed that for uniform permeability surface fluid suction and increasing the power law index, thermal dispersion parameter, and buoyancy ratio increases the heat and mass transfer rates. Surface fluid injection and increasing the inertia effect parameter have opposite effect. Increasing Lewis number decreases the heat transfer rate and increases the mass transfer rate. For any particular parameter, variable permeability enhances the heat and mass transfer rates.

Keywords: Porous medium, Mixed convection, Horizontal plate, Nonsimilarity solutions, Heat and mass transfer.

Finite Element Analysis of Strengthened Reinforced Concrete Beams (English)

Sura A. Majeed

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 134-145
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.67364

This paper presentedthe application of nonlinear finite element models in the analysis of rectangular reinforced concrete beams strengthened with ferrocement in the form of U-jacket by using ANSYSsoftware. The numerical results are compared with thecorresponding experimental results of unstrengthened beams. The comparisons are carried out in terms of load- deflection curves at mid-span, and failure loads. The predicted results of reference beam are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. Effect of number of layers of wire mesh on the strength of analyzed beams strengthened with ferrocement jackets has been studied. The same beam is also analyzed after strengtheing it with U-jacketsheets of Carbone Fiber reinforced Polymer (CFRB) and the predicted results are compared with that of the corresponding beams strengthened with ferrocement jackets. The strengthened beams have shown a remarkable improvement in their performances in terms of load deflection and ultimate load.The Carbone Fiber Polymer U-jacket greatly improved the beam ultimate failure load by about 37.44%.
Keywords:Beams, CFRP, Finite Element,Ferrocement,Strengthening.

Theoretical Dimensions Of Digital Houses Architecture(Arbic)

Bayda H. Saffo; Niam B. Manona; Shatha Y. El - Sheikh

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 33-56
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.67344

Digital houses have formed an important subject , examined by several architectural studies , which have declared the special effects of the information technology revolution on houses design, especially,its form,function and construction , as well as , special effects on the human activities being practiced in.
This paper has discussed the importance of this subject and its theoretical knowledge , in order to determine the research problem , represented by the ambiguous knowledge in the different aspects of digital houses design , in order to explore design considerations in its design , thus its objective has determined by revealing this and its approach has presented by building up a theoretical framework includes two main aspects, the first includes variables concerning the digital house design , whereas the second , includes variables concerning human activities.
Conclusions have shown different design considerations which have been employed in digital houses designs of the international experiences, as well as determining the priorities of future design treatments .

Keywords: digital houses, information technology revolution, digital Architecture

Effects of H2SO4 and HCL Concentration on the Corrosion Resistance of Protected Low Carbon Steel

Dr.Sami Abualnoun Ajeel; Haitham Mohammed Waadulah; Dehia AbdAlkader Sultan

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 6, Pages 70-76
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.63393

Investigations were carried out to study the corrosion behavior of unprotected and protected low carbon steel using carburizing and hard chrome plating in different concentrations of H2SO4 and HCL solutions. Weight loss method was used for estimation the corrosion rate in the current study.
Theresults show that protected low carbon steels samples by hard chrome platinghad better corrosion resistant (less corrosion rate) than unprotected and carburized low carbon steel samples. Also, the corrosion rate increaseswith increasing acid concentration from (1 to 5)M. for both types of acid used. The corrosion rate of low carbon steel in acid environments indicate that the hydrochloric acidsolution was more corrosive media thanthat of sulphuric acid solutionunderthe same conditions.

Keywords:Corrosion rate;Acid environments;Low Carbon Steel;weight loss method.

Experimental and Finite Element Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Beams

Dr. Suhaib Yahya Kasim Al-Darzi; Inas Mahmood A.H.Al-Juboory

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 6, Pages 154-168
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.63412

A new type of perfobond shear connector is suggested, and tested through design and construction of six steel-concrete composite beams separated on three groups formed from standard steel section (W4X13), with total length of 1300mm. The concrete slab connected to steel section by using three types of mechanical shear connectors namely; stud connector and regular circular hole perfobond connectors in addition to newly suggested type of triangular hole perfobond connector. The beams are experimentally tested using two point load beam test to inspect the effects of connector’s type on beam behaviour at yielding and ultimate stages in terms of deflection at mid-span and slip at ends of tested beams. A three dimensional nonlinear finite element model is developed using ANSYS software to simulate beam test up to failure. The results show that, composite beams constructed with newly suggested triangular perfobond connectors developed a strength percentage higher than those with stud connectors, and regular circular perfobond connector. The finite element model validated by comparing with experiments, predicting differences in ultimate resistances of (0.9% to 5.7%) for perfobond connectors and (11.9% to 19.2%) for stud connectors.
Keywords: ANSYS, Connector, Composite, Finite Element, Perfobond, Stud

Fabrication and Study of Memory Cell Switching Properties Based on Cu2S Compound

Dr. Khalid Khaleel Mohammad; Faris Hassan Taha

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 6, Pages 23-28
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.63378

A variety of materials having large non-volatile resistance change has been studied as potential candidates for next generation of non-volatile memory devices, in this device, information is stored as a change in resistance due to the formation of the metallic filament via the reduction of metal ions in the solid electrolyte. Key attributes are low voltage, low current, rapid write and erase, good retention and endurance, and the ability for the storage cells to be physically scaled to a few tens of nm.This paper presents experimental results for solid state devices based on copper sulfide ( Cu2S ) I-V characteristics.
Keywords: Cu2S memory cell, non-volatile memory

Recognition ofBreast CancerUsing Hybrid Method

Loay Salim Yahya

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 6, Pages 130-138
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.63405

In this paper,a computer aided diagnosis [CAD] system has been developed for tumor detection in digital mammography. The system consists of four parts: firstenhance the image,second Feature extraction using six decomposition levels of two dimensional Discrete wavelet transform (2DWT),the features are extracted from regions of interest(ROI),third Reducing the features extracted using two algorithm energy root mean square and mean algorithm of each set of coefficients in each decomposition level, fourth classification of tumor using three layers artificial neural network (ANN) with (19) features is proposed for classifying the marked regions into benign and malignant.
Experiments are done on 63 benign tumors and 52 malignant one. The recognition rate of the malignant tumor is (96%) while that of the benign ones is (100%). The result shows that the proposed method can classify the breast tumors effectively when using root mean square algorithm.
Keywords: Recognition,Breast Cancer, Artificial Neural Network,root mean square.

Design and Implementation of Doherty Power Amplifier of Global System Mobile (GSM) of Base station

Dr. Saad A. AL Kazzaz; Kahlan. H. Hamid

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 6, Pages 29-39
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.63385

Power amplifier is the main component of wireless communication system. This paper presentsthe efficiency improvement of linear Power amplifier for GSM base station using Doherty Power Amplifier (DPA). ADPA operating at 900 MHz and a supply voltage of (2.5-3)V. The DPA is a combination of a carrier amplifier biased to class AB mode and a peaking amplifier biased to class C mode. Each amplifier was design by GaAs FET using advance design system software package (ADS). The simulation results of DPA are compared with class AB power amplifier that ashow improvement in power added efficiency at output power with acceptable power gain.
Keywords:Doherty Power Amplifier, GaAs FET,Efficiency, GSM,ADS software.

Estimate of Penetration Depth of Moist Soils For Mosul City at 6 GHzC-band Microwave Frequency Range

ManafEzzldien Al-Sabbagh

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 6, Pages 40-47
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.63387

Results of an experimental and theoretical programs were presented to determine the impact of soil moisture content and the soil composition on microwave radiometric emission and microwave signal skin depth (Penetration depth), as well as attenuation coefficient within soil surfaces. The measurements are depending on the relative dielectric constant that practically carried out by this research. The measurements have been conducted for three common types of soil in Mosul city (ornamental, cropland, and orchard) at 6GHz (C-band) microwave frequency.
The expected brightness temperatures of these soil samples and the skin depth have been computed. The results show that the observed microwave skin depth is relatively high for ornamental type more than that of cropland and orchard.
Keywords: Moist soil, Penetration depth, Brightness temperature, Complex dielectric constant.

Stress Analysis of Centrifugal Fan Impellers

Dr. Muhamed H. Abood; Ayad A. Ghaidan; Mahmood H. Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 6, Pages 60-69
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.63391

This paper deals with the determination of stress distribution for a centrifugal fan consists of back sheet, ten airfoil blades and shroud by using Finite element Packaged program (NSTRAN). The results showed that the blade trailing edge and the shroud plate have amaximum VonMises stress which exceeds the yield point of the materials. Thickness effect of each part on the stress distribution in the impeller was determined with fixing the other parts thickness.The result showed that the optimum thickness of the plate is (11mm), for shroud is (9mm) for blade is (3mm), for back sheet plate is (11mm) for shroud stiffener is (3mm). the overall results pointed out that the shroud plate is a critical part and has a large effect on the stress distribution than other parts.
Keywords: Centrifugal Fan, VonMises stress, Finite Element, NASTRAN

Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Thick Plates Under Effect of RepeatedLoading and Cyclic Heating

Dr.A. H.AHMAD; H.ِA. AL Jarjery

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 6, Pages 1-17
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.63332

This study includes the effect of cyclic heating and repeated loading on the behavior of reinforced concrete thick plates by using mathematical models to represent the effect of cyclic heating on mechanical properties of concrete and steel, and other models to represent the behavior of both concrete and steel underth effect of cyclic loads.
Plate thickness has been divided into several layers; steel was represented as an equivalent concrete layer. The material properties in each layer of the plate thickness are evaluated according to its temperature. One dimensional heat equation has been used to describe heat distribution through the layers
Reissener’s theory that account for shear strain and transfer of shear forces and assumes that stress distribution across plate thickness is linear has been used to analyze the plates. The finite difference method and dynamic relaxation technique are used to calculate the stress and strain in the plate; also modified increment method is used to represent stress-strain nonlinear relationship.
Reinforced concrete plates have been analyzed in the ordinary temperature and after heating and cooling for three different temperatures (200,400,600)˚C withdifferent Cyclic Loading of (1,2,3,4) cycles .

Keywords: Nonlinear analysis, Reinforced concrete, Thick plates, Repeated load, High Temperature.

Inelastic Response of Reinforced Concrete Frames Partially Reinforced with (CFRP) Rebar Subjected to Blast load (Arbic)

Ghofran Abd-Almageed Gharbi; Sofyan Younis Kashmola

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.60972

The use ofFRPrebars has become in the last decades at the head technologies of internal reinforcement of concrete sections instead of normal steel bars for their lightweight, portability and have a high tensile strength in addition to their resistance to rust and corrosion.This paper presents the inelastic response of 4-story reinforced concrete framepartially reinforced with Carbon FRP rebars. Thisframe was analyzedunder actual blast loadusing high strength concrete.Two-dimensional Beam-Column Element has been used in representing the frame members. A computer program hasbeen developed (in Fortran-77) for analysis purposes.Lump plasticity model has also been used, which depends on the concept of plastic hinges that reflect the inelastic behavior of the element, assuming that inelastic action is lumped at both ends of the element as plastic hinges. An interaction diagram between axial forces and moments is determined; this diagram is considered as a Yield Surface which represents the limits of the ultimate strength of the element.A direct Systematic integration technique has been used depending on Newmark's Predictor-Corrector method to solve the equation of motion.Based on the results obtained, it can be seen that CFRP rebars have the ability to increase the flexural resistance of reinforced concrete sections, which contributed to the increase in their strengthsand their ductility;consequently, they reduce the number of plastic hinges formed in the frame, as well as delay in the time of their formation.

Broken Rotor Bars Fault Detection of The Three-phase Induction Motor(Arabic)

Prof. B. M. Saied; Dr. Y. M.Y. Ameen; M. H. Saud

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 25-32
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.61020


This paper presents results of the comparison between the use of inductionmotor current signature, vibration signature, and acoustic signal analysis methods to detect broken rotor bars fault. The results have taken at healthy and faulty conditions at different speeds due to change of load. It is a comparison between three ways to determine the sensitivity for detecting faults and to adopt the best technology in detecting damagesin order to increase the reliability of the system. Signals are beenanalyzedin time and frequency domains.The value of the root mean square of the current signal, the peak value of vibration signal,and the sound pressure level of the machine sound have monitored for healthy and faulty conditions.
The laboratory tests show that the results of analyzing the current signature is considered one of the most sensitive to detect the rotor broken bar faults in its early stages، while the vibration signal methodis less sensitive to detect the fault in the initial stages because of the presence of other components in the vibration signal.But the acoustic method is not reliable method for detectingthis type of the faults. This is due to the presence of noise in the environment and fault low order frequencies.

Keywords: Broken rotor bars,Current signature, Vibration Analysis, Acoustic Noise.

Transformation Matrix for 3D computer Graphics Based on FPGA(English)

Dr.Fakhrulddin H. Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.61024


The real time of the computer graphics system performance is one of the fast many computing applications. The 3D (three-dimensional) geometric transformations are one of the most important principles of interactive computer graphics, which are essential for modeling, viewing and animation. This paper tends to construct a general form of a single matrix representation for multiple geometric transformations for three-dimensional objects. This way, a speed up factor of 1 to 5 can be gained. Architectureis designed, and implemented as a hardware unit, and then testedfor the single matrix transformation, using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA).

Keywords: 3D graphics, lookup table, FPGA, concatenation.

The Influence of Double Acting Hydraulic Piston on Tractive Forces for Towing Vehicle on Steering of Wagon Type Articulated Tracked Vehicle(English)

Ekhlas A. Basher

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 103-118
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.61044

Tracked vehicles have been in use for many years ago thus, there has been increasing interest in articulated tracked vehicles for various applications such as they can be used as transporters for heavy equipment or as heavy earth-moving machines.
Generally, it has been accepted that the wagon-type articulation of tracked vehicles is the simplest type of articulation. However, previous analysis has shown that this kind of articulation createsa problem to steering in the straightening-up position. This paper deals theoretically withthe possibility of changing the hydraulic piston, which used now in articulated tracked vehicles by a double acting hydraulic piston as another solution.It explains the effect of two forces of the piston on the outside tractive force and inside tractive force for the towing vehicle, when using a conventional wagon-type articulation of tracked vehicles with the introduction of double acting hydraulic piston in the system.It show that the length to the width ratio of the towing tracked vehicle is the main factor that affects much more than the other on the forces of the towing vehicle, where the value of this ratio (less than one) gives a good straighting up.
Keywords: tracked vehicles, articulation of tracked vehicles, thrust force, hydraulic piston

Design and Implementation of A Fuzzy Logic Based A Photovoltaic Peak Power Tracking Controller(English)

Dr. Khalid K. Muhammed; Marwan A. Abdulhameed

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 48-57
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.61031

The output power induced in the photovoltaic (PV) cells is influenced by the intensity of the solar radiation, the temperature of the solar cells and the load connected to the solar panels. Therefore, to make PV cells keep giving maximum power under different operating conditions, a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) strategy is required. The Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is one of most sufficient control strategies used for MPPT. FLC based on linguistic rules describing the operators control strategy is applied to control the step-up converter for MPPT. The proposed PV system designis evaluated and tested by computer simulations, using Matlab/Simulink facilities. Practical implementation is also included in this study. The fuzzy based MPPT algorithm is written in assembly language using the fuzzy logic instructions supported with the microcontroller HC12 MCU. Simulated and practical results are presented under different operating conditions in order to determine the tracker efficiency. The MPPT has been tested with three -, five- and seven-terms of linguistic variables for each input/output fuzzylabel. The tracker efficiency is about 92% using three fuzzy subsets with some fluctuation and about 95% using five fuzzy subsets with less fluctuation. By using seven fuzzy subsets, the tracker efficiency amounts to 99.9% and the system seems to be extremely stable with minimum fluctuation.
Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, Photovoltaic, MPPT

Allpass-Based Design, Multiplierless Realization and Implementation of IIR Wavelet Filter Banks with Approximate Linear Phase (English)

Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar; Rasha Waleed Hmad

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 16-25
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.61025

In this paper, Bireciprocal Lattice Wave Digital Filters (BLWDFs) are utilized in an approximate linear phase design of 9th order IIR wavelet filter banks (FBs). Each of the two branches in the structure of the BLWDF realizes an Allpass filter. The low-coefficient sensitivity, excellent dynamic range and good stability properties of such filters allow their realization with short coefficient wordlengths. Suitable coefficient wordlength representations are estimated for the best selection of some prescribed performance measures. The quantized coefficients are then realized in a multiplierlessmanner and implemented on Xilinx FPGA device. Therefore, less-complex infinite impulse response (IIR) wavelet filter bank structures are obtained with linear phase processing.

Keywords: AllPass Sections,Bireciprocal Lattice Wave Filters (BLWDFs),Linear PhaseProcessing, Quadrature MirrorFilters(QMFs), IIR Wavelet Filter Banks,FPGA Implementations.

Influence of Concrete Mix Proportions and Curing Regimes on Density, Absorption, and Voids in Hardened Concrete

Omer Mohammad Abdul kreem

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 103-117
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.54159

The aim of this research is to assess the mechanical strength and durability performance of the concrete incorporating various contents of the ordinary Portland cement and w/c. Besides, it has been undertaken to study the effect of curing methods on compressive strength of the concrete as well as the physical properties, which are investigated in terms of density, absorption and volume of permeable voids as an (porosity). Many researchers consider these physical properties as an indicating signs on the permeability of the concrete, or in other words, they were as an indirect method to measure the permeability and to evaluate it.
Five mixes are prepared and tested at the age of 28 days. The concrete specimens are cured in two different methods, in the first method specimens are moist cured while in the second method the specimens are air cured at 20 ˚C and 80% relative humidity to examine the effect of curing regimes. An experimental procedure for testing the physical properties of concrete is carried out according to ASTM (C 642-97). The results of the study showed that the increase of cement content and the reduction in the w/c leads to more durable concrete because of loss of absorption and porosity characteristics, in addition to that, higher density and compressive strength. Test results also showed that the water curing method have significant effect for improving the strength and durability performance of the concrete.

Keywords: Concrete, Mix Proportion, Curing Conditions, Durability Performance, Physical Properties.

Modeling Effect of Irrigation Water quality Frequency with difference Leaching requirement on the salts accumulation and yield for sorghum

Omar Mkdad Abdul Guny Mahmood

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 60-73
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.54145

A Computer model is made in (MATLAB) language to study the effect of irrigation water salinity levels 20,15,12 dS/m irrigation applied by continuous irrigation with saline water and alternant irrigation by different methods (pure irrigation : saline two irrigation),(pure irrigation : saline irrigation) and (pure two irrigation : saline irrigation). Pure irrigation represents Tigris River salt water 0.47dS / m. Each method used the Leaching requirements (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25, and 0.3), The model depends on the principle of balancing water and salt. The computer model has been applied to the sorghum crop; a summer crop which endures medium salinity. The results show that the accumulation of salt varies according to the differences in irrigation style. The amount of salts accumulated in the soil increased by using the continuous irrigation, while the use of alternant irrigation led to reduced accumulation of salts and thus led to increased production. The amount of decrease in the accumulation of salts depends on the method of alternant irrigation and leaching requirements used. Mathematical equations have been formulation to find out the increase or decrease in the real Yield and relative evaporation transpiration as a result of the influence of the amount of salt water and pure water additives under the conditions and limitations of the study area
Keywords: Leaching, salinity, continuous irrigation, alternant irrigation, Yield

Performance Analysis of Single-Multiplier Digital Sine-Cosine Generators

Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar; Noor N. Qaqos

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 32-46
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.54153

In this paper, second order structures satisfying single-multiplier digital sine-cosine generators are derived analytically, resulting in four different realizations. Some important characteristics of these generator structures, like total harmonic distortion percentage (THD%), frequency error ( and frequency resolution are defined and examined as performance measures. The four generator realizations are simulated using Matlab7.0 program. The simulation results show that better performance (THD% and are very low or negligible) can be obtained for these realizations by using 32 bits to represent the single-multiplier coefficient and other the outputs of arithmetic operations. The rounding-off method is applied as a quantization process after multiplication process. A comparison is made between one of the best-derived structures and other two recent structures implemented in previous researches. The comparison results indicate that better performance measures can be achieved from the proposed realization for the single-multiplier digital sine-cosine generator.

Keywords: Digital sine-cosine generators, Look-up Table (LUT), CORDIC, Harmonic Distortions, frequency errors, frequency deviation.

Digital Image Enhancement Using Hybrid Fuzzy Techniques Based on LabVIEW

Sura Nawfal Abd alrazaaq; Dr. Fakhraldeen H. Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.54148

In this paper, two LabVIEW based hybrid fuzzy filters combining fuzzy logic with simple filtering techniques for image de-noising are presented. LabVIEW is widely adopted for the design of real time systems and their realization in hardware due to the facilities available for performance simulation and measurements under different conditions. The main feature of the filters is that they try to determine the corrupted pixels using fuzzy rules and then treat them by utilizing the classical filters. To measure the performance of the designed filters, several corrupted images with Gaussian noise are processed. An objective criterion such as the Mean Square Error (MSE), and visual observation prove the effectiveness of the hybrid technique compared with the classical filters and several modern filters.
Keywords: Denoising, LabVIEW, Hybrid fuzzy filtering, Gaussian noise.

Performance Analysis of Wireless Network Control Systems Using Different Controllers

Ena’am F. Khuder; Sura N. Abd alrazaaq; Omar abd al-kareem

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 47-59
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.54155


Recently Wireless communication technologies have strongly adopted in real-time industrial environments. The increasing availability of products and solutions based on the IEEE 802.11 standard make this kind of communication technology becomes more cost effective in distributed control systems. This paper describes real time control application over Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) in Ad hoc mode using a Virtual Instrument VI environment (LabVIEW). Particularly the delay time in such networks is considered as a critical factor that has a significant effect on the system response time characteristics such as rise time(Tr), settling time(Ts). So in this paper we discussed the effect of using different controllers (such as P, PID, Fuzzy, …) on the overall system performance. The experimental measurements show that the using of fuzzy controller gives best results where it can minimizes the effect of the network delay on the system behavior as much as possible.

Keywords: UDP/IP, WLAN, Remote real-time control, PID, Fuzzy.

Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced High Strength Concrete Deep Beams With Openings

Baraa Jabbar Mahmood

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 86-102
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.54158

The objective of this study is to estimate the influence of web openings in reinforced concrete deep beams by using nonlinear finite element analysis. Concrete represented by isoperimetric eight nodes, serendipity plane stress, elements. The reinforcement treated as embedded elements and considered as elastic perfectly plastic. New constitutive models to simulate concrete material suggested by means of a nonlinear regression analysis of many experimental data by using SPSS 16 – statistical program. Strain hardening approach was employed to model the compressive behavior of high strength concrete. In tension two models were used to model high strength concrete in the pre – peak and post peak states. A smeared fixed crack approach of cracked concrete in tension is assumed. Three variables included concrete strength, shear span – to – depth ratio and the width and depth of openings. The results indicated that the ultimate strength is remarkably decreased in deep beams with openings rather than deep beams. Experimental results for reinforced high strength concrete deep beam with openings compared with the finite element results and showed good agreement.
Keywords: Deep beam, Finite element, High strength concrete, Nonlinear analysis, Openings, New constitutive models.

Comparison the stresses and deflections of an isotropic and orthotropic rectangular plates with central circular hole under tension load

Ahmed M. Abdullah

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 137-153
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.54162

The distributions of stresses and deflection in rectangular isotropic and orthotropic plates with central circular hole under transverse static loading have been studied using finite element method. The object of this present work is to analyze the effect of D/Y ratio (where D is hole diameter and Y is plate width) upon stress distribution and deflection in plates under tension subjected to a static loading. The D/Y ratio is varied from (0.1) to (0.9). The results are obtained for four different boundary conditions. The variations of stresses and deflections with respect to D/Y ratio are presented in graphical form. The finite element formulation is carried out by using the analysis section of the ANSYS package

Keywords: Finite Element, Isotropic and orthotropic plates, Boundary conditions.

Dynamic Analysis of a Generated Stresses in a Draw bar

Shamil M. Hassan; Saad T.Al-shakarchi; Sabah M.Jameel Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.50465

The stress analysis in the draw bar has been analyzed fully during the tillage operation in two different soil types. The study was done in a series of two stages : The first was done, in the Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Mosul in order to obtain the analysis of material to be used in this study, the mechanical and physical properties of the draw bar metals. The analysis of the soils to be used was obtained in the Geotechnical laboratory in the Civil Engineering dept. later the dimensional Analysis of the draw-bar was fixed, then the stress- analysis generated at varies points on the draw-bar was obtained using the finite element analysis using the ANSYS V5.4 program. during the application of the draw-bar in a similar condition. Special cases, were taken in consideration such as the stresses in X, Y co-ordinates, in addition to the principal stresses.
During the second phase of this study, the stresses at a special locations were measured using a number of electrical resistance strain gauges fixed on the draw-bar while the Tractor was driven on two different soils at varies depth (30cm, 35cm, 40cm).
Keywords : drawbar, dynamic analysis, complex stresses

استلم في 11 / 4 / 2010

Vertical Handoff Algorithm for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

Sana Sami Mohammad Tahir

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 70-79
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.50480

Different wireless networks satisfy different users. The proposition of a single unified handoff approach is to offer the end user the quality of service (QoS) required. In this paper, vertical handoff between wireless fidelity (Wifi) and Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) networks is investigated using MATLAB program 7.4 in order to maintain constant throughput during handoff. Three different propagation models are used. The variation of throughput with distance, received signal strength with distance and the effect of different speeds in macro and microcells are dealt with.

Keywords: Vertical handoff, Throughput, Speed, Micro and Macro cells.

Study and Fabrication of High Efficiency Indium Doped SnO2/SiO2/ n– Si Solar Cells.

Dr. Khalid K. Mohammed; Ghassan H. Shakoory; Ziyad J. Jerjees

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 35-43
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.50476


In this paper a new type of indium doped SnO2/SiO2/(textured) n-Si solar cell were prepared by vacuum evaporation source.. The SnO2 layer is simultaneously an antireflection coating and a transparent upper contract. The interfacial layer plays an important role in determining the short circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill factor and efficiency of the cell. In this paper, the effects of interfacial oxide layer thickness, SnO2 layer thickness, indium layer thickness were studied. The indium doped SnO2 layer reduces the cell series resistance and hence increase the cell output power, the performance parameters of the fabricated solar cell were as follows: an Voc of 0.646 V, Isc of 29.6 mA cm-2, a fill factor of 0.7 and a conversion efficiency of 13.38 at an AM 1.0 irradiance.
Keywords: SnO2, Solar Cells, High Efficiency

A Modified Color JPEG Codec System Using inter pixel Redundancy

Dr. Ahlam Fadhil Mahmood; Abdulkreem Mohameed Salih

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 117-127
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.50484

Image compression is an important topic in commercial, industrial, and academic applications. Whether it be in commercial photography, industrial imaging, or video, digital pixel information can comprise considerably large amounts of data. Management of such data can involve significant overhead in computational complexity, storage, and time processing. This paper presents the implementation of a Modified JPEG CODEC algorithm for color images based on inter pixel redundancy. The modification uses the similarity of the adjacent pixels in blocks to omit complex calculation which AC components require in 2D-DCT unit. It applies quantize operation to one element instead of 64 coefficients and eliminates the zigzag unit. Finally , the entropy phase will process a smaller amount of data. In the decoder side the Laplacian parameter is estimated adding to a reduction in the accounts of blocks that have same neighbors pixels. The extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach can achieve best image quality. The Simulation results show that the Modified JPEG(MJPEG) algorithm can process a 512 X 512 color image in a reduced processing time ( more than 40%) compared to the original algorithm and by more resilience with higher compression ratio.

Keywords: JPEG; color image; encoder; decoder.

Heat Transfer Characteristics in a Heat Pipe Using Water-Hydrocarbon Mixture as a Working Fluid. (An Experimental Study

Dr. Hussain H. Ahmad

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 128-137
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.50485

The heat pipe is a very effective device in heat transport, therefore it is used in many industrial applications especially in cooling systems. In the present experimental work, wickless heat pipe(thermosyphon)is designed and constructed from a copper tube of inside and outside diameters (13.5) and (15.5)mm respectively with total length of (600)mm divided into three sections evaporator; adiabatic section and a finned air cooled condenser simulating the actual applications in practice of this device. Pure water, pure hydrocarbon fluid (acetone) and mixtures of the two fluids at different ratios by weight were used as working fluid to investigate the effect of a working fluid type and mixture ratio on the performance of the device. Results show that using pure fluid is more effective than using mixture. Comparison between results of the present work and a theoretical correlation shows a good agreement especially when using pure fluid.

Keywords: Thermo syphon; Heat pipe; Mixture.

Predictive Handoff Based on Mobile Positioning in CDMA System

Lujain S. Abdulla; Dr. Sami A. Mawjoud

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 56-69
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.50479

In this paper, the predictive schemes of reducing call termination during handoff in Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) system using position location in the required handoff area with minimum false handoff, where the mobile station (MSs) are located randomly in the cell and each MS has call duration, speed and direction, the speeds and directions of the MSs are varied. The signals between the MSs and Base Stations (BSs) are dealt with by using position estimation method using time difference of arrival (TDQA) of the signals, estimation of the variable MS location, knowing the speed and the direction leading to a neighboring cell. The results obtained comply with Federal Communication Commission (FCC) which is internationally adopted. Also, the blocking probabilities for handoff and for new calls using Predictive Channel Reservation (PCR) scheme and Guard Channel (GC) are studied. The results show that predictive scheme reduces the blocking probability depending on the number of reserved channels. MATLAB software (version 7.6) was used to perform the simulation programs.
Keywords: Mobile Position Estimation, Handoff CDMA System

Computer Simulation of The Effect of Band Cap Grading of The Cigs Absorber Layer on The Performance of Cds/Cigs Thin Film Solar Cell

Luqman Sufer Ali; Anas Khalid Abdullah

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 44-55
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.50478

In this paper, the effect of the band gap grading of the absorber layer Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS), which is a compound semiconductor, on the performance of the solar cell has been studied. CIGS has a tuneable band gap and it varied with the composition of the semiconductor. This study has been accomplished using the computer simulation program SCAPS-1D. The program was developed to study the photonic devices especially CIGS and CdTe thin film solar cells. The effect of the grading shape (Front, Back and Double Grading) on the performance of the cell has been studied so as to improve the efficiency of the cell.
Keywords: Band Gap Grading, CIGS, SCAPS-1D.

Real Time Based Fuzzy Logic Distance Protection

Dr. Maamoon F. Al-Kababji

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.50471

This paper presents a new approach to real-time fault detection in power transmission systems using Fuzzy Logic (FL) based transmission line distance protection module. The proposed module uses samples of voltage and current signals to calculate line impedance, which used to construct an input-output data.
Simulation studies are preformed and influence of changing system parameters such as fault resistance and fault location. Details of the design procedure and the results of performance studies with the proposed relay are given.
Practical computer simulation program for monitoring the input and calculated values is built based on the Matlab 7.4- Real Time Simulink with National Instruments Data Acquisition System type (NI DAQ-6251). The results show that this approach can be used as an effective tool for high speed digital relaying, a correct detection is achieved in less than 10ms, results performance shows that the proposed algorithm is fast and accurate as compared with others used relays.

Keywords: Transmission line protection, Distance relay, Fuzzy logic, and Matlab-Simulink.

Design of a PC-Based Command and Control System Using Alpha-Beta-Gamma Digital Tracking Filter

Duraid Fiz; a Mohammad

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 92-102
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.50482

In this paper, a software model for a Command and Control system is implemented on personal computer. This model can also be used for navigation, or Air Traffic Control (ATC) systems. The hardware required for implementation of this system is also described in this paper. The system assumed to have a fixed position detection source such as the surface search radar. The principle of Track-While-Scan (TWS) that combines the automatic detection of targets and the automatic multi target tracking is used.
The Simplified Alpha-Beta-Gamma (--) digital filter is used to perform the algorithm of the automatic tracking. The model main program and all necessary routines are written in C++ language. Successful tests for the implementation of this system are achieved.

Keywords: Command and Control, Track-While-Scan, target, Alpha-Beta-Gamma filter, navigation, ATC

FPGA Implementation of a Fuzzy Control Surface

Fakhrulddin H. Ali; Mohammed M. Hussein

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 103-116
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.50483

This paper presents a design methodology of a dual-input single-output fuzzy logic controller where synthesizing the classical three stages, fuzzification, inference engine, and defuzzification, are replaced by the outcome control surface obtained from these stages which is treated as a tow dimensional table called fuzzy control table FCT. With this proposed approach, (8x8), (16x16), (32x32), and (64x64) FCTs were investigated each having 64, 256, 1024, and 2048 values respectively. To make this system adaptable to different operating states a supervisor fuzzy controller is designed to continuously adjust, on line, the output factor of the basic fuzzy controller based on the error and change in error signals. The proposed architecture is implemented in XC3S200 FPGA, Spartan-3 starter kit to control the position of a D.C. servo motor with unknown parameters in real time.
Keywords: control table, FPGA, fuzzy control surface, supervisor controller.

Design and Fabrication of Narrow Band Infrared Detector

Dr. Khalid Khalil Mohammad

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 15-25
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.50472

Most of infrared detectors used in various electrical equipments have wide spectral response and usually needs front filter to prevent visible light from passing to the detector. This research is intended to study and fabricate an indium doped silicon (n) (In-Si) structure to achieve a photo detector working as narrowband infrared detector. The SCAPS program was used as a simulation tool in order to achieve the optimum structure design. Then the (In-Si) infrared detector was fabricated using vacuum evaporation deposition technique. The fabricated photodiode shows a narrowband spectral response at 940 nm. The results of the simulated and practical samples are comparable which gives a simple and cheap method for obtaining narrowband infrared detector.
Keywords: silicon, infrared, photo detector.

A SimpleMethod to Derive the Bistatic Tracking Radar System Formulas

Khalil Ibrahim Ali Al-Sharabi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 140-149
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.47291

BistaticTracking Radar (BTR) is an advanced mode of conventional BistaticRadar (BR) which is used for target detection. The principle of working of BTR system is same as that for Mono Static Tracking Radar (MTR), with the difference that the transmitter is apart from the receiver,and they operate separately and independently. In this paper,the associated equations that control the BTR system operation, was derived in a simple manner. These equations determine the receiver and transmitter antenna positions to keep their lines of sight meet at the target, beside the assurance of tracking the target during maneuvering. The operation of the system was explained and the simulation program was made to characterize the operation of the system by using the derived equations in this paper.

Keywords: Bistatic Radar, Tracking, Radar

The Effect of Filler Types and Superplastizier on the Workability and Splitting Tensile Strength of Self-Compacting Concrete

Raid Ismaeel Mohammed; Dr. Saeed K. Rejeb

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 41-54
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.47277

Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is a special type of concrete that can flow through intricate geometrical configurations under its own mass without external or internal vibration or segregation. The objectives of the research work were to evaluate the effects of filler types (silica fume and limestone dust) and high- range water- reducing agent, (HRWRA, superplastizier-type Sikament -163) on the workability and splitting tensile strength of SCC. The experimental results showed the using silica fume and limestone dust in Self-compacting concrete led to a considerable improvement in splitting tensile strength. As the percentage of limestone powder and silica fume increases, the workability properties of SCC slightly decreased with increases in splitting tensile strength. The workability properties of SCC for all the replacements satisfy the recommended values given by specifications.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, silica fume, limestone dust, fillers, strengths, splitting, super plasticizers

Parameters Affecting the Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Wrapped With CFRP Sheet

Azad A. Mohammed; Yassamin K. Faiud

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 1-26
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.47273

In this paper the behaviors of strength and deformation of short reinforced concrete column specimens wrapped with CFRP were studied through testing 48 cylindrical specimens under axial loading. The role of parameters of CFRP wrap layers and arrangement, concrete strength , main steel reinforcement , lateral reinforcement and specimen slenderness ratio was studied. Results indicated that due to wrapping with CFRP layers the state of confined concrete occurs and the properties of strength and deformation are modified considerably. The ultimate load percentage was found to vary from 123% to 280% of that of unconfined specimens. The ductility of reinforced concrete specimens was found to be increased considerably as a result of wrapping. The effect of wrapping was found to be important in the case of concrete of lower strength and poorly reinforced with both main bars and lateral reinforcements. In order to obtain higher load capacity of wrapped high strength concrete it should be reinforced highly with both types of reinforcements. In general the parameters influencing the behavior reinforced concrete confined with CFRP sheets are: number of layers, replacing layers with strips, concrete compressive strength, main bars, lateral reinforcement, and specimens slenderness ratio. An analytical model was proposed for calculating ultimate load capacity and load-strain relationship for reinforced NSC and HSC confined with CFRP sheets. The predictions were found to be accurate, and the ratio of test / calculated ultimate load was found to be 1.0043 for NSC and 1.0033 for HSC.

Keywords: Axial strain, Column, Confined concrete, High strength concrete, Lateral strain, Strengthening, Wrapping

Modelingand AnalysisofIXP425 Network Processor

Fakhraldeen H; Ali Omar F. Ahmed

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 116-130
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.47289


There are mainly two kinds of network processor: coprocessors-centric model, and core-centric model. In the coprocessors-centric, the data-plane is handled by coprocessors. The core processes most of the data-plane packets yet offloading some tasks to coprocessors in the core-centric model. The IXP is one of Intel network processor series which is a core-centric model. They are optimized for home, small-to-medium enterprise, and networked embedded applications.This work aims to design a module of IXP425 performing VPN. The processing time for each stage is available in the datasheet of the IXP425. The Markov chain and Omnet++ has been adopted in this work to explore the system parameters and bottlenecks focusing on the buffer length and how to be optimized for each stage. Single process programming is considered in the IXP425 operation.

Keywords:VPN, network processor, configurability, flexibility, scalability.

Refine Priority Queuing Scheduling Algorithm By Applying Time Expired Packets Algorithm

Dr.Mohammed B. Abdullah; Yazen S.Sheet

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 150-163
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.47383

Quality of service (QoS) is a corner stone in recent Internet applications. One of the requirements of achieving QoS in routers is scheduling algorithms. Priority Queuing (PQ) is the simplest most used scheduling algorithm. This algorithm may cause starvation in less priority queues. Time Expired (TE) algorithm is a refine of PQ which discards packets that would reach the receiver out of time. Thus improving throughput and delay for less priority queues with the discard of retarded usefulpackets in time sensitive – loss tolerant Internet applications. A simulation study using OPNET Modeler is carried out. The results show a 20% improvement in throughput of less priority applications. The delay performance is improved for all applications by a factor of 4% to 42%

Keywords: QoS, Scheduling Algorithms, Priority Queuing Algorithm,OPNET

Compressive and Tensile Strength of Fibrous Clayey Soil Stabilized with Lime

I. M. Al-Kiki; A. H. Al-Zubaydi; M. A. Al-Atalla

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 66-77
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.47280

This investigation was conducted to assess the efficacy of the glass, hay and polypropylene fibers for enhancing the unconfined compressive and tensile strengths of clayey soil stabilized with lime. Lime was mixed with the clayey soil in different proportions. Based on the optimum value obtained for lime (according to the unconfined compressive strength values), the compressive and tensile strength characteristics, stress – strain and load – deflection behaviors of lime stabilized samples mixed with different percents of glass, hay and polypropylene fibers were investigated. Fibers were added to the soil at range of (0.5 – 1.5 %). All stabilized samples were cured for 7 days at 250 C.
Results indicate that the inclusion of fibers does not meaningfully improve the compressive strength, but significantly enhances the tensile strength, stress – strain and load – deflection behaviors. Also, it was found that the stress – strain and load deflection curves can be utilized to evaluate the performance of a fiber – reinforced stabilized soil for geotechnical and pavement applications.
Keywords: Lime stabilization, fibers, tensile strength, stress – strain behavior, load – deflection behavior.

Study of the Relationship between Organic Content Measures in Water

Riyadh MahmoodSaleh AL-Obaidi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 33-44
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.47397

Organic content measures (COD, BOD, and TOC) has been tested for different types of waters, municipal wastewater, treatment plant influent and effluent, synthetic wastewater and river water samples. The correlation between each two parameters has been studied. The results revealed that the relationship between BOD and COD is not always invariant and its changing depending on the type and the state of the samples (raw, treated or ..etc.). TOC also had changing relationship with COD, however, the TOC,COD relationship was best than the BOD relationship with the other two parameters. The separation between the data and homogenizing them gave best correlation. Finally , equations describing the relation between the three parameters has been edited and they can be used to estimate the absent test in accepted accuracy in similar samples to which have been studied in this work. The equations represent Mosul city wastewater samples were: (BOD=0.461COD-23.46), (TOC=0.455COD+7.938), and (TOC=0.625BOD+24.87) with R2= 0.511, 0.824 and 0.648 respectively. More equations are included in this work.
Keywords; organic content, TOC, BOD, COD, Correlation , wastewater, characteristics

Effect of Drain Spacing on Water Table Depth and Soil Salinity

Entesar M.Ghazal

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 19-32
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.47393

A computer model was made to find drain spacing with Hooghout equation then SALTMOD was applied for water and salt balances of four different soils. Crop rotation with alfalfa in 50% of the land as continuous crop(in winter and summer) and 50% of the land wheat in winter then maize in summer season.
Drain spacing can be increased than that calculated with Hooghout equation according to soil type and critical water table depth, So salinity, and water table depth were increased without exceeding root zone depth, in clay loam soil. Whereas it's increase has little effect on loamy sand soil, therefore, the best drain spacing can be chosen according to acceptable salinity in the soil .
SALTMOD gives, depending on cumulative Gumbel distribution, a reasonable indication of the predicted change in soil salinity. Under the proposed conditions of irrigation and drainage after, 10 years , the root zone salinity in 80% of area irrigated with 0.5 ds/m water, was predicted to increase in summer to ,9.46, 8,7.53, 4.3 ds/m in the clay loam, loam, sandy loam, loamy sand soil respectively.

Keywords :SALTMOD , root zone salinity ,water table depth.

Matlab SimulationDesign and performance Comparison of OFDM &FH-OFDM Systems

Ammar Abdul-HamedKhader

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 38-48
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.47154

Single-carrier techniques are vulnerable for fading and multipath propagation. Recently, multicarrier modulation (MCM) or OFDM have received considerable attentions andhave made a great deal of progress in world. Also spread spectrum techniques are robust against fading and interference. In this paper a non-coherent FH-OFDM system is proposed to improve the performance of OFDM system in multiuser interference. This system is examined using two differentschemes of hopping pattern, namely, Random FH (RA-FH) &Revolver FH (RE-FH).The comparison indicates that RA-FH is more efficient than RE-FH and conventional OFDM for multiuser interference.When compared with previous works that depend on Cluster hopping (CH) Diversity System (DS), the proposed system possesses BER of less than (0.001)for six interferes with high SNR.

Keywords: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Frequency Hopping OFDM (FH-OFDM), Random FH (RA-FH) and Revolver FH (RE-FH).

Design and Realization of Bireciprocal Lattice Wave Discrete Wavelet Filter Banks

Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar; Sama N. M. Al-Faydi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.47144

In this paper,designs and efficient realizations of special types of IIR wavelet filter banks are introduced. These special typesare the bireciprocal lattice wave discrete wavelet filter banks (BLW-DWFBs). It is believed that these IIR filter banks possess superior band discriminations and perfect roll-off frequency characteristics with respect to their FIR counterparts. 5th and 7th order bireciprocal lattice wavedigitalfilters (BLWDFs) are first derived. They are designed to simulate scaling and wavelet functions of six-level wavelet transform. Such IIR filter banks are then realized as all-pass sections. Computationally-efficient realizations by such sections indicate that the resulting IIR discrete wavelet filter banks canlead to hardware implementations with less-complexity.

Keywords:All-Pass Sections, Bireciprocal Lattice Wave Filters (BLWDFs), Bireciprocal Lattice Wave Digital Discrete Wavelet Filter Banks (BLW-DWFBs), IIR Wavelet Filter Banks, Scaling And Wavelet Functions.

Effect of size, shape and distribution of surface defects on the forming of aluminum sheet

Ahmed Nafie Rashid

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 10-19
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.47229

The research was conducted on samples of aluminum sheet with 1 mm thickness, annealed at (275 C˚). To examine the effect of the size of surface defects on the stretch forming by introducing defects of different sizes on the surface of the sheet before forming process .Then forming the samples using a hemispherical punch without lubrication up to the fracture point. It was found that the defects size have a big effect on the fracture initiation and its propagation. The same result was found for the defect shape. Also the defect distribution was studied, where the defects distribution shows big effect on fracture position, which gave a clear picture of the forming is concentrated. Giving the opportunity to control forming and reduce the fracture.

Keywords: Aluminum, Stretch forming, Surface defects

Effect of Partial Heating on Natural Convective Heat Transfer in an Inclined Porous Cavity

Muyassar E. Ismaeel; Dr. Amir S. Dawood

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 49-60
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.47156

This paper reports a numerical study of natural convection heat transfer in an inclined square porous enclosure partially heated from bottom. The finite difference technique with Gauss – Siedel method is used to solve the governing equations. The governing parameters are modified Rayleigh number, inclination angle, and insulation ratio (Length of insulated part / Total length of the cavity). It is seen that the governing parameters have pronouns effect on the rate of heat transfer. However, the increases in inclination angle increase the rate of heat transfer until it becomes maximum then decrease to unity at the angle 180˚. Also, the increase of insulation ratio decreases the rate of heat transfer and the angle of maximum heat transfer.

Keywords : Natural Convection , Porous , Partial Heating , Inclined

Experimental Study of Lift/Drag Ratio Enhancement Using Continuous Normal Suction

Taha A. Abdullah; Dr. Laith M. Jasim; Dr. Amir S. Dawood

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 76-84
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.47159

An experimental work of continuous normal suction from the wing upper surface effects on the aerodynamic forces is carried out, as well as, the effect of normal suction slot channels location and the mass flow rate sucked strength are involved in this study. The wing model with NACA-0015 has been made to achieve normal suction from the wing upper surface by means of four slot channels. The satisfaction of the suction is done by using vacuum pump. The tests are to be done for incompressible flow over wing with and without a continuous normal suction for three different angle of attack 8, 12 and 16 Deg., and for three different Reynolds numbers 13.6×104, 20.4×104 and 24.5×104. The results showed that the continuous normal suction can significantly increase the lift to drag force ratio, and this ratio is increasing more as the strength of the suction increases.

Keywords : Aerodynamic – Incompressible Flow – Boundary Layer Control – Normal Suction– Experimental work – Lift and Drag Coefficient

Comparison of Four Neural Network Learning Methods Based on Genetic Algorithm for Non-linear Dynamic Systems Identification

Dr. Rafid Ahmed Khalil

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 122-132
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.47165

Non-linear dynamical systems are difficult to control due to the model uncertainties and external disturbances that may occur in these systems. This paper addresses the problem of identification using dynamic neural networks (DNNs) based on genetic algorithm (GA) for nonlinear dynamic systems. Four different dynamic neural networks are used for identification of the same nonlinear dynamic system, using the genetic algorithm (GA) to train the Layer-Recurrent Network (LRN), Focused Time-Delay Neural Network (FTDNN), the Elman Network, and Nonlinear Autoregressive Network with Exogenous inputs (NARX). The simulation results show the generalization ability of the four dynamic neural networks which provide the high precision of model of the nonlinear dynamic system. Also this paper illustrates the advantages and disadvantages of the different dynamic neural networks trained by GA.
Keywords: Dynamic Neural Networks, Nonlinear system identification, genetic algorithm.

FPGA Implementations of Single-Multiplier Digital Sine-Cosine Wave Generators

Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar; Noor N. Qaqos

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 15-26
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.47147

This paper presents four different realizations of single-multiplier sine-cosine generators based on second-order digital filter structure. FPGA implementations of these four realizations are carried out on FPGA Spartan-3E Kit. Implementation results are comparedfrom the view points of utilization resources and maximum frequency of operation. Another comparison is made between one of implementations of the derived structures and other two recent CORDIC-based implementations. The comparison results indicate that smaller chip area can be achieved in the case of the proposed structure of the sine-cosine generator. In addition, such structure can operate with higher circuit frequency as compared with the two others.
Keywords: Digital Sine-Cosine Generators, Second Order Structure, CORDIC, FPGA Implementation

Numerical Study of Heat Transfer by Natural Convection of Porous Layer Using Non-Equilibrium Model

Mohanad K. Radhi; Amir S. Dawood

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 61-75
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.47157

This numerical study documents the phenomena of heat transfer by natural convection in thermally non-equilibrium porous cavity for Darcy flow model. The cavity is heated from below at constant temperature with keeping the upper plate isothermal . The side walls were assumed to be thermally insulated. Finite difference method has been employed for discretization of governing equations which include a Darcian momentum equation and energy equations for solid and fluid phases. An iterative Guass-Seidle method was applied for determination of final solution of governing equations. This investigation was performed under the effect of the following non-dimensional groups: modified Rayleigh number , scaled heat transfer coefficient and thermal conductivity ratio . The non-equilibrium is found to be affected by scaled heat transfer coefficient more than being affected by the thermal conductivity ratio. So It had been noticed that all Nusselt numbers are affected by the thermal conductivity ratio, while the effect of scaled heat transfer coefficient was confined to a solid phase Nusselt number.

Keywords: Porous Layer, Heated from Below, Thermal Non-equilibrium Model

Implementation of Encoding Circuit for Inverse Differential Manchester Code (IDMC) And Clock Recovery Circuit

Warqaa Youns Ibraheem

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 27-37
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.47151

In this research an inverse differential Manchester code (IDMC) circuit is implemented to encode random data using logical circuits, and clock recovery circuit is implemented too. A design of the first stage of clock recovery circuit which represents an edge detector circuit has been implemented using two one-shot mono-stable )74121( to detect the rising and falling edges respectively.
The two circuits are tested practically at a low bit rate (1Kb/s) to study there operations. The encoding and clock recovery processes observed using oscilloscope. A comparison is made using simulation program (MATLAB 7.4 ) with the practical results and they were close to simulation results. The encoded circuit has been tested at (5Mb/s) which is lying in Token ring LAN range.
In this research a practical illustration of the effectiveness of high pass filtering on random data has been made and compared with IDMC encoded data, this comparison improve the advantages of line code that have dc balance and high transition density which are lack in the random data.

Keywords: Line Code, Inverse Differential Manchester encoder circuit, clock recovery, practical implementation

Capacity Enhancement InWCDMA Cellular Network

Dr.S.Abdul MawjoudA; T. Hussien

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 110-122
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.47164

The third generation (3G) cellular system offers high data rate services compared with 1G and 2G systems, for good services and increased number of users,therefore for an operator,it is most important to utilize all possible resources to improve the network capacity and quality of service (QOS). The aim of this paper is to investigate usingsimulation, the impact ofsectorisation, antenna beam width and antenna tilting on capacity. The area of study is a cellular network in urban area with 13*13 Km containing 19 sites, four different sectors used are 1sector,3sectors,4sectors and 6sectors, five different antennas are used in the simulations with 3dB beam width of 120o,90o,65o and 33o and also an Omni-directional antenna, two types of tilting considered are mechanicaland electrical tilt, the result obtained show that the capacity depends on many parameters (load, interference, service type, sectors number, antenna tilt) and can be increased in the proper choice of theseparameters.
Keywords: Cellular system, Cellsectorisation,Antenna tilt, Capacity.

Experimental Study for Improving the performance of Stepped Spillway using an Obstructions

Elham Majeed Kurukji

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 83-93
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.47255


In this paper the energy dissipation was studied using stepped spillway, in addition to that the elimination of air pockets which take place at steps was also studied by using obstructions along the edge of steps. These obstructions were made from iron with square cross-section. Several experiments were conducted on stepped spillway with and without obstructions. The results of the experiments showed that these obstructions were very successful in eliminating air pockets. Their present in general had a positive effect on energy dissipation along the stepped spillway. The results also indicated that the use of these obstructions should be started from second step until the middle step of the spillway.
Keywords: stepped spillway, obstructions, energy dissipater, open channels, discharges.

Numerical Modeling of Pore Water Pressure Development within a Thin Clay Core in an Earth Dam

Amina. A. Khalil

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 93-109
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.47163

This work aims at studying the pore water pressure development within a thin clay core in an earth dam. The study consists of two parts; a parametric study for general thin clay core (with and without chimney drains), followed by a case study of BADUSH dam. Different operation levels and storage times with the possibility for rapid rise in water level are considered for the case study. Finally the effect of an earthquake on pore water pressure in this types of a dam was also studied as a case study.
Two dimensional finite element analysis was used to simulate pore water pressure development by GEO-SLOP software taking into consideration saturated /unsaturated conditions. Results showed that the presence of a chimney drain plays an effective role in dissipation of the pore water pressure. In the case of BADUSH dam, a high pore water pressure development was observed, in 8 days as a consequence of a rapid rise of water level, and it must be taken into account when designing dams. Also results show that the pore water pressure in the range of (175-145 kPa) through the typical section and approximately between (25-50 kPa) for the two other sections at the end of construction time, making the height and construction time of the dam are the most effective factors affecting pore water pressure development.

Keywords: Pore water pressure, Finite element, Unsaturated soil, BADUSH dam

Design and FPGA Implementations of Four Orthogonal DWT Filter Banks Using Lattice Structures

Zainab R. S. Al-Omary; Dr. Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 6, Pages 124-137
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26616

In this paper, lattice structures for DWT are introduced through the design and FPGA implementations of the orthogonal Daubechies filter banks of orders 2, 4, 6 and 8. Multipliers and shift-add methods are both used to perform multiplication operations for these types of filter banks. Two implementation techniques are introduced, namely; the pipelining technique that is efficient from the throughput point of view, and the area efficient bit-serial implementation technique. The obtained results show the ability to achieve high throughput using pipelining (with 2 output samples / clock) on behalf of the area allocation. While bit-serial technique minimizes the allocated area on behalf of the throughput which may decrease with increasing filter order. As compared with other recent implementations, the results of implementing the designed filter banks using the SPARTAN-3E FPGA kit are efficient in minimizing implementation complexity to 0.584 - 0.712 of its corresponding values for different structures in recent hardware implementations. It is also obtained that the resulting structures can operate at high frequencies (up to 47.09 MHz).

Optimal Power Flow Solution with Maximum Voltage Stability

Dr. Ahmed Nasser B. Alsammak

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 6, Pages 40-53
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26606

This paper presents an Optimal Power Flow (OPF) formulation that is based on multi-objective optimization methodology, which can minimize both of operating costs and losses and it would at same time result in maximizing the distance to voltage collapse. A “Maximum Distance to Voltage Collapse” algorithm, which incorporates constraints on the current operating condition, is firstly presented, while OPF formulations which incorporate voltage stability criteria is secondly presented. The algorithm built on Matlab-Simulink is tested on an IEEE 6-bus test system using a standard power flow model, where the effect of maximum loading point limits is demonstrated.

Fatigue Behavior of Al – 4wt%Cu / SiCP and Al - 4wt%Cu/ Al2O3P Composites

Salim Aziz Kako

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 6, Pages 54-61
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26607


Aluminum – copper ( Al – 4wt%Cu ) alloy metal matrix composites MMCs reinforced with 0.5 ,1.0 ,1.5 % wt of both SiC and Al2O3 particles were fabricated by stir-casting .The effects of SiC and Al2O3 particles content on the fatigue behavior of the Al – 4wt%Cu unreinforced base alloy and the resulted composites were investigated. The results show that fatigue strengths of base alloy increased with increasing weight fractions of ceramic particles and the fatigue strength of MMCs reinforced with SiC particles is higher than that of reinforced with Al2O3 particles

Nonlinear Coupled Finite Element Analysis of A Dam-Reserviour Under Dynamic Loading

Dr. O. F. S. Al-Damluji; Dr.A. Y. Th. Al-Saaty; Dr.R. M. Al-Nuaimi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 6, Pages 91-111
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26613

This research presents a nonlinear coupled analysis of a dam-reserviour problem with aspects of class I coupling for fluid-structure interaction and class II coupling for soil-pore fluid–structure interaction under earthquake excitations using finite element method. The analysis involves the compressibility of water, the flexibility of the dam, the earthquake excitation, the structural damping and the material nonlinearity on the response.
An efficient computer program is developed for this analysis from the original computer code named as MIXDYN. The new software for analyzing the coupled behaviour is established using the pressure formulation for modelling of fluid and the u-p formulation for modelling of soil-pore fluid.
Two differenent schemes for coupled field problems are implemented in the new computer code using the staggered partitioned solution technique in terms of sequential execution of single-field analyzers .Eight-nodded two-dimensional isoparametric element is adopted for idealization each of soil, fluid and structure. The Drucker Prager model is used to simulate the behavior of soil and concrete. Implicit-Implicit Newmark’s scheme with corrector predictor algorithm is employed for time integration of the equations of motion. The capability and the efficiency of the model are found to be very useful.

Best Wavelet Filter for a Wavelet Neural Fricatives Recognition System

Dr. Ahmed Maamoon Alkababji

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 6, Pages 138-150
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26617

Direct recognition of phonemes in speaker independent speech recognition systems still cannot guarantee good enough recognition results. But grouping phonemes at first then trying to recognize the phoneme itself is a promising field. On the other hand wavelets are widely used in speech and speaker recognition systems, this is motivated by the ability of wavelet coefficients to capture important time and frequency features. In this work the effect of the wavelet filter type on the efficiency of a phoneme recognition system is investigated (specifically fricatives). The Probabilistic neural network was used as a pattern matching stage for its well known and power full ability in solving classification problems. It was found that the Daubechies wavelet family (generally from db15 to db23) is a good candidate for a fricatives phoneme recognition system that is based on wavelets as a feature extraction stage.

The Effect of Impinging Jet on the Flow and Heat Transfer from Isothermal Moving Plate

Dr. Ahmed Waheed Mustafa

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 6, Pages 73-83
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26609

The effect of impinging uniform jet on flow and heat transfer over isothermal moving plate is investigated. The flow and temperature fields are studied numerically with different jet velocity ratio (jet to plate velocity ratio 0-5). The laminar flow field is analyzed numerically by solving the steady, two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes and energy equations. A collocated (non-staggered) grid is used in the momentum equations, which discretized by finite volume method, SIMPLE algorithm is used to adjust the velocity field to satisfy the conservation of mass. The range of Reynolds number is (Re = 10 - 100). The results show that at high jet velocity ratio (V/U = 5) and Reynolds number (Re = 100), the rate of heat transfer from the plate is doubled.

Effect of Ultrasonic Waves on Sedimentation Characteristics and sludge Dewaterability

Ahmed Yassin Shehab

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 6, Pages 30-39
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26569

This paper studied the effect of ultrasonic waves on sedimentation characteristic of activated sludge and there causes on filamentous growth, as well as its effects on the sludge ability dewaterability. The power of ultrasonic waves was set at (0.35W/cm2) while the frequency and contacts time was varied to (31،44،55 KHz) (10،20،30،40 min) respectively. An instrument with (0.5 L) in volume was used to applied ultrasonic waves, it was connected by plastic tube with a completely mixed activated sludge reactor. Testes shows that the relationship between contacts time of ultrasonic and sludge volume index (SVI) was a sagged curve with an optimum point, that’s means there was a specific contacts time to achieved an optimum sedimentation characteristics at specific frequency. As well as Testes shows that the relationship between contacts time and specific resistance (r) was a linear in first order, that’s indicates the ability of dewaterability of sludge decreased with the increasing of ultrasonic contacts time. Also results shows that the effect of ultrasonic waves on activated sludge related conversely with its frequency.

A Study For Refrigerant's Characteristics to Choose the Optimum For Ejector Refrigeration System

Mohammad S. Al - Dabbagh; Dr. Adnan M. Al Saffawi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 6, Pages 16-29
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26568

Refrigeration systems needs efficient refrigerant to perform it's determined objective, so, an optimum refrigerant, must have a good and desirable characteristics as compared with other refrigerants as well as a high coefficient of performance for the working cycle, which results for minimizing operating power to attain determined refrigeration capacity.
A variety kinds of improved refrigerants had been appeared within the last twenty years, and many countries did large efforts to phaseout some refrigerants, or at least reduce it's usage, that's for it's ozone layer depletion and it's bad influence on environment and climate.
This research deals with a comparative study between many Refrigerants on the basis of it's characteristics , COP and compressibility factor in ejector refrigeration system to select the optimum to be used in this system.
From this study results , the optimum refrigerant is Butane (R – 600), which have a good characteristics , a relatively high compressibility factor values , and a COP value of (0.615) , which is a good result as compared with other refrigerants included the phaseouted for it's bad influence on environment and climate.

DSP Based Adjustable Closed-Loop DC Motor Speed Control System

R. S. Gargees; A.K. Z. Mansoor; R. A. Khalil

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 5, Pages 66-76
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26749

This paper deals with real time DC motor speed control, using the low-cost new generation TMS320LF2812 digital signal processor (DSP). An optimal control algorithm which can be realized through event manager (EV) module of the DSP is proposed. According to the error signal DSP processor will change the duty cycle of the PWM (which can be named mark-space ratio). The comparison between two signals (reference and actual speed) in addition to the PWM technique are included in a C++ language program. Code composer studio (CCS) is used to load and run the program to achieve real time control. Theoretically Matlab/Simulink software was used for simulation the proposed circuit before implementation. A PID controller is designed using MATLAB to generate a set of coefficients associated with the desired controller characteristics.

Some Engineering Characteristics of Lime-Treated Soil of Semeel Region With Emphasis on Compaction Delay

Dr.Rafi M.S. Al-Neaimi; Haval Ahmad Hussain

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 5, Pages 12-27
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26742

This research presents a laboratory study on the influence of different compactive efforts, curing and soaking periods at no-delayed and up to 4-hrs compaction delay periods on compaction, strength and swelling characteristics of untreated and 3%, 5% and 8% by dry weight of lime-treated Semeel soil.
The results of the tests without and with compaction delay of lime-treated soil show that for both of standard and modified compactive efforts, as the lime content % increases the Maximum Dry Density (MDD) decreases while the Optimum Moisture Content (OMC) increases. The decrease in MDD is occurred due to alteration of the material's gradation as a result of the flocculation and agglomeration of the soil particles upon lime addition. Whereas the increase in OMC is mainly referred to the more water required for the hydration of lime and cation exchange. It has been found that as the compaction delay period increases, the strength properties of lime-treated soil decrease for unsoaked and soaked conditions. This loss in strength therefore needs to be considered in design and construction and the durability of the UCS specimens should be assessed by evaluating their resistance to strength loss after 7-days curing followed by 4-days soaking. The swelling characteristics measured on remolded soil samples at no compaction delay show that Semeel soil is classified as highly expansive soil. While, at small lime contents %, as the compaction delay increases, swell percent and swelling pressure values are slightly increased from that at no compaction delay.

Heat Transfer in a Square Porous Cavity With Partial Heating and Cooling for Opposite Vertical Walls

Muyassar E. Ismaeel

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 5, Pages 107-121
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26756

Numerical study has been conducted to investigate natural convection heat transfer in a square porous cavity with partial active vertical walls. The left vertical side wall is partially heated and the right side wall is partially cooled. Depending on the positions of the hot and cold parts, nine cases have been considered in this investigation. Flow and heat transfer characteristics for all cases have been studied for range of Rayleigh number 50 ≤ Ram ≤ 500. The governing equations are solved numerically with aid of the finite difference technique and Gauss – Siedel method. Numerical results showed that there are significant changes in the flow and temperature fields and the rate of heat transfer due to the change of the positions of hot-cold parts. Also, they showed that the maximum heat transfer occurs for the Lower-Upper arrangement, while the minimum heat transfer occurs for the Upper-Lower arrangement. A correlation between and Ram proposed for each one of the nine cases.

Investigation of distance effect on Gaussian Mixture Models in Speaker Identification

Nada A. GH. Shindala

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 5, Pages 53-65
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26747

This paper investigate the effect of distance on the Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM) for text dependent speaker identification. Three stages are used for three different distances from the microphone (1m, 2m, and 3m). The set of feature extraction used here include Mel frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC), Bark frequency cepstral coefficient (BFCC) and linear predictive cepstral coefficient (LPCC). These features are obtained from 20 speakers (10 adults and 10 children) ;all spoke five Arabic words in 5 seconds. The set of classification includes two types GMM and multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP). Total results show that MFCC has the best performance in feature extraction, and GMM has better recognition than MLP as total recognition in GMM is 93.15% and recognition in MLP is 88.06%.The results show also that the recognition rate decreases from 93.15% to 80.82% as the distance is increased from 1m to 3m.

Design of Wideband Radio Direction Finder Based On Amplitude Comparison

Khalil Ibrahim Ali Al-Sharabi; Duraid Fiz; a Mohammad

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 5, Pages 77-86
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26752

The design of the present radio direction finder is based on amplitude comparison to find the angle of arrival (AOA) of the received signal by eight antennas circularly distributed. The characteristics of the signal are specified to provide the identification of the source in addition to the direction. The equation of (AOA) was derived by taking the ratio of signal amplitudes between each two adjacent antennas due to their associated AOA over (360) direction .The database for source identification is included also. A simple design by using detectors to detect the pulse and digital signals was used. A personal computer is used to satisfy the principle of operation. This facility make the system operate on a wide band of frequency about (2-18) GHz. This system is suitable for detection of radar signals and digital transmitter signals such as base stations and mobile stations.

The Employment of Geometry in Creating Architectural Ideas in Twenties Revivalism Trend of the 20th Century

Shatha Yacoub Al-Sheikh

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 5, Pages 46-70
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26622

Geometry is presented as one of the concepts which has been employed as a design tool for creating architectural ideas in the design process throughout architectural history, as well as providing order and creating form intentionly. The importance of geometry has emerged, because it is considered the single most common determinant or characteristic in buildings. The paper discusses the importance of this concept and its employment as a formative idea during architectural history.
Thus the objectives of the paper and its problem have been formed by building theoretical framework consisting of one main item of detailed theoretical field as the following: (procedures of creating architectural ideas by employing geometry which is, in term connected by two primary generators; geometric planes and solids with geometric fields or grids), which specifies procedures of employing geometry in creating architectural ideas in different architectural trends, firstly, then the application of this item on the products of three architects: Meier , Eisenman and Graves from the twenties Revivalism trend of the 20th century, secondly, Finally, concluding procedures and paradigms, which had been employed by architects of this trend in creating ideas, thirdly.
Conclusions have been declared, concentration on the concept known as dynamic geometry which is based on a geometric order depending on the combination of both planes and solids with geometric fields, and the employment of both regular and unique free forms, throughout design systemization in making architecture, based on the dynamism of traditional geometric order, depending on selected design relations of formal elisions in the form of dynamic modifications and of grid compositions. Thus, dynamism or movement can be added as a primary principle to the different architecture design principles.

Artificial Intelligentt Method for Tuning the Output Scaling Factor of a Fuzzy Controller

Fakhrulddin H. Ali; Mohammed M. Hussein; Sinan M.B. Ismael

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 5, Pages 40-52
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26745

Scaling factor tuning is one of the most used method to enhance the performance of a fuzzy controller. This paper presents two intelligent tuning strategies to tune this factor. In the first strategy, a supervisor fuzzy controller SFC was designed to continuously adjust, on line, the scaling factor of the basic fuzzy controller BFC based on the error and change of error signals. In the second strategy, a neural network NN is used to do this task. Performance of the tuning strategies are compared with corresponding conventional fuzzy controller in terms of several performance measures such as steady state error, settling time, rising time, and peak overshoot. Simulation results show that SFC performance is better. The system implementation and tests are carried out using LabVIEW (V 8.2).

Crest Shape Effect on the Performance of Rectangular Side Weirs

Dr. Bahzad M.A. Noori; Mrs. Rondik Adil Jaafar

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 5, Pages 87-106
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26754

To study the effect of crest shape on the performance of rectangular side weirs, one hundred and four side weir models were tested, eight of them were for sharp crest and ninety six for rounded crest. For each set of rounded crest models, the radius of crest was changed four times and for each radius, the height of the side weir was varied four times. A total of nine hundred thirty four tests were conducted on these models. For all models of different crest shapes, it was found that the average energy difference between two ends of the side weir is very small and less than one percent which can be ignored. The variation of discharge coefficient (CM) with upstream Froude number (Fr1) was found to be linear. The correlation between (CM) and ratio of upstream water depth to weir height ( h1/p ) was found to be linear. The variation of (CM) with the ratio of upstream head above crest to crest radius (h1/r) was also found linear. A simple power empirical expression was obtained for the combined effect of (Fr1) and (h1/p) on (CM) for free flow over sharp crest side weirs with high correlation coefficient. Three simple power empirical expressions were obtained for the variation of (CM) with (Fr1), (h1/p) and (h1/r) for the free flow over inside semicircular, outside semicircular and circular crest shapes with high correlation coefficients. From the hydraulic performance, it was found that small weir heights gave higher performance for all crest shapes. The highest performance of inside semicircular crest was found for crest radius (r) =3.15cm, the highest performance of outside semicircular crest was found for (r) =3.75cm, while, the highest performance of circular crest was found for (r) =2.5cm and (r/p) =0.25.

Depth Buffer DDA Based on FPGA

Fakhrulddin Hamid Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 5, Pages 28-39
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26743


The Digital Differential Analyzer (DDA) is normally used to efficiently compute the pixels (picture elements) for a straight line segment which can be used to represent it in a frame buffer or image memory. The calculated integer values of x and y for each pixel are used to address the memory while the color or intensity of the line segment presents the data to memory. The pixels in the frame buffer can then be read in a synchronized manner, while scanning the screen, and displayed on the computer monitor to show the straight line. This paper presents a new Digital Differential Analyzer as a three dimension (3D) version of the traditional (2D) one. There is a need to the 3D-DDA for the solution of the hidden surface problem in the image space when using depth or Z buffer method in the field of 3D computer graphics. A hardware implementation of the 3D-DDA is accomplished for the real time applications.

The Effect of Plastomers Polymer Type and Concentration on Asphalt and Moisture Damage of SMA Mixtures

Tan Yi-qiu; Al-Hadidy AI

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 5, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26740


In this investigation, two plastomers polymer types namely: polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) were used to modify asphalt cement. Nine different blends including conventional mixture were subjected to binder testing such as rheological tests before and after aging, as well as to some other tests related to the uniformity of the system. Marshall stability, Marshall Quotient, static tensile strength, tensile strength ratio, static compressive strength and index of retained strength were carried out on the stone mastic asphalt (SMA) mixtures. Research results indicate that the addition of these polymers enhance the unaged and aged rheological properties of base binder. The results also indicated that the modified binders are complying with the ASTM D491 specifications for asphalt used in waterproofing applications. As well as, the SMA mixtures containing such binders can satisfy the performance requirement of high-temperature and much rain zone.

Experimental study of thermal performance for evaporative cooling tower by using two different packing

Ahmed Fouad Mahmood AL-Neama

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 5, Pages 71-82
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26624

This paper presents an experimental investigation of the thermal performances of a forced draft counter flow wet cooling tower by using two filled , the first one is made locally from the galvanized packing have a cross-sectional area of (0.3m * 0.3m) with a height of 0.5m and consists of six galvanized sheets having a zigzag form disposed by metallic vertical grids in parallel with a sectional test. The second is made from corrugated plastic with the same cross-sectional area . In present work the effect of each of the air and water flow rates on the cooling water section as well as the tower characteristic, heat rejected and the Cooling range for different inlet water temperatures were studied . From the experimental readings obtained we found that the temperature of inlet hot water to the cooling tower effected in the tower performance concerning amount of heat rejected and the Cooling range . In addition , the experimental result showed that the tower Characteristic increases by using packing made from galvanized about 15% comparing with plastic packing at the same operation conditions .

Performance Study of the Single and Double Stages Anaerobic Biological Filters in Treating Domestic Greywater

Dr. Kossay K. Al-Ahmady; Nadia A. Al-Rhmany

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 5, Pages 10-21
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26619

In this paper, a laboratory plant was constructed and operated in order to assess the effect of stages; detention times and depth of filter on the performance of the upflow anaerobic biological filter that treating domestic grey water. The experimental plant was consisted of two upflow anaerobic filters; the first one operates with a single stage, while the second one was with two stages. Crushed gravels were used as a medium for growing the biological organisms. The two filters were worked simultaneously in continuous flow regime at hydraulic detention times of 12, 18 and 24 hours using greywater samples with COD concentration between 190-350 mg/l. The results showed that the two stages filter was more efficient than the single stage filter. The COD and BOD removals were (55.5, 62.7, 75.3)% and (57.2, 67.4, 78.2)% for the detention times of (12, 18 and 24) hours respectively. While the COD and BOD removals were (67.7, 54.8, 39.1)% and (73.2, 60.5, 44.8)% for the first filter and at the same detention times respectively. The two filters were also efficient in removing the suspended solids. Increasing depth of filter has a little influence on the performance efficiency. Depth of (0.3) m was considered the most effective height by which the quickest COD removal is performed.

A study of Contaminate diffusion Through Layered Soil due to leachate migration From Landfill Site

A. A. AL-Daood

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 28-42
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26792

Contamination of soils and groundwater is considered as one of the major environmental problems. So, water and contaminate movement through soil especially in layered soil should be studied thoroughly. This research aims to study the contamination movement in a layered soil considering; water table fluctuation and applying the theories of transfer and diffusion in the unsaturated case. Numerical model with GEOSLOP software was used for simulating the movement of the contaminant through both saturated and unsaturated layered soils.
The study shows that various physical properties of soil layers has a serious impact on the movement of the contaminants, also it shows that the order of layers has a effective role in the extent of the movement and concentration of leachate in the area surrounding the location of landfills in the case of unsaturated soil, while changes in the level of groundwater don't make any change that can be mentioned with the number and order of layers but leads to a small changes in concentration of leachate. Whereas steady saturated soil conditions did not affect by the order and number of layers on the movement of leachate, but it is effected by the change in ground water level ,the change including the concentration and extend of the contaminate movement.

Human Factors of Green Architecture Green Building of Nikken Sekkei

Ghada Mohammed Yonis

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 99-122
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26784

Human factors is the most important components of Green Architecture besides the main approach of energy consumption and preservation . That factors are reflected by introduce comfort and healthy spaces , Which suitable for human occupation both physical and psychological. The article concern the relationships of Green Architecture with nature first: as a crucial natural system , second as a natural appearance or views . The work study is concern the style of Green building of Japan architect Nikken Sekkei , Who used the concepts of Japan Traditional Architecture with new technical approach . The conclusion is that the suitable sustainable technical in Green Architecture is by unit and immerge the natural element ( sun light and heat- wind flow- earth temperature)as new tools in steps of design process .
Keywords: green architecture , comfort ,healthy

Modeling of Dynamic Processes of the Main Executive Mechanism of the Hot-crank Press

Mohammed Najeeb Abdullah; Victor Valerievich Telegin

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26787

The paper considers a dynamic model and its mathematical description of the central crank-slide mechanism of the hot-crank press. The peculiarity of the proposed model is ability to assess on its basis, the level of oscillatory processes at all levels of the mechanism: the crankshaft, connecting rod and the slider with calculation of the clearances in the joints of the crank-slider-crank and eccentric

Influence Of an Earthed Transformers On The Distance Protection Relay Measuring Accuracy For Double Transmission Lines

Dr. Abdul Ghani A. Abdul Ghafoor; Mr. Ahmed Ateya Al-Badrani

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26758


This paper investigates a study of the influence of an earthed transformer in a double circuit transmission lines have intermediate tapped to provide to loads on a measuring accuracy and performance of the conventional Distance Protection Relay (DPR) installed in this configuration when the ground faults occur beyond tee point. The protection of three-terminal lines is not as simple as that of two-terminal lines. They usually experience problems caused by the zero sequence current in-feed of an earthed transformer from the third terminal as well as mutual coupling due to this current. This study has been modeling and simulating by using (MatlabSimulink) program to analyze a steady state of ground fault on single circuit to calculate the DPR voltage, current and apparent impedance with various fault locations under operational status for the Iraqi North Regional Grids (INRG) 132 kV system. The paper results shows that current in-feed and mutual coupling by zero sequence of earthed transformer may cause the distance relay to seriously under-reach or Under Reach according to zero sequence current direction. The values of short circuit levels ratio of system have major effect in this problem, So an apparent impedance as seen by DPR and length of protective zone will change.

Genetic Algorithm Based Small Distributed Generation Units Addition Technique To Reduce Real Power Losses

Saraa Esmaeel Khaleel

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 20-29
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26761


The increasing demand on installing small generating units had resulted in focusing on advanced concern of distributed generation (DG) units located at specific points of the electrical distribution grid as a mean of reduction in real power losses. This issue had been dealt with many techniques over the last decades.
This research paper is taking Genetic Algorithm technique into consideration as one of the most efficient tools in calculating the optimum value of these DG units added to the grid locations suffering from loading effect based voltage drop at the minimum real power loss. This research is also concerning the impact of increasing number of locations of DG units added to the grid the percentage of reduction in real power loss.

Design and FPGA Implementation of Dual Scan two Dimensional Discrete Wavelet transforms

Zahraa Talal Abed Al-Mokhtar

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 68-78
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26800

In this paper, hardware architectures for two dimensional discrete wavelet transform (2-D DWT) are examined, the 4-input/4-output Dual Scan architecture for one-level DWT is presented, then by using the pipelined architecture and parallel method, the one-level architecture is developed to perform a complete dyadic decomposition of NXN image in multi-level 2-D DWT. After that the internal memory sizes that are needed to design the proposed architectures and the proper fixed point word length are determined. The proposed architectures are down loaded in to FPGA board (Spartan-3E) to calculate the die area and the critical path of these architectures. The main advantage of Dual Scan method is high reduction in the time delay to perform the architecture.

Effect Of The Earthed Out of Service Transmission Lines On a Distance Measuring Relay Setting

Dr. Abdul Ghani A. Abdul Ghafoor; Mr. Ahmed Ateya Al-Badrani

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 10-19
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26759


This paper includes a study and analysis of an earthed out of service for one of double circuit transmission lines impact on a Distance Measuring Relay (DMR) setting due to zero sequence system mutual coupling. The protection in a remaining line measures the fault impedance correctly, except when the line that is not in service is earthed at both ends. In this case a DMR performance which installed in this configuration at the ground faults occur is much less reliable and accuracy to get an ideal tripping protected zone for its. This study has been Modeling and simulting by using (MatlabSimulink) program to analyze a steady state of ground fault on single circuit to calculate the DMR voltage,current and apparent impedance of sequences and system at various fault locations under operational status for the Iraqi North Regional Grids (INRG) 132Kv system. The paper results shows that mutual coupling by zero sequence current of earthed line may cause the DMR to seriously over-reach under different operational situations. The DMR first zone reach may extend to its second zone, So a DMR will give a trip signal for an external faults.

FPGA Implementation of Multiplierless DCT/IDCT Chip

Dr. Ahlam Fadhil Mahmood; Abdulkreem Mohameed Salih

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 55-67
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26797

The advance of mobile electronics technology has produced handheld appliances allowing both wireless voice and data communications. One of the most important operations in the realm of digital signal and image processing is the 2-D Discrete Cosine Transform. This paper presents a multiplierless two dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform/Inverse Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT/IDCT) based on the transpose method. In this method the 2-D DCT is obtained by taking two 1-D DCTs in series. The input data is first divided into NxN blocks and the row-wise 1-D DCT of each block is taken, the intermediate transposition is then determined and a column-wise 1-D DCT is ascertained which gives the 2-D DCT of the data. The hardware implementation is parallel, pipelined and decomposed the coefficients matrix into four power of two term(i.e:16 ) to perform shift and add operations instead of multipliers(i.e 16); it costs only 1,443 slice , and runs at maximum frequency of 82.8 MHz with a very high process throughput of 991.2 Megabits/sec when synthesized onto Spartan3-E XC3S500 FPGA device. The proposed 2-D DCT/IDCT design achieving the most demanding real-time requirements of CODEC standardized frame resolutions and rates.

Mathematical Model for Calculating Oxygen Mass Transfer Coefficient in Diffused Air Systems

Kossay K. Al-Ahmady

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 43-54
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26795

The key element in developing an analytical or mathematical procedure is to determine the main factors that possess potential importance in oxygen transfer process. In this paper, the factors that affect the oxygen mass transfer coefficient (KLa) in activated sludge units are determined. A dimensional analysis procedure is adopted to develop a mathematical model, which can be used for calculating these factors. A very high accurate model with a correlation factor of (98.889 %) is obtained from this analysis. The solution of the model shows that: The main dimensionless groups which controlling the oxygen mass transfer in this units are: Reynolds number, Froude number, the ratio of bubbles diameter to length of its bath in water, the ratio of water depth in the tank to tank length, and the ratio of diffusers area to tank area. Each of the Reynolds number and the ratio of area of diffusers to the area of tank have positive effect on the oxygen mass transfer coefficient. Increasing any of airflow rates, the area of diffusers coverage in the tank and the length of the path of bubbles in water significantly increase the oxygen mass flow rate while this ability can also be increased by decreasing the diameter of bubbles in the system.

FPGA based Reconfigurable 2D FFT System

Shefa A. Dawwd; Ahmad F. Al-allaf

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 76-88
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.27026


This paper develops a system level architecture for implementing a cost-efficient, FPGA-based reconfigurable two dimensional (2D) FFT system. The adopted approach considers both the hardware cost (in terms of FPGA resource requirements), and performance (in terms of throughput). These two extremes are optimized based on using run time reconfiguration, double buffering technique, shared Dual Ported RAM (DPRAM) modules and the “hardware virtualization” to reuse the available processing components. The system employs two one Dimensional (1D) FFT processor each with sixteen reconfigurable parallel FFT cores. Each core represents a 16 complex point parallel FFT engine. Thus the architecture supports transform length of 256X256 complex points, as a demonstrator to the design idea, using fixed-point arithmetic and has been developed using radix-4 butterfly architecture. The simulation results that have been performed using VHDL modeling language and ModelSim software shows that the full design can be implemented using single FPGA platform requiring about 50,000 Slices.
Keywords: 2D Fast Fourier Transform Radix-4. Run Time Reconfiguration

Study of the Misalignment of the Rotary Kiln Relative to Carrying Roller Center in Cement Factories on the Stress in Bearings

Dr. Sabah. m. j. Ali; Mr. Ahmed M. Abdullah

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 22-33
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26997

Misalignment problem is considered as one of the most important and common repeated problems in rotary kiln in meanly all of cement factories. This will lead to generation of vibration and extra loads on bearing of the carrying rollers. Also a non-uniformity can occur in distribution of applied load on all the surface of the bearing which being concentrated on one or two sides of the bearing surface, and finally leads to falling the fire lining.
The present research work is concentrated on the analysis of stresses generated on bearing of the carrying rollers of the rotary kiln in new Hammam Al-Alil factory. In addition the effect of misalignment is shown on stresses distribution and it's concentration. This is important for the bearing design and those who work in bearing maintenance in this factory.
The "(ANSYS 9.0)", which uses a finite element technique, had been utilized in this program. This is a very efficient and accurate tool in stress analysis for many cases. The stresses had been calculated for the assumed cases.
The results showed clearly that the stress distribution and concentration on the bearing is altered with misalignment for each case.
Keywords: Misalignment, Rotary kiln, Techniques , ANSYS

Discharge Coefficient for V-Notch Broad Crested Side Weir Side Weir

Amal Abd Al-Ghnai Yahya

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 104-111
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.27031

In this paper the hydraulic characteristics of V-notch broad crested side weir have been experimentally studied. Sixteen V-notch broad crest weirs were constructed with six apex angles (θ=30º, 45º, 60º, 90º, 120º,and 150º)and the apex height change three times (p=5,10,15cm) for the first forth angles and change two times for the last two angles (p=10,15cm), each model can be tested by changing flow in the main channel several times and from the analysis of experimental results it was found that the coefficient of discharge(Cd) for the V-notch broad crested weir is depend on the hydraulic and geometric characteristics of channel and weir, and from the hydraulic characteristics of the main channel it was found that the coefficient of discharge (Cd) directly proportional to the main channel Froude number before side channel , and a maximum value of (Cd) can be reached for a larger acute V-notch angle , but a maximum value of (Cd) can be reached for the smaller obtuse V-notch angle. Also from the hydraulic and geometric effect for both channel and weir it is found that (Cd) inversely proportional with (y1/p) and directly proportional with (y1/h &p/h) and a maximum (Cd ) can be reached maximum for both acute and obtuse V-notch angle. Suitable equations for discharge coefficient are obtained for different apex angle, then the predicated discharge coefficient from the equations were plotted against the calculated value with coefficient of determination (R2=0.9) and it was found to be good.
Keywords: Broad Crested Weir, Side Weir, V-Notch

Implementation of Multiplier less Architectures for Color Space Conversions on FPGA

Dr. Ahlam Fadhil Mahmood; Abdulkreem Mohammad Salih

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 89-103
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.27029

The divergence of computers, internet, and wide variety of interactive video devices, in most of the multimedia applications, all using different color representations, is forcing the digital designer today to convert between them. The objective is to have a converter, which will be useful for number of applications with a basic function of converting from one color space to another and the inverse on same architecture. This paper presents an efficient parallel multiplierless implementation for two color space converters (RGB to YCbCr and YCbCr to RGB). The proposed architecture is based on distributed arithmetic (DA) principles which has been implemented on the Xilinx Spartan-3E XC3S500 FPGA using fewer resources. The implementation approach exhibits better performances when compared with existing implementations, Modifications have been carried out in DA to reduce the hardware complexity with better performance in area, latency and throughput.
Keywords: Color Space Conversion; Distributed Arithmetic ; FPGA; Video, Processing; Image Processing .

A Laboratory Tool Used to Evaluate the Reflective Cracking in Overlay Asphalt Pavement

Dr. Talal H. Almudadi; Ass. Prof. Dr. Ali H. Alneami

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 11-25
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.27010

The causes of reflective cracking can be either environmental and/or load associated. The simultaneous movements of an overlay caused by wheel loads (vertical movements), temperature changes, temperature gradients (horizontal movements) induce a complex stress state of cyclic bending tension, and shear within the overlay.
Different types of tools are used to simulate the mechanism of reflective cracking in the laboratory , in this research only the tool which simulates the effect of temperature variation (horizontal movement) is studied. Overlay Testing Equipment is constructed and tested in Iraq . All the tested samples are beams of dimensions 7.6cm width, 38.1cm length with different thickness. Three parameters are taken in this study, filler type, thickness of asphalt concrete beams and additives and their effects on the properties of asphalt concrete mix. From the results, the samples prepared by limestone as a filler give higher number of cycles than that prepared by cement, the samples of high thickness give higher number of cycles and the control sample gives best results than modified samples.

Keywords: Reflection Cracking, Asphalt Concrete Overlay, Filler, Overlay Tester.

Study of Heat Storage in Shallow Fluidized Beds

Burhan Mahmood Ahmad Al-Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 69-75
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.27025


This paper presents the theoretical analysis and experimental study of the performance of a shallow fluidized bed as a storage system for thermal energy.
River sand is used as a bed with different height values and compressed heated air as an external fluidizing.
A bundle of finned tubes is used as a heat exchanger immersed in the bed for the extraction of stored energy from the bed.
Empirical correlations are offered by experimental work, which show the relations between the instantaneous local temperature within the bed and time as a function of both bed height and inlet air velocity.
Keywords: Heat, Transfer, Fluidized Beds, Heat Storage,.

The Effect Of Sulfur Waste And ABS On Asphalt Cement Properties

A. T. Hameed; A. R. I. Al-Hadidy

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.27005

Nineveh is one of the Iraqi provinces 400 km north Baghdad capital and having an industrial company for sulfur production. This company produces nearly 20-25% of the total production as waste materials. This research investigates the ways of recycling the sulfur waste (SW) in solving the higher cost problem coming from import of waterproofing materials and presents information on the program and laboratory test data. Materials used in test program included 40/50 asphalt cement, Alkyl benzene sulfonate (ABS) and sulfur waste (SW). Five SW contents 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7%, and 1% of ABS in terms of asphalt cement by weight were used. Tests including physical properties, compatibility, storage stability, aging properties, temperature susceptibility and water permeability were carried out in accordance with the ASTM procedure. The test results revealed that SW is a reliable material for paving asphalt cement and being readily available can be widely used in water proofing construction materials, and this offers profound engineering and economic advantages.

Keywords: Sulfur waste, Alkylbenzene sulfonate, Asphalt, Modifier, Water proofing material.

Modeling Effect of Saline Water With deficient Irrigation levels on Soil Salinity and Yield for Maize

Dr . A. A. A. AL-Talib; O. M. A. G. Mahmood

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 34-45
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26999

Computer model is made in (MATLAB) language to study the effect of deficit irrigation with saline water on the salts accumulation in soil and the effect extent of the lack of water and the salts accumulation on yield. The Model has been applied on summer crop, Maize, and it relies on the principle of balancing water and salt. The Model are uses the basic variables entered in the irrigation (climate data, crop type, soil type, and the rate of moisture depletion , irrigation level, the initial soil salinity and salinity of irrigation water). The results obtained from the program are (daily potential and adjusted Evapotranspiration, daily balance of water and salt, the quantities of irrigation water and Perfusion appointment, The rate of change of concentration of salts before and after Perfusion, electric conductivity of saturation extract at Slaking, calculating the relative defect of seasonal yield). study show when using a little amount of irrigation water we have a little salt accumulation in the soil, but the salt accumulation at the end of the season depends on the gross depth of irrigation water added . Low levels of irrigation led to lower proportional yield in the event that the impact of water shortage was bigger than the impact of irrigation water salinity on productivity, and vice versa. Formulation of mathematical equations to find the relative yield and seasonal actual Evapotranspiration because of irrigation water salinity and water shortage, under the condition of study area and determinants.
Keywords: deficit, salinity, Yield, depletion, Evapotranspiration

Design and Fabrication of the Single Polepiece Magnetic Electron Lens of Truncated Cone Polepiece Shape

Muna A. Al-Khashab; Abdullah I. Mostafah; Issam I. Ismail

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 49-54
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.27018

The magnetic electron objective lens is of a great importance which limit the resolving power of the electron microscope.
The present work investigates the objective focal properties of a single polepiece magnetic electron lens of truncated cone polepiece shape of the selected geometrical dimensions for practical applications. The lens has been fabricated consist of cast shield made of mild steel combined with exciting isolated cooper coil of 500 turns.
The theoretical and experimental results presented the magnetic flux density distribution and the objective focal properties of the lens, in mode of operation when the direction of incident electrons beam facing the lens back plate of the lens.
Moreover, the theoretical and experimental results are in a good agreements.

Keywords: electron optics, magnetic lens fabrication, design of magnetic lens, objective properties, low voltage scanning electron microscope.

Dual Twins in Architecture

Farhan Awad Jasim Al-Tai; Dr. Hassan M.H. Kasim

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 46-68
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.27002

Dual twins in architecture have been widely spread since the middle 20th century in various parts of the world; however, the unclear and comprehensive view about the nature and reasons of the emergence of such phenomena is still not established. The current study attempts to determine the nature and reasons of the emergence of such phenomena clearly and comprehensively. In order to examine the theoretical background of this phenomena, concept of twins in language, philosophy, biological and medical sciences is reviewed in addition to examining principles of dual architectural and artistic composition and the priors of dual twins in history of architecture. Thus, the two hypothesis of the study are formed where the first states that dual twins are either identical or fraternal, related or not related materially with each other. The second indicates that unity of design is the reason behind the emergence of dual twins leading to aesthetics, integrity within the urban context.
The study has made a deductive survey of 27 of dual twin buildings around the world. The study concluded that both the hypothesis are largely met but not absolutely. There are identical and fraternal twins but not materially related with each other and characterize by a complete structural and functional independence with their visual interrelation forming both of them as one dual composition. Concepts of architectural composition aiming at breaking monotony and presenting the new were the most influential in the emergence of dual twins in architecture in addition to other functional, rational, urban and environmental causes.
Keywords: dual twins - dualism.

Particularity of practicing contextualism in university buildings

Bayda Hanna Saffo

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 117-145
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.27321

The concept of contextualism associated with the current architectural trends and it gained a positive value in the presentations and practices of post-modern stage as an tool for establishing a kind of mutual dialogue between architecture and the existing setting in town as a reaction towards modernism problems related with the loss of communication feature amongst architectural products. The research discusses the importance of this concept to explore the research problem represented by unclarity of particularity of practicing contextualism in university buildings. University buildings, are characterized by the variation of design practices in their different time periods, leading to dis-communication in the expressive languages. So, the research problem was crystallized and its method and objective were identified represented by the construction of a theoretical framework that includes three main items; namely, intellectual attitude of the designer towards the existing settings, the nature of the contextual dialogue references and the mechanisms accomplishing the contextual dialogue. Then Mosul university campus was chosen as a field. The theoretical framework was applied on selected architectural projects for both categories; academic and practitioner architects in order to compare the contextual practice for those categories. The results showed that the two categories are variant concerning the derivation of context as a dialogue between the different architectural products in the university campus according to the their intellectual backgrounds.

Studying and improvement of Laser Diode Driver performance at 1Gb/s in optical communication system

D. Luqman Sufer Ali; Marwan Abdulkhaliq Thannon

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 38-49
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.27042

The Laser Diode Driver (LDD) is an important part in optical communication system; it acts as an interface between the data source and the optical source (Laser). The design of this circuit using CMOS technology which has low conductivity (gm), (less than from bipolar technology), is a challenge for designers especially at high data rate (>1 GB/s) because LDD must provide high current swing to obtain large optical output power.
In this research a simulation software using Personal Simulation Program with IC Emphasis PSPICE (2006) is used to study the performance of the LDD circuit using (0.18µmCMOS technology) at (1 GB/s), the peak to peak jitter is (110ps). In addition analyzing an automatic power control circuit, so that when changing the temperature from (0 – 80˚C) the Laser current changing is (5mA), and an improvement of reference voltage circuit has been added, since a constant voltage (319mV) achieved when the power supply voltage changes from (2.15-6V).

Keywords: Laser Diode Driver , pre-driver , Extinction Ratio.

Growth and Reduction of Flexible Compositions in Architecture

Ghada M. Yonis; Shatha Y. Al-Sheikh

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 93-116
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.27050

Growth is presented as one of the important properties which distinguishes flexible compositions .This property emerges in the middle of twentieth century in some architectural trends as a reaction towards a problem facing the designers, considering the production of compositions that can face rapid changes in design requirements over the time with preserving their architectural identity, however the architecture is a convertible phenomena . The article discusses the importance of this property and how it is achieved in architectural products . The framework of this paper consists 0f one main item (devices 0f achieving growth in flexible compositions) which determine growth ,firstly, then the application of this item on a sample 0f specialized architects , secondly ,finally ,extracting comprehensive description of that property in architecture . Conclusions have been declared, that growth is achieved by employing both formal and structural characteristics, considering cellular geometric shape with many similar fragments or cells which can expand and spread horizontally and vertically like organs, concentration on the principle of similarity (uniformity) in composing the fragments , with articulation as compositional relationships, as well as applying hidden orders based on modular clustered-grid composition ,traditional structure and zoning space system.
Keywords : growth , flexibility ,change, adaptability.

Using Crumb of Tyres in Hot Asphalt Mixture as Part of Aggregate

T. M. A. Al-Ani; Th. Y. Ahmed; W. M. Mahmood; S. M. A. Al-Ani

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 29-39
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.27335

This study have used crumb of tyres in asphalt mixture as apart of aggregate. Three sizes of grade of crumb tyres were used in asphalt mixture (No. 4 (4.75 mm), No. 8 (2.36) mm and No. 50 (300µmm)). Three percentages of asphalt cement (4, 5 and 6) by weight with three percentages of crumb tyres (2, 4 and 8)% by weight were used with aggregates for preparing asphalt mixture specimens. Asphalt mixture specimens were prepared according to Marshall methods ASTM (D-1559). Thirty six specimens were prepared for evaluating Marshall properties (Marshall stability and flow, air voids percentage, bulk density, maximum bulk density, and Marshall Stiffness). Indirect Tensile Strength test (ITS) ASTM (D-1075) at 25oC has been used for evaluating resistance of asphalt mixture for cracking. For this purpose twenty four specimens were prepared for evaluating cracking resistance of asphalt mixture contain crumb tyres as part of aggregates. The study showed that the crumb of tyres has more effects on the performance of asphalt mixture by increasing the Marshall stability, flow, air voids, and decreasing bulk density and indirect tensile strength.

Identity Incarnated in Contemporary Arab Architecture the Architect Abed Wahid El-Wakil "

Dr. Asma Hasan Al-Dabbagh; Ekbal Salim Al-Sofee

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 71-92
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.27046

Many of modern studies attached special importance to the phenomenon of incarnating the identity of Architecture. From this, Arab modern studies which was theoretical and practical, This research concentrates on the subject of identity of modern Arab Architecture and recognizes it, and comes out with theoretical framework by previous studies in this context. It appears that elements of theoretical framework relate to two types. Elements related to incarnation of identity in Architectural heritage, and elements related to incarnating identity in new products. Each type contained more subdivisions. The research application concentrate on some of framework items in practical study for testing it analytically, by choosing the Architect Abed Wahid El-Wakil to show his work.
The findings show special pattern to El-Wakil by depending on the strategy of searching for traditional roots in his new designs, which relate to certain values which are concurrent to theoretical framework. The conclusions answer research queries about El-Wakil , and confirm thinkers viewpoints of the phenomenon in generally, and to El-Wakil especially. The findings outline a guide to architects who want to follow the pattern of El-Wakil for incarnating the identity of modern Arab architecture in their new design.
Keywords: Contemporary Arabic Architecture, Architectural heritage, incarnating identity, Abed Wahid El-Wakil.

FPGA Implementation Of Elementary Function Evaluation Unit Using CORDIC and Lookup tables

Basil Sh. Mahmood; Ehsan A. Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 50-70
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.27044

In this paper, a hardware computing unit has been designed and implemented. This unit computes many elementary functions (such as sine, cosine, tan-1, sinh, cosh, and square root) that their computing by using software systems requires thousands of clock cycles as an execution time. The architecture of the function computation has been designed by using VHDL and placed on XC3S500E FPGA chip in Spartan 3E as a target technique. In this paper, two algorithms have been used in computing the mathematical functions, because they can be implemented using FPGA chip. The first is the Coordinate Rotation Digital Computer algorithm (CORDIC) which was introduced in 1959. It is a single unified algorithm for calculating many elementary functions including trigonometric, hyperbolic, logarithmic and exponential functions, multiplication, division and square root. The second one uses the lookup table. According to the self-similarity in the trigonometric functions, and using the techniques of parallel pipelining for the CORDIC algorithm, speedup of (24.7 - 30.3)×100% is obtained as compared with the other parallel architectures. The throughput became operation/clock pulse except the first operation whose latency was 32 clock pulse.

Keywords: CORDIC, lookup table, Elementary Function, FPGA

Soft Handoff Parameters Evaluation in Downlink WCDMA System


Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 55-67
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.27344

Mobility is an essential feature of mobile wireless communication systems. Handoff is a feature that deals with the mobility of the user in order to provide seamless phone call when the user cross the cell borders to another one. WCDMA system is the third generation system, implements soft handoff (SHO) technique while hard handoff (HHO) which is used in GSM system. Soft handoff is a technique which allows the user equipment in the overlap region to link with two or more base stations. The effect of soft handoff on the downlink direction of WCDMA will be studied because the downlink is considered as the limiting parameter in CDMA systems. The effect of soft handoff on the most important parameters of the downlink in WCDMA is investigated using simulation. Other related parameters of WCDMA system optimization such as load factor, noise rise, and parameters related to the quality of service like bit error rate (BER) are investigated. The results reveal that a user in soft handoff consumes less power from its serving base station. This reduction in the power leads to reducing the total interference in the cell and hence improving the performance of WCDMA system by reducing the load factor (loading) and noise rise, and increasing the capacity and enhancing the quality of service. Furthermore , the results assure why 2-way soft handoff is commonly used in CDMA system.

Verification of Scale Effect of Shallow Foundation in Determination of Bearing Capacity of Sandy Soil

Dr. Hussein M. Al.Khuzaie

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.27328

The strength parameters for sandy soil are not depending mainly on level of stresses but they are a linear function of width (B) and embedment depth (u) of footing in Terzaghi's solution of bearing capacity. On the other hand, it was found by as called the non-classical solution conducted by Parkins and Madson (1997) that this relation is nonlinear and the bearing capacity for sandy soil is mainly relating to width and depth of foundation, which is known as scale effect. In this work a field model test was carried out on compacted sandy soil bed for different types of footings with different sizes and geometry for clarification of the two aforementioned approaches. It was found that two approaches are consistent and indicating the scale effect well for bearing capacity of sandy soil. On the other hand, from the field model tests results, it is found that the two determinations give overestimated bearing capacity values, especially for rectangular footing with length to width ratio more than 5 (L/B > 5) specially by Parkins and Madson's approach rather than the Terzaghi's equation.

A Study Of Photoelectrical Characteristics Of (CdS/CdTe) Heterojunction

Bashar A.H. AL-abbasy

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 68-76
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.27347

In this work, we report the photoelectrical properties of the (CdS/CdTe) structure as a function of the reverse bias voltage, light intensity and incident power wavelength. The investigated photodetection performance is located in the visible light spectrum situated at wavelength range (488-595 nm) and the maximum photocurrent at (505 nm).
The photodetection parameters such as quantum efficiency, responsivity, and detectivity have been studied as a function of incident power wavelength at different reverse bias voltages. These studies gave somewhat low values of such parameters which describe the performance of any photodetector

Sculptural Architecture : The Zaha Hadid's Approach

Dr. Asma Hasan Al-Dabbagh

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 49-69
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.27818

Previous studies have paid special attention to sculptural architecture because it concerns about architectural composition, this paid attention is also likely to be due to the fact that sculptural architecture has been a reaction to the principles and practices of Modernism, as a result of modern practical developments in the field of construction and as an aim in itself. This paper focuses on the discipline of sculptural architecture seeking its identification and subsequently the establishment of its theoretical framework based on previous research work. The paper shows that aspects of the established theoretical framework can be clearly related to the various phases through which the construction of a given building traverses, ranging from the initial phase of motivation and concept design by the innovating architect to process of building comprehension by recipient. The developed theoretical framework is then verified by addressing Zaha Hadid’s pioneering work in this field, which is used here as case study. The application of the theoretical framework has revealed a series of patterns in Hadid’s work which may be attributed to her own architectural style. Similar results to those obtained from the theoretical framework have also been made by other observers, all of which point to the special paid attention by Hadid to modern construction methods which she used symbolically and practically confirming her liberal architectural style. The revelations demonstrate the validity of the assumptions made in the development of the theoretical framework. Finally, this paper lays down a set of guidelines for other architects who wish to apply Hadid’s approach in sculptural architecture.
Keywords: sculptural architecture, Zaha Hadid .

Mobile Positioning System using Signal Strength Measurement for WCDMA System

Ahmad M. A. Salama; Farhad . E .Mahmood

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 22-28
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.27874


The precise position of the mobile station is critical for the ever increasing number of applications based on location . In this paper a new approach for mobile positioning in WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access ) cellular network is proposed . Radio Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) can be measured from a number of nearby base stations . Three proposed approaches (3-BS's , 5-BS's and 7-BS's) are simulated using three propagation models and the rmserror is calculated for each model. As a simulation study case, the University of Mosul area is choosed to find the position of a mobile user in the university campus .

Keywords: positioning systems ,WCDMA ,RSSI, propagation models.


Khaleel S. Ismaeel; Dr. Bahzad M. A. Noori

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 42-58
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.27885

One of the main causes of the earth dam failure is the seepage. This seepage can cause weakening in the earth dam structure, followed by a sudden failure due to piping or sloughing. For this purpose a finite element method through a computer program, named SEEP2D, was used to determine the free surface seepage line, the quantity of seepage through the dam, the pore water pressure distribution, the total head measurements and the effect of anisotropy of the core materials of Duhok zoned earth dam. First, the accuracy of the program was tested via the data of experimental dam and the results showed an acceptable accuracy of the program. The effect of the ratio of the permeability in the horizontal direction to that in the vertical direction (Kx/Ky) on seepage was tested and results indicated an increase in seepage quantity as this ratio increased. The stability of Duhok zoned earth dam was analyzed using a slope stability computer program, named STABIL2.3. The program is verified through a dam example of known factor of safety (solved by hand calculations). The results of the verification indicated a good accuracy of the program. The slope stability analysis results showed that the factor of safety decreases with the increase of Kx/Ky ratio. The analysis of the results of this study showed that Duhok zoned earth dam is safe against the danger of piping and slope sloughing under the present operation levels. Also, the present study showed that the field piezometers readings of the dam are not accurate.
Keywords: Seepage, Stability, Duhok dam

Evaluation of Aluminum Cans As A Thermal Insulator in Reinforced Concrete Slabs

Laith K. I. Al-Taie

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 29-41
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.27878

Thermal insulation is the most effective energy efficient technique of energy conservation available today. The main goal of energy an conscious designer is to condition the interior environment to support a level of climate comfort acceptable to users. From the past 20 years data it is concluded that temperature is at the increase and thus thermal insulation is an immediate need to be considered. Environmental problems have recently expanded due to industrial pollution and manmade products that are found in solid wastes. One of these products are the Aluminum cans. Since the recycling rate of these cans is decreasing. It is therefore the main goal of this study is to evaluate the thermal insulation of these cans through models in insulating reinforced concrete roofs and ceiling and comparing the insulation with that of Thermo-stone blocks and Polystyrene boards which are commonly used in Iraq. Results indicated that Aluminum cans are considered as a good insulator and can withstand a considerable live and dead loads beside it’s low construction cost and low weight. Finally the use of Aluminum cans in the thermal insulation will contribute in solving a part of the global environmental problems.
Keywords: Thermal Insulation , Solid wastes, Aluminum cans, Model.

Determination Of The Memory Switching Action In CdS/SiO/CdTe Structure

Dr. Luqman Sufer Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.27861

In this paper, an experimented study is presented which determines the memory switching criterion for CdS/SiO/CdTe devices. The dc. characteristics obtained from isolated devices on various glass substrates, but having the identical CdS and CdTe semiconductors with different sandwiched SiO thicknesses reveal that the device impedance at OFF state is almost determined by the tunnel oxide thickness. But the forward and reverse threshold voltages are determined by the top contact area of the device. Physical arguments are presented which adequately explain the experimental results in this paper.

Improving WiMAX Capacity Of A Cell By Applying Relay Stations And Adaptive Antenna Systems

Firas S. Al-Sharbaty; Dr. A. I. A. Jabbar

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 8-21
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.27866

Worldwide interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) is a broadband wireless technology based on IEEE 802.16 standard . A WiMAX cell which is to be considered in this study applies multicast mode of operation , the main limitation of maximizing the capacity of the system is the signal to noise ratio (subscribers near the base station apply 64 QAM and ¾ Reed Solomon code , while those which are near the border of the cell applies PSK and ½ Reed Solomon code to compensate for the S/N effect). Results indicate that better capacity is achieved by introducing Relay Stations (RSs) and Adaptive Antenna System (AAS) to the cell with TDD mode of operation, other factors like MAC and PHY layers overheads are studied and taken into account in the calculation of the system capacity .

Keywords : WiMAX , Overhead , Capacity , AAS , Relay Stations .


Mohammad S.Q. Al-Dabbagh

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 134-146
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.27859

This research deals with making a mathematical model for the design of a dual system for hot water production for industrial purposes as well as cooling using an ejector at a determined operating conditions, by utilizing dissipated thermal energy from a steam boiler and for a cooling capacity of (15) KW. For the system simulation, mathematical relations were presented for each component which were then combined together and programmed using (matlab) version 6.5 to optimize the system performance and design the components at this situation, using refrigerant (R-123) as the working fluid because of it's good characteristics and relatively high efficiency after a comparison study with other suitable refrigerants to be used for this system.
Satisfactory results were obtained having good agreement with previous researches and a COP value of (0.667). The results show a suitable size of the designed system such that it can be used in a wide range of cooling and hot water production purposes. Also, the effect of operating conditions variation on the quantity and temperature of hot water and system performance were studied.

Processing Lightweight Aggregate to produce Lightweight Concrete

Daad Mohamed Daood; Dr.Nadia Salim Esmaeil

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 6, Pages 10-23
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.35172

The modern techniques development used in the production of concrete led to the emergence of types of concrete with different densities compared to normal concrete . This research aimed manufacturing types of lightweight aggregate (coarse and fine) and then the production of lightweight concrete blocks with a good thermal insulation , by using available locally materials . Two types of lightweight aggregate , have been produced by using two methods of manufacturing , first type , where AL-Hadbaa aggregate , produced from Clay , which is on the edge of the Tigris river in Mosul , using 50% Clay and 50% silt , the density obtained about 860 Kg/m3 . The second AL-Rabean aggregate , was the adoption of natural laminated Clay which is located in Nineveh province , in very large quantities , it's mineralization is Montmurlite and kaolinite , density obtained was 750 Kg/m3 , this type did not produce in Iraq and which it's manufactured method simple and economic . The standard tests have been made and were adopted in the production of concrete blocks , lightweight concrete block produced from AL-Hadbaa aggregate , used in bearing walls , have 28 – day compressive strength 15.33 N/mm2 and density about 1770 Kg/m3 .
The AL-Rabeaan aggregate used to product concrete block for the purposes of thermal insulation , it's thermal conductivity coefficient was 0.55 W/m.kcal and have a density 1640 Kg/m3 .
Keywords : Clay , lightweight aggregate , concrete block

Mole Fraction Effect on Semiconductor Optical Amplifier Specifications

Khalis A. Mohammed

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 6, Pages 61-69
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.34862

Semiconductor optical amplifier had been studied theoretically using the traveling wave equation. The study took into consideration the many parameters that could affect the operation of amplifier, such as mole fraction, noise figure and material gain have been studied theoretically for the suggested amplifier in the wavelength of 1.55 m. The results show that gain material peak was shifted when injected current and wavelength were varied. An interesting result of the noise figure was found to be minimum at the operating wavelength of 1.55 m.
Keywords: Amplifier noise, noise, noise figure, noise measurement, wideband semiconductor optical amplifiers.

Design and FPGA Implementation of Takagi- Sugeno Fuzzy Controller Based on LUTs

Rasha Ilham Majeed

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 6, Pages 81-94
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.34908

In this paper, an approach for designing Fuzzy Controller based on Takagi-Sugeno inference engine with high computational speeds in architecture is proposed. The work focuses on advantages and disadvantages of Takagi-Sugeno control as compared with Mamdani's', in addition to focus on how computational complexity of the inference engine can be reduced and the speed of computation can be increased. Fuzzy Controller is implemented on FPGA using Look-Up Table (LUT). Whereas, each LUT is represented by Block RAMs in FPGA besides using number of arithmetic units in the design. To interface the design with users, a GUI program is designed using Visual Basic. Using JTAG port, the GUI's data can be stored in Block RAMs. Later, a designed Air Conditioning application is implemented and the practical results (in FPGA), theoretical results (computed by hand) and Matlab results are compared.
Keywords: LUT, FPGA, JTAG port, Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Controller, GUI.

Modeling of ultimate load for R.C. beams strengthened with Carbon FRP using artificial neural networks

Dr. Salim T.Yousif; Majid A. AL- Jurmaa; Majid A. AL- Jurmaa

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 6, Pages 28-41
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.34813


The use of carbon fiber reinforced composite materials is an accepted technology that is being used in practice to strengthen existing reinforced concrete (R/C) elements. An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed using past experimental data on flexural failure of R/C beams strengthened by carbon FRP. The input parameters cover the carbon sheet properties, beam geometrical properties and reinforcement properties; the corresponding output is the ultimate load capacity. The ANN prediction and the measured experimental values are compared with load prediction of ACI440.2R-02 formulas. A sensitivity study of parameters that affect ultimate load of R/C beams strengthened by carbon FRP is carried out. It is concluded that ANN can predict, to a good degree of accuracy, the ultimate load capacity of R/C beams strengthened by carbon FRP and it is a viable tool to carry out parametric study of flexural behavior of R/C beams strengthened by carbon FRP.

Keywords: carbon FRP, Reinforced Concrete Beam, Ultimate Load, and Neural Network


Dr. Mohamad N. Mahmood; Ayad B. Behnam

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 6, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.34783

In the present work a formulation of the reinforced bars and prestressed tendons embedded in the brick element is developed and used for the nonlinear analysis of reinforced-prestressed concrete beams. The reinforcement and prestressing bars are represented by an axial 3 nodded bar elements embedded into the 20 nodded isoparametric brick concrete element. Perfect bond is assumed between concrete and prestressing steel bars (or tendons) such that displacements and strains of the bars are assumed to be compatible with those of the concrete element. To verify the applicability of the model two prestressed beams are analyzed and the numerical results show a good agreement with the experimental one.

Keywords: Brick element, Embedded bar, Finite element, Nonlinear analysis, Prestressed concrete.

Frequency Analysis of Hydrologic Drought (Case Study)

Dr. Kamel A. Al-Mohseen

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 6, Pages 40-52
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.35187


In this paper, the possibility of studying the occurrence probabilities of hydrologic drought events has been explored. The obtained results were based on the case study of the annual inflow to Fatha discharge station on Tigris river, Iraq, over the period (1931-1988). This recorded time series is basically used to evaluate the observed duration and severity of the drought. The theory of runs is adopted to estimate, both, the probabilities of duration and severity of the drought. Three stochastic models have been used for modeling the hydrologic process having short-term time dependence to generate additional data for statistical inferring of the drought duration. Models such as(AR(1),AR(2),and ARMA(1,1))have been formulated by means of modern techniques called (SAMA-2007). The number of the generated series was ranging between 100 to 10000 series. This help in the estimation of the probabilities of drought severity for which no rigorous mathematical solution is exist yet. Discrepancy in the performances of the proposed models have been noticed, especially in their capabilities of preserving the statistical properties of the observed time series. It is concluded that while a certain model has a satisfactory performance in preserving certain parameters, it failed in the estimation of other parameters.

(Keywords: Drought, Stochastic Modeli

Handoff Priority Schemes in Wireless Mobile Cellular System

H. A. Al-Tayyar; S. A. Mawjoud

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 6, Pages 54-60
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.34852


Handoff operation, algorithm and modeling is vital in wireless cellular system. Two fundamental handoff procedures exist. The first model concerning the propagation environment and the second model is the limited channel resources which is dealt with in this paper. A realistic model of guard channel priority representing mobility is suggested and simulated.
Keywords: Wireless network, Handoff priority schemes.

Re-design punch and die of the laboratory pharmaceutical tablet press machine

Ramiz Saeed Matty Samarjy

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 5, Pages 123-136
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.32909

This research represents an attempt to solve a problem introduced by Ninevah drug factory to increase the out put of one of its laboratory machine located in research sector .
First of all, thinking was for selection a suitable material of punches and die compatible with the surrounding environments of different drug powders as they represents corrosive agents to the metal that in touch .Beside that this material primarly must be capable of being machined to manufacture the required design, Also it is capable to be heat treated after manufacturing .
Second ,we should redesign the punch and die with the same surrounding spans limitation but with increasing the number of used punches and redistributing them in a suitable manner in its restricted die, and manufacturing punches with a different sizes (7, 9, 7.9,10.3,12.53 )mm in diameter as the factory demand taking into account the concave and convex of pair of punches to create the mirror shape of tablet after pressing is completed . All that will be done must give the standardized weight , size and optimum compressibility according to the certificate of the quality control unit.

Keywords: punch , die , tablet , powder.


Dr. A. A. Abdul-Razzak; Nuha H. Al-Jubory

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 5, Pages 14-23
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.32851

In the present work, the finite element method has been used to investigate the behavior of fibre reinforced concrete slabs in the pre and post-cracking levels up to the ultimate load. Assumed transverse shear strain is used in the formulation to overcome the shear locking, and Heterosis elements are employed in the analysis.
Both an elastic-perfectly plastic and strain hardening plasticity approach have been employed to model the compressive behavior of the fibre concrete. The yield condition is formulated in terms of the first two stress invariants. Concrete crushing is a strain-controlled phenomenon, which is monitored by a fracture surface similar to the yield surface. A layered approach is adopted to discretize the concrete through the thickness. A tension stiffening model has been suggested by making a regression analysis of the experimental results, with index of determination (90.61%).
The steel is considered either as an elastic perfectly plastic material or as an elastic-plastic material with linear strain hardening. Steel reinforcement is assumed to have similar tensile and compressive stress-strain relationship.

Keywords: Finite Element Method, Slab, Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete, Tension

Investigation of Macrocell / Microcell Channels Selection In Multitier Cellular Networks


Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 5, Pages 63-72
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.32887

A proposed method of Macrocell / Microcell channel selection in multitier cellular system using sojourn time of microcell overlapped region. To keep the handoff rate to acceptable level, low mobility users (with speed V < Vth) should undergo handoffs at microcell boundaries and high mobility users (with speed V > Vth) should undergo handoffs at macrocell boundaries. Investigation of variation of the number of channels in the microcells and the macrocell with the blocking probability. Also the variation of microcell radius on the blocking probability for different mobile stations speed.

Keywords: Macrocell, Microcell, Channel Selection.


Dr. Eanass U. T. Al-Shabkhoon

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 5, Pages 88-93
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.32898

The objective of work is to find the scale of ring array antenna for localizing field intensity at certain focal point. The study is interested in comparison between focusing by setting a scale factor of array antenna to cohere (synchronize) waves of electric field when reaching focal point, and focusing by compensating phase differences that was initiated from ray length differences between waves reaching focal point. Isotropic sources are used for simulation. These sources are distributed along a circular ring, each ring of array rings is complement with the previous rings, that means it has a phase complement to a complete cycle ( ).
Keywords: Antenna, Ring, Array, Focusing, Near field

Experimental Study of the Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams under Repeated Loads

Dr.Bayar J. Al Sulayfani; Muna M .Abdullah; Samier S. Shmas

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.31560

Concrete behavior subjected to repeated loads is differs than the one subjected to static loads. Repeated loads caused crushing in some part of concrete due to loading and unloading process. Concrete behavior under static loads is affected by adding steel fibers, which improved many properties especially concrete tensile strength. These improvements are studied in this research under the effect of repeated loads, by testing simply supported fibrous reinforced concrete beams with dimensions (1000x150x160) mm, reinforced with different percentages of steel fibers (0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0%). Repeated loads were applied to the beams through two points and for many cycles up to failure. The physical properties and compressive strength of the concrete used was found by casting standard cylinders (150x300) mm for the different percentages of fibers. All the results show improvements in beams behavior due to fiber addition to the concrete under repeated loads, by increasing the deflection, strain, ductility and energy dissipation due to increasing of added fibers percentages.

Keywords : Repeated load, Reinforced Concrete, Beams, Steel fiber

The effect of drawing ratio in deep drawing process on thickness distribution along the cup

Dr.A. D.Younis

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 81-86
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.31547

In the present study the effect of drawing ratio in deep drawing process on the thickness distribution along the cup (wall, base and nose) has been performed. Obviously, the drawing ratio is the one of the most important parameter has been adopted to design the drawing die. Both experimental and numerical models were carried out on various drawing ratios (1.484, 1.589, 1.739, 1.908, 2.12 and 2.332).Tthe simulation results showed that the best drawing ratio is 1.484, which gives small difference between maximum and minimum thickness distribution along the cup. To examine the simulation results, experimental tests were performed one of the drawing ratios which shows the same behavior and pattern approximately.
Keywords:ANSYS9, Deep Drawing Drawing ratio.


Dr. Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar; Hala N. Fathee

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 28-42
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.31518

In this paper, circular contourlet transform (CCT) is proposed, designed and realized. As in the classical contourlet transform (CT), a double filter bank structure is also considered in this work but in different manners. A circularly-decomposed filter bank is first used to capture the points of discontinuities in the image edges, and then followed by a directional filter bank to obtain smoothed contours. The resulting CCT contains a critically sampled filter bank that decomposes images into any power of two's number of directional subbands at multiple scales. The designed CCT is realized by 2-D lattice allpass sections with separable and non-separable 2-D functions of z1 and z2. The resulting structure preserves both modularity and regularity properties which are suitable for VLSI implementations. Objectively, the performances of the realized CCT are tested and proved to be better than the classical CT in detail image preservation. The resulting subband images also indicate the superiority of the proposed CCT.

Keywords: Circular contourlet transform, Contourlet transform, Laplacian pyramid, Directional filter bank, 2-D lattice allpass sections, Multiresolution (multiscale & multidirection) analysis.

The Effect Of Adding Ethanol To leaded Gasoline on The Performance of Spark Ignition Engine

Dr. A.R Habbo; Mr.H.S Hammodi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 33-43
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.31631

أُجريت هذه الدراسة لمعرفة تأثير إضافة مادة الايثانول بنقاوة 99.2% إلى الكازولين المرصص على أداء محرك احتراق داخلي يعمل بشمعة القدح متمثلاً بعزم المحرك والاستهلاك النوعي للوقود وكذلك كمية الملوثات المنبعثة منه عند ظروف تشغيلية مختلفة شملت كل من نسبة الانضغاط وتوقيت إعطاء قدحة الاشتعال. أُجريت التجارب العملية باستخدام الوقود الجديد (الايثانول + الكازولين المرصص) وبنسب حجمية مختلفة لمادة الايثانول ابتداءً من نسبة 10% وانتهاءً بنسبة 50% وبزيادة مقدارها 10% في كل مرة لبيان تأثير إضافة مادة الايثانول إلى الكازولين المرصص على أداء المحرك وكمية الملوثات المنبعثة منه.
تم إجراء التجارب العملية عند نسب انضغاط مختلفة وهي11:1, 10:1, 9:1 بينما تم تغيير وقت إعطاء القدحة بواقع 5 درجة من درجات عمود المرفق. وتم تثبيت سرعة المحرك ((2000 دورة لكل دقيقة وعند النسبة المكافئة ( ) .
بينت النتائج إن إضافة الايثانول إلى الكازولين المرصص أدى إلى زيادة عزم المحرك والاستهلاك النوعي للوقود مع حصول زيادة طفيفة في درجة حرارة غازات العادم وخصوصاً عند إضافة الايثانول إلى الكازولين المرصص بنسب 30% فما فوق، وصاحب هذا الأداء انخفاض في نسب الملوثات الناتجة من المحرك. كما بينت النتائج أيضاً أن زيادة نسبة الايثانول المضافة إلى الكازولين المرصص عملت على رفع نسبة الانضغاط التي يمكن للمحرك أن يعمل عندها مع غياب ظاهرة الصفع (knock) المعروفة آثارها السلبية على المحرك.

Tradition Employing in Contemporary Arabic Architecture the Architect Rasem Badran " Specialty of "

Dr. Asma Hasan Al-Dabbagh; Luma Abdalwahhab Al-Dabbagh

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 58-79
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.31663

تناولت العديد من الدراسات الحديثة ظاهرة استثمار التراث في العمارة عموما ، وفي عمارة المنطقة العربية خصوصا ، وذلك لكونه وسيلة لإنعاش المجتمعات ، ولأنه يحمل فكرا وأسسا عقلانية وإنسانية يمكن الاستفادة منها ، لهذا جعل هذا البحث من هذه الظاهرة موضوعا لمشكلته العامة ، وسعى لتعريف التراث ، وصياغة الإطار النظري لاستثماره في العمارة العربية المعاصرة ، وذلك من خلال التدقيق في الدراسات السابقة لهذه الظاهرة ، وقد تبين إن مفردات الإطار النظري تخص المواقف الفكرية للمعماريين تجاه استثمار التراث ، وصيغ استثمار التراث ، ودرجة استثماره ، وأخيرا آليات استثماره، وقد سعى البحث إلى تطبيق هذه المفردات في دراسة عملية لأجل التحقق منها علميا ، وقد تم اختيار المعمار راسم بدران لبيان خصوصيته .
أظهرت النتائج إن المعمار راسم بدران له موقف ثابت من استثمار التراث تمثل بالموقف التطويري التأويلي، والذي ارتبط بقيم معينة لبقية مفردات الإطار النظري، وأثبتت الاستنتاجات فرضية البحث، مؤكدة بهذا أراء بعض المنظرين فيما يخص استثمار بدران للتراث تحديدا، حيث تبين احترامه وتوقيره للتراث، ولهذا يمكن للمعماريين تطبيق أسلوبه في تصاميمهم الجديدة، ولكن الاستنتاجات أثارت التساؤل حول دقة التصنيفات السابقة للمواقف الفكرية وانتماء المعماريين لها
الكلمات الدالة : العمارة العربية المعاصرة ، استثمار التراث ، راسم بدران .


Dr. Shefa Abdulrahman Dawwd

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 17-27
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.31509


An FPGA real time Implementation of Time Delay Neural Network (TDNN) is presented in this paper. The design and all of the work are geared towards the implementation of the TDNN in a scalable fashion. The TDNN is an adaptive FIR filter with 18-bit input and 18-bit output resolution. In this paper, the filter adapts its tap weights using the Least-Mean-Square (LMS) algorithm and then stores them in FPGA memory cell. The LMS algorithm that is used for weight adaptation is off chip implemented. The input is processed through a digital tapped delay line. The FIR neural network is used for real time adaptive noise cancellation. When the filter order is 10, the filter consumes 1168 Spartan 3E FPGA logic elements.

Keywords: TDNN, FIR neural network, FPGA neural implementation.

Investigation of Handoff Algorithms for GSM Mobile Cellular Networks


Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 69-80
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.31538

One of the main feature of wireless cellular network is to achieve continuous (uninterrupted) services using handoff when mobile subscribers cross the boundaries of cells in the coverage area. Handoff calls are usually given higher priority than new calls initiated.
Various algorithms are investigated using simulation and the results obtained show that the received signal strength with hysteresis and threshold in the serving cell (RSS-HTser.) and the received signal strength with hysteresis and threshold in the new cell (RSS-HTnew.) are the two methods which are closely representing the cellular system environment since they contain additional constrains in Handoff (HO) execution. Simulation are carried out by varying the governing parameters including the effects of fading on the received signal strength, averaging of signal strength, hysteresis and threshold, window size on average signal strength, and the standard deviation which represent worsening signal fading.

Keywords: Cellular networks, Signal strength, Hysteresis, Handoff algorithms.

Segmentation of Conversational Speech Using Probabilistic Neural Network

Dr. Ahmed Maamoon Alkababji

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 3, Pages 62-70
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.28463

Automatic segmentation of audio streams according to speaker identities, environmental and channel conditions has become an important preprocessing step for speech processing, speaker recognition and audio mining. This paper presents an automatic speech segmentation system where the performance of the probabilistic neural network (PNN)(which is the main part of the system) is examined and then enhanced in the area of segmentation of conversational speech. The results show that a percentage false segmentation (PFS) of 18% can be achieved. PFS is dropped to 6.1% enhancing the system. The experiments were carried out on a dataset created by concatenating speakers from the TIMIT database.
Keywords: Speech segmentation, PNN, Probabilistic neural network.

Analogy in the architectural design process in the academic medium Analytical study of students’ projects

Bayda Hanna Saffo; Imad. M. ALBakri

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 3, Pages 56-84
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.28451

The current research tackles the study of analogy depended on in designing products of students of academic architectural study as it is one of the important designing strategies in the process of architectural designing because it is closely related with the stage of synthesis and the derivations of architectural concepts within the designing process. The research discusses the importance of this concept in order to explore the particular problem represented by the unclarity of analogy role in the designing products of students of academic architectural study over their different grades. Therefore the problem of the research was crystallized and its objective and methodology were identified by studying analogy by two axes, included the analogy and the designer, the analogy and designing process, reaching the determination the theoretical framework, that involved four main items, which are; the item of analogy cause, analogy sources, the paradigm of dealing with the analogy source and the nature of the designing element relevant to analogy, firstly. And then applying the theoretical framework on selected projects of students of academic architectural study in the second, third and fourth grades in Mosul University, secondly, in order to explore the change of analogy application paradigms adopted by the students in those grades, thirdly. The results showed that the differences in students’ trends throughout different academic grades led to the emergence of similar differences in the nature of practicing analogy in those grades.
Keywords: Analogy, Architectural design process, academic medium.

Estimating Yield Response Factors for Maize Crop in Jensen Model

Dr. Ahmed Yousif Hachum; Dr. Eman Hazim Sheet

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 3, Pages 85-89
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.28452

Among the important proposed water-dependent crop production function is that of Jensen's. The application of this model requires knowledge of power parameters that reflect the sensitivity of each growth stage to water deficit. However, the values of these parameters are available only for a limited number of crops. Among the production models to which sensitivity parameters are quite available is that of Doorenbos and Al-Kassam. The objective of this study is to relate these two models. The results of the analysis showed that the yield response parameters for maize crop in Jensen model were found to be (0.1, 0.22, 2.5, 0.3, 0.1) respectively. Also, a polynomial equation is developed to relate predicted yield response parameters in Jensen model to yield response factors, valid for all growth stages, in Doorenbos and Al-Kassam model. A comparison was made between the predicted parameters with those obtained from previous works indicating acceptable agreement.
Keywords: crop production function, yield response factor, Jensen model, maize.

Studying the Corrosion of Graphite Containing pearlitic Cast Irons in Sandy Soil

Sabhan H. AL-Rifay; Abdulhaqq A. Hamid; Sobhi I. Ibrahim

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 13-22
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.28170

Wide range of industrial and engineering applications for graphite containing cast irons and the harmful effects of corrosion environments on these important engineering materials, make it necessary for continuous Scientific research in this field . In the current study, performed corrosion tests on Pearlitic cast irons using the sandy soil as the corrosion environment .
The results obtained show a clear relationship between corrosion rate of graphite containing cast iron with shape of graphite. The graphite flakes in cast iron appeared to cause high corrosion rates compared with spheroidal or rosette graphites . The results also show that corrosion rates of spheroidal cast iron are slightly higher than malleable cast iron. The corrosion rates of grey cast iron represent the highest when compared with those of spheroidal and malleable cast iron.

Keywords: Corrosion, Cast Iron, Sandy Soil

Effect of Planting Design in Changing Architectural Perception in Landscape

Dr. Ahmed Yousif ALOmary; M. H. Aljwadi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 139-149
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.28194

The study deals with architecture and plant relations, aims to help the landscape designers to achieve integration between architecture and planting design of surrounding landscapes in accordance to the designer desire. The study also deals with employing planting design in changing architectural perception through changing its dimensions to be more horizontal or vertical and changing depth perception to be more closer or far from the viewer. The study aims at adopting a theoretical framework for the illusion phenomena to be employed in planting design in order to change architectural perception. This is done through using physiological phenomena related to eye and optical deviations in addition to using gestalt theory laws represented by proximity, continuity and direction , illusion properties for monocular and binocular clues, light and color formation clues, texture pattern formation and perspective clues.
Keywords : architecture , plant ,landscape , perception , illusions

Range of Contaminant Transport in Soil Under Saturated/ Unsaturated Conditions With Case Study

A. A. Khalil; A. A. AL-Daood; S. A. A. Khattab

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 50-71
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.28274

Contaminant movement through soil and groundwater contamination are one of the common environmental problems nowadays. Leakage of toxic fluids into the soil and groundwater could create a serious environmental problems. Most growing countries municipal use of open dumps directly without using lining for the solid waste disposal. The presence of groundwater near the waste landfill and its seasonal changes plays an important role in the contaminant transport on the surrounding sites. This necessitate studying the range of movement of contaminants in the soil.
This work aims to study the effect of some variables on the rang of contaminant movement in the saturated/unsaturated soils such as: soil type, contaminant type and concentration as well as the hydraulic condition of soil. Finite element GEO-SLOPE software was used in the analysis. Three soil types (CH,CL,SM) was considered as a waste disposal location. Analysis also was applied for the selected site of a landfill located in the Mosul city. The results show that the soil condition has a clear effect on the range of contaminated transmission through soil. It was also observed that the concentration of contaminants through a higher permeability soil is greater especially in the side of the landfill.

Keywords: Contaminant, finite element, unsaturated soil, diffusion, GEO-SLOPE.

Theoretical Determination of the formability of (AA5182 / Polypropylene/ AA5182)sandwich sheets using different yield criterion

Anas Obied Balod

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 32-49
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.28257

The effect of anisotropic yield criteria is very efficient in theoretical determination of limits strain of forming limit diagram(FLD) for sheet metals. In this paper the forming limit diagrams for (AA5182/polypropylene/AA5182) [AA/PP/AA] sandwich sheets have been determined theoretically using Marciniak-Kuczynski analysis with different anisotropic yield functions (Hosford 1979 and Barlat & lian 1989). It is shown that the determination of forming limit curve using (Barlat & lian1989 criterion) with the (M-K) analysis , gave the best results compared with the other anisotropic yield criteria. Also the forming limit stress diagram is theoretically determined using Marciniak-Kuczynski analysis and (Hosford & Barlat-lian) yield criterion for sandwich sheets and AA5182 skin sheet. It is shown that the limit stress in experimental and theoretical forming limit stress curve for AA5182 skin sheet is higher than the limit stress in sandwich sheets.
Keywords : Composite materials, forming limit diagram(FLD),forming limit stress diagram (FLSD), stretch forming , anisotropic yield criterion

Protection Of Open Channels Using Gabions

Khalid Yassin Taha Ali; Bahzad Mohammad Ali Noori

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 36-48
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.28176

This research investigates open channel protection using gabions by conducting a series of laboratory tests on a trapezoidal channel with fixed width and bed slope. In this study, values of failure flowrates are obtained with a description of failure mode under the effect of changing channel side slope, gravel mean diameter, and number of protection layers. Three channel side slopes are tested (1V:1.5H, 1V:2H, and 1V:2.5H), with three gravel diameters (11.1, 15.9, and 22.25)mm, for one and two layers of protection. Two modes of failure have been observed namely sliding and overturning due to the movement of gravel inside the gabions.
Results showed a direct relation between failure flowrate of protection layer and both gabion weight and number of protection layers. It has been obtained that failure flow rate increases with the decrease of channel side slopes. Equations have been obtained relating failure flowrate with both gabion weight and channel side slope. Empirical equations have been obtained using dimensional analysis to estimate failure flowrate as a function of uniform flow depth and gravel mean diameter. A design method has been proposed to protect channel side slopes using gabions.
Keywords: open channels, gabions

Effect of Application Uniformity on Production under Deficit Sprinkler Irrigation

Nawal Mohammed Jajjo; Basim M. Naseef Al-Zaidi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 23-35
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.28172

The study aims to develop a computer model for assessing the effect of uniformity and deficit irrigation on farm crop production. The formulation of the model is based on the concept of field water balance. The model was applied for a selected autumn crop (maize). Ready to use values of evapotranspiration in the selected site (Al-Jazeera irrigation project-Nenawah) were used. Also, a published field data for sprinkler water distribution uniformity was adopted in the study. The study revealed that the yield ratio deficit increases with the increase in soil moisture depletion but decreases with the increase in irrigation uniformity. The actual crop evapotranspiration increases with uniformity. The results of the study also showed that the relative water use efficiency under deficit irrigation increases with the increase in soil moisture percent depletion and irrigation deficit ratio.

Keywords: Sprinkler irrigation, Irrigation uniformity, Deficit irrigation, Evapo-transpiration, Water use efficiency.

Multi-Basis Wavenet-Based Stator Resistance Identification in DTC Induction Motor Systems

Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.28250

The performance of direct torque controlled (DTC) induction motor system is greatly affected by the change of the motor stator resistance especially when the motor runs at low speeds. A new architecture of multi-basis wavenet-based model is proposed and implemented for stator resistance identification. Such multi-basis model utilizes multi-set daughter wavelets. By means of enough training of samples, the descent gradient algorithm is used to fulfill both system structure and parameters initialization, and the stator resistance is then acquired online with the operation of the system. The simulation results were carried out using Matlab/Simulink library and compared with those obtained from classical stator resistance identification method based on PI control and from another recent wavenet-based method. The simulation results show that the proposed method can improve the system performance.

Keywords: Wavenet, Multi-basis wavenet, Direct torque control, Stator resistance, Induction motor.

Fpga Based Implementation Of Concatenation Matrix

Fakhraldeen H. Ali; Amar I. Dawod

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 15-31
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.28255


The computer graphics system performance is increasing faster than any other computing application. The Geometric transformations and animation are one of the most important principle of the interactive computer graphics which are essential for modeling and viewing. This paper tends to construct a general form of matrix representation of the geometric transformations and implement it using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). In addition to that the sine and cosine function evaluation is done using two techniques, the lookup table method and CORDIC algorithm.

Keywords: lookup table, FPGA, geometric transformations, CORDIC.

Enhancement Of Compression Zone Of Reinforced Concrete Section Due To Camber

Kanaan Sliwo Youkhanna Athuraia

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 72-78
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.28275

An attempt is made to study the effect of camber on compression zone of reinforced concrete section at mid-span of a beam. This is done by deriving formulas (based on strain measurements) to calculate total compressive axial force and axial compressive stress acting on a concrete section of single and triple span portal frames with straight and cambered beams.

Keywords: Camber, Strain, Stress, Total compressive axial force

Study Of Aluminum concentration levels in Tigris river , Drinking water Treatment Plants and supply network in Nineveh Governorate

M. Gh.Al-Azawi; S. A.Al-Azawi; R. M. S. Al-Obaidi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 13-25
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.27967

This study has been done due to the raising importance of aluminum in drinking water from health point of view. Survey of Al+3 concentrations has been done in Tigris river, in the water purification plants and water supply network. These plants are the larger ones in the city ( unified right side plant, Al-Qubba plant, the old left side plant ( Al-Arabi restrict) and Al-Danadan complex project). Results revealed that the Al+3 concentration on the river (through Mosul city) ranged from 7-37μg/L. The plants have increased this concentration in raining times (turbidity increasing times) to about 25-50 μg/L (ppb), because of adding alum in its work. Water distribution network does not affect the residual Al+3 in this study. There was a correlation between Al+3 and temperature. Finally, it can be said that Al+3 concentration in drinking water is in the safe side according to several international health organizations if the plants do not add alum.

Keywords; Aluminum, drinking water, treatment plant, Tigris river.


A. H. Al-Zubaydi; I. M. Al-Kiki; Dr. M.A. Al-Obaydi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 28-42
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.27985

Recently huge amount of various by-product materials have been produced from industrials. These materials have detrimental effects on the environment. Hence, the re-use of such materials for different purposes as for construction work or other activities is essential goal of this study. Because some of geotechnical problems are associated with the gypseous soils as a foundation, hence the waste lime as one of the by–product material has been added to improve their properties. In addition, the combined additives of waste lime plus cement have been examined and compared with those treated either with waste lime or cement. Soil with 23% gypsum content has been treated with waste lime up to 8% and combined additives of waste lime plus cement by percentages of (4%+8%, 6%+8% and 8%+8%). These mixtures have been compared with the soil stabilized with cement up to 16%. The results indicated the efficiency of the combined additives of waste lime and cement in the improvement of compressive and tensile strengths of gypseous soil. The treated soil becomes more durable against the cycles of wetting and drying. Samples treated with cement or combined additives gain more durable ability, while those treated with waste lime alone fail under durability circumstances (wetting and drying cycles). The combined additive of waste lime plus cement (4%+8% and 6%+8%) is approximately equivalent to the 16% cement from strengths view point. Accordingly, this would reduce the amount of cement required for stabilization about 50% by using waste lime.
Keywords: Gypseous soil, Industrial waste lime, Durability, Soil Stabilization.


A. B.Mohameed; Dr. A. K.Zawba; Dr. A. S.M.Khedher

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 57-68
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.27989

Providing electrical power in developing countries is something hard to do for many reasons that could be financial, technical and even the lack of raw materials. Therefore, the need for new technique for fairly power distribution is more attractive. From this an idea comes to make new sophisticated distributed network system which controls power consumption for the given inhibited area. The system should give a certain amount of power for each consumer .When the consumer reaches his limit the system will take an action to increase the limit if power is available or disconnect the overloaded consumer for a specified time. the present work is devoted to design a system which has an ability of controlling the power consumption by using network processor.the designed overall system is fulfilled through four distinct stages; each stage has a predefined job. The four stages communicate with each other using TCP/IP protocols suit. Therefore, a TCP/IP stack should be available at each stage.

Keywords:Management of Electrical Power Consumption, Monitoring of Power Consumption, Controlling of Power Consumption Using Network Processor.

An FPGA-based Fault Tolerance Hypercube Multiprocessor DSP System

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 69-82
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.27993

This paper describes a new proposed architecture for tolerating faults in hypercube multiprocessor DSP system. The architecture considered employs the TMS320C40 DSP processors as processing node. The system has a single spare DSP processor assigned to each cluster ( a group of four nodes ). Each pair of clusters share one FPGA unit connected to every node in the two clusters plus the two spare processors. The FPGA units in the system are devoted for data routing, data distributing (in real time processing), diagnosis, system reconfiguration and expanding. Every 3D hypercube has additional spare processors connected to FPGA device of that cube. The spare nodes are used in two stages to tolerate more than one faulty node in each cluster with a low overhead and minimum performance degradation. The system makes use 50% hardware redundancy in the form of spare nodes to achieve fault tolerance. The effectiveness of interprocessor communications and the mechanism of fault detection( for one and two fault ) has been successively simulated using (Xilinx Foundation F2.1i) simulator.

Keywords: Fault Tolerance, Hypercube multiprocessor, TMS320C40, FPGA, DSP processor

Switching Study In CdS/CdTe Structures

Dr. L. S. Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 51-56
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.27988

The paper reports preliminary data on the characteristics of a new electronic switching device based on CdS/CdTe hetero–junction. The device is polar and is switched from OFF to ON (WRITE) or ON to OFF (ERASE) by voltage opposite signs. The threshold voltage for WRITE operation is (3-4 V), depending on the device, and for ERASE is about (-2V). The OFF and ON resistance are typically 40MΩ, and 1.5kΩ respectively. Particularly notable features of the new memory device are its transition times (100µsec for both the WRITE or ERASE operations).

Keywords:switching, semiconductor devices and materials.

Pullout Strength of Headed Deformed Reinforcement Embedded in Fibrous Concrete

Samir Sami Majeed; Prof. Dr. Saad Ali AlTaan

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.27963

This research contains a study of the effect of connecting square steel pieces (10mm) thick with dimensions (20×20,25×25,30×30mm) by welding with the ends of reinforced steel bars with diameters (10,12,16mm) embedded in fibrous concrete with a percentage volume of steel fibers (0.0,0.4,0.8,1.2%) over the development length required to reach steel reinforcement to yield strength ( )in case of straight reinforcement steel bars with the same diameters without steel headed.

Keywords: fibrous concrete; anchors; headed reinforcement

Stability Analysis of MOSUL Dam under Saturated and Unsaturated Soil Conditions

Suhail. A. A. KHATTAB

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 13-27
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.27983

Failure of earth dams can be caused also by seepage problems, foundation instability, deformation, surface sliding, and earthquakes. The most critical conditions that may cause failure of the embankment are: differential settlement, development of shearing within the embankment and foundation, and development of seepage through the embankment and foundation. The stability and factor of safety against Mosul dam embankment sliding are determined considering a possible rapid drawdown and earthquake conditions and using three methods. Unsaturated condition was considered assuming the shear strength parameter (b) to be (0, 0.5, ). GEO-SLOPE OFFICE was used as the analytical tool to simulate both seepage, slope stability, and earthquake. Seepage through dam was analyzed for three period rapid drawdown of water level (30,21,8 day) with the associated saturated-unsaturated transient seepage.
The main results indicated that the minimum slope stability factors of safety were reached using Bishop method and was achieved during 8 day water drawdown and within the second day which indicates the most critical case.

Keywords: Seepage, MOSUL Dam, Finite Element, Slope Stability, Rapid Drawdown, unsaturated soil mechanics.


ZrarSedeeq Othman; Dr. Omar Qarani Aziz

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.27981

The present investigation examines experimentally the behavior and ultimate shear strength of reinforced high-strength concrete corbels subjected to vertical load. The experimental investigation consist of casting and testing fourteen reinforced high-strength concrete corbels, the main variables studied were concrete compressive strength (40 to 62 MPa), main reinforcement ratio (0.517 %, 0.776 % and 1.034 %), shear reinforcement stress (ρhfyh=1.535, 2.305 and 3.071 MPa), and the ratio of outside depth to the total depth of the corbel (k/h= 0.24 to 1.00).
The results indicate that high-strength concrete corbels (fc'= 40 to 62 MPa) behaved similarly to those made with normal strength concrete, the increase in compressive strength of concrete leads to increase in ultimate shear strength with ductile failure. By increasing fc' from 40 to 62 MPa for ρh.fyh equal to 1.535 MPa and 2.305 MPa, the ultimate shear strength increased by about 20.8% and 27.5% respectively. An increase in ρw by about 100% caused an increase in load carrying capacity by about 27.7%. Also by increasing ρh.fyh by about 100%, the ultimate shear strength increased by about 14.7% and 11.1% for corbels with fc' equal to 40 and 49 MPa respectively, while for corbels with fc' equal to 62 MPa, an increase in horizontal shear reinforcement stress (ρh.fyh) by about 50% caused an increase in ultimate shear strength by about 12.3%, and this indicate that the contribution of horizontal stirrups in increasing ultimate shear strength was more efficient for corbels having compressive strength equal to 62 MPa. As (k/h) increased from 0.24 to 1.00, the ultimate shear strength increased by 11.5%.

Keywords: Corbel, high strength concrete, shear strength, strut and tie model.

Photogrammetric Precision of a Desktop Scanner

RasheedSaleem Abed

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2010, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 43-50
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2010.27986

Scanners are used to convert analogue photography into digital format. High quality and precision photogrammetric scanners are not easily reachable due to their high cost. This paper investigates a new strategy to test a sample low cost desktop scanner to estimate the achievable precision of the product. The digitization quality of the test pattern is investigated at different warm up times and different positions in the scanning area. Notes are given on the performance of the scanner in geometric and radiometric aspects that are essential for photogrammetric applications.

Keywords: Scanner, precision test, digital image.

An Analytical Design Procedure For Bireciprocal Lattice Wave Digital Filters With Approximate Linear Phase

Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 42-52
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43597

A simple analytic design procedure for bireciprocal lattice wave digital filters (bireciprocal LWDFs) is presented with approximate linear phase. The design is started by replacing the odd order all-pass filter branch in the bireciprocal LWDF with a pure delay, leaving the other branch as an all-pass even function of z -2. Analytic design procedure is then formulated. Several design examples using such procedure are given for verifications.

Keywords: Bireciprocal LWDFs, All-pass sections, Half-band filters, Approximate linear phase.

Coefficient Of Discharge For A Combined Hydraulic Measuring Device

Amal A. G. Alniami; Dr. G. A. M. Hayawi; H. A. M. Hayawi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 92-100
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43616

The aim of this study is to investigate the coefficient of discharge for a combined hydraulic measuring device. For this purpose nine combined models were constructed and manufactured of an aluminum plates of 2 mm thick, the shapes of the models are of rectangular weir with different width ( )is used over a semi-circular gate of a constant diameter ( )the distance below the weir edge and the semi-circular gate y is changed three times( . The analysis of results show that increase as ( increase and for a constant value of ( increase as the width increase, the values of range from around 0.522 to 0.853 with an average of 0.695. Also decrease as the parameter ( ) ,( ) and ( ) increase and at a constant values of that parameters increase as increase, and the values of range from around 0.61 to 0.74. A multi regression model to estimate for the combined device is estimated with percentage of error .
Keywords: combined orifice, combined weirs.

Investigations on Two Methods of DEM Extraction

A.R. Santhakumar; Rasheed Saleem Abed

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43583


Digital Elevation Models (DEM) comprise valuable source of data required for many engineering applications. Contour lines, slope - aspect maps are part of their many uses. Moreover, a DEM theme is an essential layer to be included in most GIS analysis operations. Recent scientific achievements aim to automate acquiring DEMs with the most possible speed and accuracy. This paper studies two methods of DEM data extraction from sample aerial stereopairs, the analytical plotter method versus the digital photogrammetric method (DP). The DEM output of the analytical plotter is used as a reference. This is compared to the work performed using the DP method on the sample photos in digital format. Comparison covers various steps of image orientation followed by DEM collection. Numerical outputs of speed and accuracy are presented and discussed. The tests show that errors in automatically extracted DEMs may result from areas representing ground surface of poor texture or contrast conditions, or it may appear due to imperfect photographic processing. Editing time of the product is a major factor especially in urban/ forest areas. Depending on the specified needs of the user, an erroneous DEM output might be accepted as appropriate digital surface model DSM. Statistical tests detect marginal error types in the output. The paper gives conclusions about some problematic sources with recommendations to improve the product.

Keywords: DEM, stereopair, digital photogrammetry

Effect of cavity on Stress distribution and Settlement under Foundation

A. A. Khalil; S. A. Khattab

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 14-29
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43621

In this research the effect of cavities on the stability of foundation has been studied using non-linear finite elements analysis through the programs PLAXIS2D, and PLAXIS3D. The study included a number of variables represented by shape, size, sectional area, location, and depth of a single cavity under the base of footings. The effect of the above variables on settlement and stress distribution was studied on isolated square, round and strip footing.
Results showed that the shape and volume of the cavity has an effect on the settlement and concentration of stress under the footing for the chosen cavity sections (Circular, Ellipse1, Ellipes2, Loaf, Square) when the cavity is situated at a depth less than twice the width of strip foundation or 1.5 times the width/diameter of isolated square/circular footings. The study also showed an increase in the values of settlement and concentration of stress at what may be termed as the critical depth under the footing. It was also concluded that there exists a zone that may be called the critical zone below the footing (zone of radial shear and failure plane). If a cavity is situated within this zone then it will have a serious effect. Large value of settlement were recorded for cavities situated within this zone under the footing.

Keywords: Cavity, Settlement, Stress, Finite Element.

Investigate the Effects of F/M, MLSS, and Metal/MLSS Ratio on the Removal of Cd and Pb in the Activated Sludge Units,

Mohammed S. Shihab; Abdullah I. Al-Hyaly; Riyad M. Alobaidi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 54-64
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43635

The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of each of the average organic load, the mixed liquor suspended solids(MLSS) in aeration tank and the ratio of concentration of metal to the MLSS on removal of cadmium and lead in activated sludge unit. Bench scale unit was used to conduct this study. Four glasses container were used, one for monitoring and others for examination of specific doses of lead and cadmium (5,10,20)mg/l. The capacity of sludge for metal under conditions of study were calculated. Dynamic constant of removal was computed depending on the result of study demonstrated as Frendlich and Langmuir equations, it is clearly shown that the relationship between capacity of sludge for cadmium to organic load is strong at three initial doses while lead was less correlated at the upper initial doses. As a result concentration of metals doesn't affect the removal efficiency of organic material at the range of the organic load used.
Keywords: Cadmium, Lead, Activated sludge, Frendlich Equation, Langmuir Equation, Organic load

Wavelet-Based Homomorphic De-Speckling Technique With Directional Weighted-Averaging Stage

Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 5, Pages 32-43
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43380

In this paper, a new homomorphic wavelet-based de-speckling technique is proposed. The technique combines a spatial domain processing with another transform domain processing in a homomorphic environment. The spatial domain nonlinear processing is based on replacing each log-transformed pixel value of the speckled image by a weighted-average of the log-transformed pixel values in the neighborhood of that pixel. The weighted averaged log-transformed image is then subjected to wavelet thresholding for further nonlinear transform domain processing. An exponential operation on the filtered output is used to simulate the final homomorphic antilog-transformation stage and to obtain the de-speckled image. Quantitative and qualitative measures prove the superiority of the proposed technique for the applications of image classification and recognition in ultrasonic and SAR systems.

Keywords: Speckle noise, homomorphic environment, weighted-average, wavelet thresholding

THD Reduction Using Series Transformer Connection In A STATCOM Within Mosul Ring System

Yasser A. Mahmood; Majed S. Al-Hafid; Dhaiya A. Al-Nimma

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 5, Pages 15-22
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43378

The static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) is one of the components of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACT). STATCOM is used to compensate the reactive power with fast response. It consist of power electronic devices. The main drawback of STATCOM is harmonics injection to the system. Different techniques can be used to reduce harmonic injection, such as the use of 12-pulse STATCOM with Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) to control the operation of power electronic devices.
In this work the series connection of transformers is studied and compared with parallel connection. The study is applied to the suggested STATCOM in the ring system around Mosul city. Matlab / Simulink is used to analyze the two systems. The results are given and discussed in the paper. Also it is found that the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) can be further reduced by using series connection of transformers secondary rather than shunt connection.

Keywords :STATCOM, Harmonic reduction, Transformer connection in STATCOM, Mosul distribution ring.

Applying Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum to Improve the Throughput of Aloha Protocols

A. I. A. Jabbar

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 5, Pages 23-31
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43379

Aloha protocols are characterized by their easy performance and relatively simple hardware requirement as compared with other protocols like CSMA/CA.
The main disadvantages of Aloha protocols are the low throughput and long delays as the offered load increases. In this paper, direct sequence spread spectrum is introduced to increase the throughput of Aloha protocols. This can be achieved by increasing the auto correlation and minimizing the cross correlation and as a consequence decreasing the rate of contention between the transmitted packets.

Keywords: Aloha, Slotted Aloha, Direct Sequence, Spread Spectrum.

Predicting The Relationship Between The Modulus Of Rupture And Compressive Strength Of Cement Mortar

Sura A. Majeed

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 5, Pages 59-68
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43383

The present paper deals with studying the effect of sand/cement (s/c) ratio and water/cement (w/c) ratio on the mechanical properties of cement mortar and to predict a relationship between modulus of rupture and compressive strength for the cement mortar. In the present work seventy two sample of cubes and prisms were tested for compressive strength and modulus of rupture. All the tests were carried out in accordance to the ASTM specification C109 using twelve different mix proportions of cement/sand ratio and water/cement ratio. From the test results and based on regression analysis a best power relation between modulus of rupture and compressive strength are proposed.
Keywords: compressive strength, modulus of rupture, mortar, sand.

A Study on the Effects of Servovalve Lap on the Performance of a Closed - Loop Electrohydraulic Position Control System

Rawand E. J. Talabani; Yahya A. Faraj; Rafa A. H. AL-Baldawi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 5, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43375


This paper deals with a closed–loop position control of a double acting and double–rod actuator using an electrohydraulic servovalve (EHSV). This system is studied by using symmetric critical center spool valve (zerolapped) and open center spool valve (underlapped). The nonlinear dynamic behavior of each case is undertaken and simulated. The system is modeled by using five state variables (piston position, piston velocity, actuator pressures, and servovalve spool displacement) and is tested under different step inputs. The EHSV is modeled with a first order differential equation. The closed-loop system stability is investigated by introducing equilibrium state into Jacobian matrix and determining the eignvalues. Viscous friction and compressibility of oil are included in the modeling of the system. Because the electrohydraulic position servo system is not very sensitive to coulomb friction and piston leakage they are neglected. The work showed that when the underlapped servovalve operates in the underlap region, the hydraulic position control system has more stable operation and better transient responses.

Keywords: Zerolap, Underlap, EHSV, Steady-State Characteristics, Dynamic Response, Position Control, Modeling, Simulation.

The Rhythm and Heritage Continuity in Contemporary Mosul Architectural Product

Nasma M. Thabit

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 5, Pages 127-153
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43409

The present study defines the research problem as a reformulation of a scientific aspect to study of the relations between heritage and rhythm under influence of continuity, and discusses the studies about the relations of rhythm with heritage continuity, this research clarifies how strategically usage for concept rhythm in architecture in achieving the communicated for architectural product depending heritage usage on different levels mentally,formally and specially, research contains four axes: discussing the relation between rhythm and heritage continuity, firstly, and discussing studies about rhythm,secondly, then differentiation the theoretical framework, thirdly, at last concluding the applying operations are submitted which represented by electing four main items of detailed theoretical field as the following:(Nature of rhythm aims, Rhythm greation forms, What the resources of rhythm is, Rhythm formal properties) which limit the concept in architecture, firstly,and the application of the items by electing two important projects in Mosul architecture(as models) and crystallized the hypothesis,secondly, at last discussing the results to submit the conclusions in the end.
Keywords: Rhythm, Heritage Continuity, Contemporary Mosul Architecture

FPGA Implementation of Adaptive Noise Canceller

Aws Hazim saber; Rafid Ahmed Khalil

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 63-72
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43287

This paper presents hardware implementation of least mean square (LMS) adaptive filter based Adaptive Noise Canceller (ANC) structure on FPGA using VHDL hardware description language. First, the adaptive parameters are obtained by simulating ANC on MATLAB. Second, the data, processed by FPGA, such as step size, input and output signals, desired signal, and coefficients of ANC, are exactly expressed into fixed-point data representation. Finally, the functions of FPGA-based system structure for such LMS algorithm in time sequence are synthesized, simulated, and implemented on Xilinx XC3S500E FPGA using Xilinx ISE 9.2i developing tool. The research results show that it is feasible to implement, on chip train, and use adaptive LMS filter based ANC in a single FPGA chip.
Keywords: Adaptive noise canceller, least mean square, FPGA, Adaptive FIR filter

Prediction Of Ultimate Load Capacity Of High-Strength Reinforced Concrete Corbels

Ali Ramadhan Yousif

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 12-27
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43273

A study on the behavior of reinforced high-strength concrete corbels is carried out using nonlinear finite element analysis and a simplified softened strut-and-tie model. In the numerical analysis, eight-node isoparametric plane stress elements are employed to model the concrete material. An elastic-strain hardening plasticity approach combined with cracking damage is used in modeling the concrete behavior. The reinforcing bars are treated as embedded elements and are considered as elastic-perfectly plastic material. In the analytical method, the analysis is based on truss analogy following the provisions of Appendix A of the ACI 318-05 Code. Strength predictions of both methods correlate well with the 34 test results of corbels available from the literature. It was concluded that the adopted finite element model is a powerful tool for the analysis of such disturbed region. Also the simple truss model used proved to be a suitable design tool for these members. The finite element method can be used in conjunction with the truss analogy for optimum design.

Keywords: corbels; deep beams; finite element; non-flexural members; plasticity; shear strength; strut-and-tie models.

Free Vibration Analysis Of Curved Box Girder Bridges by Higher Order Finite Strip

Zeena A. Mohamma; Ayad A. Abdul Razzak

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43291

A higher-order conical frustum shell strip for analysis of free vibration of curved box girder bridges is developed, the auxiliary nodal line technique is used in the formation, the application of the motion equation by form the matrices of the stiffness and that of the consist mass of the strip and which has been mathematically derived by solving sixth and third order equations for bending and in plane actions respectively. Guyan reduction technique have been applied for each stiffness and the mass matrices of bridge. The strip which implies minimizing the degrees of freedom of the auxiliary nodal line of the Higher Order Finite Strip in order to reduce the size of the matrix from (15x15) to (8 x 8).
The study has come out with very good results compared to the previous studies in terms of the natural frequencies for the first harmonic number of the box girder bridge section which is composed of two box cells with inclined webs. The ratio of difference between the present and previous studies have reached (6.73%) , while the natural frequencies for the seconed harmonic number of the same box section the ratio is about equal (3.765%) .

Keywords: Box Girder Bridges, Free Vibration Analysis, Higher Order Finite Strip.

Flexural Behavior Of Flat And Folded Ferrocement Panels

Sura A. Majeed; Mohamad N. Mahmood

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43268

The present paper describes the results of testing folded and flat ferrocement panels reinforced with different number of wire mesh layers. The main objective of these experimental tests is to study the effect of using different numbers of wire mesh layers on the flexural strength of folded and flat ferrocement panels and to compare the effect of varying the number of wire mesh layers on the ductility and the ultimate strength of these types of ferrocement structure. Seven ferrocement elements were constructed and tested each having (600x380mm) horizontal projection and 20mm thick, consisting of four flat panels and three folded panels. The used number of wire mesh layers is one, two and three layers. The experimental results show that flexural strength of the folded panels increased by 37% and 90% for panels having 2 and 3 wire mesh layers respectively, compared with that having single layer, while for flat panel the increase in flexural strength compared with panel of plan mortar is 4.5%, 65% and 68% for panels having 1, 2 and 3 wire mesh layers respectively. The strength capacity of the folded panels, having the particular geometry used in the present study, is in the order of 3.5 to 5 times that of the corresponding flat panels having the same number of wire mesh layers. Both types are also analyzed using finite element method to check the flexural stresses in these panels under self weight and cracking load.

Keywords: Ferrocement, Flat Panel, Folded panel, Mortar, Wire Mesh.

Fuzzy Self Tuning Of Dc Position Control Based On Labview

Sura Nawfal Abd Alrazaaq; Fakhraldeen Hamid Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 73-83
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43288

This paper investigates the effect of quantization gain factors, at the input side, and the scaling gain, at the output side, of a fuzzy controller. A fuzzy control system is designed with two main parts: a basic fuzzy controller (BFC) which produces the output control signal and supervisor fuzzy controllers (SFCs) to continuously adjust, on-line, the I/O scaling or gain factors of the (BFC) in order to improve its performance against different dynamic operating conditions. The designed self tuning controller is used to position control of a DC motor with un known parameters according to the feed back inputs, a tracking error (e) and change of error (Δe), based on the proposed fuzzy rules. The system implementation and tests are carried out using LabVIEW software ( V8.2 ) with a data acquisition card type (NI PCI-6251) from National Semiconductors to achieve real time measurements.

Keywords: self-tuning, fuzzy controller, position control, scaling gain, LabVIEW .

The alteration of designer logical performance during architectural design task

Uriya Noory Saeed; Nahith Taha Abdulla

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 52-66
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43304

Although many studies have tried to reduce differences between conceptual models of thinking processes, through the description of the operational performance of any intellectual task includes problem solving, however, because of the design specificity in this regard, and diversity of its motion, there were always, many of obstacles that stand in the way of developing a model describes the operations of reasoning achievement during different architectural design phases. The need for explicit language of designer thinking, and architects performance or how they underlined such aspects, was incentive concern for many contemporary studies, which tried to cover this area in one way or another. This research tries to investigated designer logical behavior during a design process, through the review of inference acts, during conceptual stage of that process, also it tries to investigate the nature of the mobility of this behavior across time of the task.

Keywords: Logic, Logical Structure, Architectural Inference, Architectural Design

Analysis Of R.C. Slabs At High Temperature Using Nonlinear Finite Element Method

A. Y. Al-Saati; Z. Kh. Awad; Kh. I. Mohmmad

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.39939


This paper is concerned with the Non-linear behavior of reinforced concrete slabs at high temperature at service loads. Layered degenerated shell element is used to predict the complex feature of structural behavior at high – temperature condition, such as thermal expansion, cracking, crushing, yielding and changing of materials properties with temperature. In the development of F.E model, the geometrical nonlinearity is considered, the layered element are modified to allow for temperature distribution and change of materials property through thickness .Predictions from this analysis are compared to the available experimental results and good agreements obtained.
Keywords: Nonlinear Finite Element, R.C. Slabs, High Temperature

Properties of Self Compacting Concrete at Different Curing Condition and their Comparison with properties of Normal Concrete

N. S. Al-Saffar; J. R. Al-Feel

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 30-38
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.39956

The experimental investigation carried out is to study the effect of curing methods on the compressive, splitting, and flexural strengths (modulus of rupture) of self compacting concrete in comparison to those of normal concrete.
The self compacting concrete consisted of Portland cement (P.C) limestone powder (L.S) (L.S 8% / 92% P.C),sand, gravel and super-plasticizer. The specimens were cured in the air and water, for the period of 7, 14, and 28 days. Three specimens were tested for each point of each property. The results showed that the water cured specimens gave highest compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength than specimens cured by air about 11%, 10% and 11% for self compacting concrete at 28 days respectively.
The results also show that self compacting concrete gave high early strength i.e. strength before 28-days.
The failed specimens indicated that there was no segregation and a good bond between aggregate and matrix.

Keywords: Cement, limestone powder, Segregation, Self-Compaction.

Developing the design of the Etherchannel switch for the enhancement of the Quality of Service (QoS) performance

Basil Sh. Mahmood

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 60-71
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.42912

Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms provide the necessary level of services (bandwidth and delay) to any application in order to maintain an expected quality level. This paper studies the effect of adopting QoS on the performance of (real time) system like video conferencing. A simulation model of the real time network is built using OPNET package. The various parameters affecting the system performance are determined and different solutions to enhance the system performance are suggested .A modified switch architecture is proposed to enhance the real time performance of the system and to modify its quality of service capability .The modification includes adding Etherchannel unit which can classify data into real time or non-real time data and direct each data packet to the appropriate channel .The architecture of the Etherchannel unit is described by VHDL programming and built on FPGA chip .Accordingly , the modified switch is found to need only extra seven clock pulses to classify each data packet .

Keywords: Quality of Service (QoS), Switched Ethernet, UDP, TCP, FPGA,VHDL

Design A Distributed Amplifier System Using Π-Filtering Structure

Azad Raheem Kareem

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 83-89
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.42921


This paper reviews in brief the principle of distributed amplifier with its classical structure. Alternation to the basic design including the use of π-filtering sections instead of T-sections in gate and drain lines is proposed. The new design method has the advantages of much gain flatness near the cutoff frequency and less inductances at the corners of the amplifier. These are great benefits make the new design to be better than the previous ones especially in modeling the amplifier in integrated circuit technology. The distributed amplifier is used in microwave applications.

Keywords − Microwave circuits, microwave filters, distributed amplifiers.

Reconfigurable Self-Organizing Neural Network Design and it's FPGA Implementation

Basma M. K. Younis; Basil Sh. Mahmood; Fakhraldeen H. Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 99-115
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.42925

The use of Kohonen self-organizing feature maps in real time applications requires high computational performance, especially for embedded systems and hence neural network chips are essential. A digital architecture of Kohonen neural network with learning capability and on-chip adaptation and storage is proposed with the implementation of Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (SOM) neural networks on the low-cost Spartan-3 FPGAs. The architecture of this digital chip based on the idea that some assumptions for the restrictions of the algorithm can simplify the implementation. Using the Manhattan distance, a special treatment of the adaptation factor, and neighborhood functions will decrease the necessary chip area so that a high number of processing elements can be integrated on one chip.
Keywords: FPGA, Weight Vectors, Manhattan distance, Learning

Effect of Infilled Panel on the Nonlinear Dynamic Response of Reinforced Concete Plane Frames

Saddam.M. Ahmed; Mohammad N. Mahmood

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 14-29
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.39946

Studying the effects of the static and dynamic loads on structures is very essential, especially in zones where the structures are exposed to severe earthquakes. In the present study a finite element program is developed for static and dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete plane frames. The main concern is to study the effects of infilled panels on the behavior of this type of structure. One dimensional Beam-Column Elements are used to represent the frame members and Lumped Plasticity Model is used to model the nonlinearity of these elements. Modified Four-node isoparametric plane stress elements with 3-DOF per node, are used to represent infilled panels. Connection between infill element and frame is either assumed to be perfect or by linkage elements which allow separation between the two types of elements. Two programs are developed one for the static and the other for the dynamic analysis and the validity of the developed programs have been checked and the predicted results indicated a good agreement with the published experimental and theoretical results.
Keywords: dynamic, finite element, frame, linkage, interface.

Adapting Distance Relay Using Artificial Neural Networks

M. F. AL-Kababjie; Semaa M. AL-Taee

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 72-82
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.42915

A universal distance relay that has merits over conventional relays is designed. This relay has the ability to adapt more than one working characteristic by using an artificial neural networks technique(ANN)of the type Modified Multi-Layer Perceptron (MMLP) which uses additional nodes at the input layer to realize an adaptation through the required modifications on the distance relay characteristics. The inputs of the added nodes referred to the factors that affect the distance relay characteristic such as: fault resistance, power transfer, mutual inductance and locations of feeding sources in the system. A Matlab computer programming was used to simulate different power systems of (400, 132) KV to obtain impedance characteristic data, needed to train and test the ANN. A laboratory power system )220V( has been operated as a computer simulation model and practically under the same conditions. The designed universal relay gives good performance when tested on a computer model of this system .The small difference between the practical results and that of simulation, encourage the use of designed relay to protect transmission lines in reality.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, Adaptive Distance Relay characteristics

Description of shape element In Architectural composition Paradigms in creating shape types In Wright's works

Shatha Yacoub Al Sheikh

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 36-60
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.42945

Shape is presented as one of the architectural design's basic elements, which together determine the ultimate appearance and content of the architectural form. It is the property which determine the appearance, and for which the design and composition of form are related throughout shape types which might be geometric or organic or even the two as well. The importance of this property has emerged, especially, when the architecture of 211st century in its beginnings concentrated on the principle of "the power throughout shape" by using organic forms which have complicated and daring shapes. The paper discusses the importance of this property and its creation in the designs, in order to explore the particular problem which has been represented as (lack of clarity in description shape's element and paradigms of creating its types in different architectural trends).
Thus the objectives of the paper has been formed by building theoretical framework consisting of two main items of detailed theoretical field as the following: (paradigms of identification of shape and paradigms of creating shape types) which specifies shape element, firstly, then the application of the paradigms of creating shape types on one of the important trends throughout architectural history, which is Wright's organic trend, secondly, finally, concluding paradigms of creating form's shape in Wright's architecture, thirdly.
Conclusions have been declared Wright's concentration in creating shapes of its projects on a conceptual philosophy based on the integration between the shape and the main function of the building through selected place and time, by using selected design and compositional properties in relation to nature as a source of inspiration of form's shape.

Investigation of the Effect of Building Dielectric Parameters on Indoor Radio Channel Characteristics

Y. E. Mohammed

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 35-42
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38792

The unlicensed industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band at 2.4 GHz has gained increased attention recently due to high data rate communication systems developed to operate in this band. In this paper the investigation of the indoor electromagnetic propagation and indoor radio channel characteristics have been performed at this band. Electromagnetic waves propagate by means of reflection, refraction, and diffraction. Reflection mechanisms are dependent on the nature of the surface, dielectric properties, polarization, incidence angle, and material thickness. The effect of the incidence angle and material thickness on the reflection coefficients for both horizontal and vertical polarization has been studied. Two-dimensional ray-tracing simulation has been performed to show the influence of building electromagnetic properties on indoor radio channel parameters, signal level, RMS delay spread, and coherence bandwidth. Results show the influence of the permittivity is more important than the influence of the order of reflection considered for the ray- tracing model. It is shown that, compared with power level, RMS delay spread is more sensitive to the building dielectric parameters. Maximum RMS delay spread is dependent on the dielectric parameters of the surrounded walls.

Keywords: Radio propagation, Dielectric parameters, Indoor Channel Parameters

Theoretical Determination of Forming Limit Diagram for Al 2024 T3 sheet when changing strain paths

Anas O.Balod; Waleed J.Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 86-94
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38857

The effect of changing strain paths on forming limit curve of aluminum alloy Al 2024T3 sheet has been studied by determining forming limit diagrams after prestraining theoretically . The method of calculating the shape of forming limit diagrams used Hosford yield criterion (high exponent) with the Marciniak and Kuczynski (M-K) analysis to include the effects of changing the strain path to several levels in (uniaxial, biaxial, and plane strain tension).In this work it was found that theoretical forming limit curve, calculated using the above analysis and yield function is closed to the experimental curve of complex strain path.

Keywords : sheet metal forming, forming limit diagram(FLD), complex strain path

Impacts Of Re-Heating And Compaction Temperatures On Hot Mix Asphalt Volumetrics

Romel Nano Yaqob

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 57-65
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38821

The need for accurate, consistent laboratory tests of the volumetric properties of the hot mix asphalt (HMA) has become increasingly important in the past few years. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of re-heating and compaction temperatures on the volumetric properties of the HMA mixtures. These effects were studied with two experiments. In the first experiment, mix was compacted after 0, 3 and 20 hour's storage time. In the second experiment, mix was compacted at three different temperatures; standard target compaction temperature for the grade of asphalt cement in the mixture, target - 14oC and target + 14o C. Above and under superpave restricted zone graded mixtures comprised of two sources of aggregates, and one type of binder were compacted with the Marshall compactor machine and their volumetric properties measured. The results show that there are significant differences in volumetric properties as the mix stored by 3 hours or more and changes in volumetric properties occur as the compaction temperature varies.

Keywords: Volumetrics, compaction temperature, storage time, re-heating

Modeling of Nanocrystal Storage Cells

L. S. Ali; S. M. T. Abdul Mawjoud; A. D. Mohammed Saleem

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38878

The computer program is prepared for applying Montecarlo simulation and modeling for single-electron nanocrystal memories. The nanocrystal memory device of (5×5) quantum dots is used for studying the relationship between, geometrical dimensions, electrical characteristics and charging effects for single electron static programming characteristics. The nanocrystal inter-dot effects are included. All parameters got in the memory simulation programming are studied and discussed.
Keywords: Nanocrystal Memories.

Anti-Aliased DDA

Fakhraldeen Hamid Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 25-34
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38769


Bit-mapped images are prone to the jaggies (stair-step effect along edges) because the computer uses small dots to build images. This effect is called aliasing and the technique used to reduce it is called antialiasing. This paper investigates aliasing along straight line segments or edges, its origin, and how it is affected by the orientation or slope of the segment. A method for antialiasing or smoothing the straight line segments by modifying the intensity of the pixels is presented. Hardware implementation of this method is finally formulated and tested using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA).

Keywords: pixel, jaggies, antialiasing, raster, FPGA.

High Performance Colored Image Segmentation System Based on Neural Network

Shefa A. Dawwd

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38756

image segmentation is often the most time-consuming part of image processing systems. Traditionally, systems employing real-time color-based segmentation are either implemented in hardware, or in very specific software systems. This paper describes an FPGA implementation of a skin color segmentation based on a neural network. The proposed segmentation approach is an essential stage for face detection. The system uses a multilayer feedforward neural architecture with three-inputs, one hidden layer, two output neurons and a pipelined saturating linear activation function to simplify the FPGA hardware implementation. The system was tested by using different colored face images for face segmentation problem and its performance was compared with the results obtained using advanced software system designed specifically for face segmentation. A comparable performance was achieved and a speed up of (64583) was estimated compared to a Pentium 4, 2.4 GHz general purpose sequential computer and when it is compared to reduced instruction set computer IBM RISC 350 station, it was (407).

Keywords: Neural network implementation, image Segmentation, FPGA based systems

Essential and Physical Properties of Architectural Form according to (Salingaros) thesis, Application case on Ottoman Mosques

Nasma Maan M. Thabit

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 39-62
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38923

In this research, we have produced new modes for measure essential and physical properties of architectural form in Ottoman mosques.
The research has adopted a literary approach in its analysis namely: Salingaros' scientific measurement and Yules' statistical measurement.
The research methodology encompasses the application of this new modes for measure on important mosques, the research also embraces the method of collecting data on building samples. Theses include (7) building samples chosen according to objective criteria. Then, a case study on these samples has been applied using a special formula. In consequence, results relating to the research hypothesis have testified, then it reaches to final conclusions, which described those properties of architectural form in Ottoman mosques, then the research reached to accurate formal description for Ottoman mosques. As a case study according to this thesis.
Keywords: Architectural form in Ottoman mosques, Essential properties of architectural form, Physical properties of architectural form.

Effect of Direct Compressive Stress on the Shear Transfer Strength of Fibrous Concrete

J. R. Al-Feel; B. J. Al-Sulayvani

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 66-76
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38837

Experimental investigation is carried out to study the shear transfer of uncracked fibrous concrete. The test specimens used in this study were of the push-off and modified push-off type .The parameters investigated were the volume fraction of fibers, the amount of stirrups crossing the shear plane, and the ratio of direct to shear stress. Test results showed that the presence of normal stress and fibres increase the first cracking load and shear transfer strength and this enhancement is more pronounced in specimens without stirrups in the shear plane for both push-off and modified push-off specimens. The fibrous specimens showed more stiffness, failed in a ductile mode, and experienced more strain capacity than plain specimens without fibres. From the present test results, a regression analysis was done and a prediction formula is proposed .

Keywords: Direct stress; Ductility; Fibrous reinforced concrete; Shear transfer strength; Stirrups.

Reactive Power Compensation using Fuzzy Gain Scheduling (FGS) based PID Controller of Synchronous Machine

Ahmed N. B. Alsammak; Maamoon F. Al-Kababji

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 1-24
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38324

Application of Fuzzy Logic (FL) theory to self-tuning PID controller for the reactive power compensation using Synchronous Machine (SM) is investigated in this paper. The measured Power Factor (PF) is adjusted to a required value using FGS based PID controller. If the measured PF is different from the required reference value an error signal is generated. This error signal and change of error are evaluated by FLC to obtain the new constants values for the PID controller that used to drive six-pulse full wave thyristorized rectifier circuit, which can thus control the excitation field voltage. A VAR compensation for the weak bus, with a desired PF, has been applied on the modified IEEE-5 bus sample systems using bifurcation analysis and Q-V sensitivity methods as voltage stability indicator. In this paper, a suitable model of the SM has been presented. Loading and no load conditions in addition to excitation field voltage have been tested. A good agreement between practical and theoretical results has been observed.
Simulation results demonstrate that better control performance can be achieved in comparison with Ziegler-Nichols controllers and Kitamori's PID controllers. It has been found that the proposed controller (FGS based PID) provides fast response, flexible, nonlinear gain characteristic and adaptive operation. It is concluded that the reactive power compensation system with a FGS based PID controller of SM is reliable, sensitive, economical, faster, and more efficient with no harmonics.
Keywords: Reactive Power Compensation, PID controller, Fuzzy Logic, Fuzzy Gain Scheduling, Voltage Stability, Bifurcation, and Matlab-Simulink.

Dynamic Simulations of Semiconductor Optical Amplifier by Analytical Solution of Traveling-Wave Equation

Khalis A.Mohammed; Mozahim I. Azawe; Maan M. Shaker

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 25-31
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38371

Traveling-wave equation of the semiconductor optical amplifier is solved analytically in order to study the dynamical properties of the power output in terms of the input parameters that can influence its operation of semiconductor optical amplifier. Power output (number of photons) was calculated as a function of carrier density, input signal, and bias current. Material gain is found for the amplifier at different wavelengths of the input signal. The model investigated the population inversion along the waveguide of the amplifier. The model, which is used in this article, is one of many mathematical models that can be found in literature . The design of semiconductor amplifier in order to predict the operational characteristics can be obtained from its model. The simplicity of our model is in its ability to incorporate with any external stimulus on the amplifier directly in the wave equation.
Keywords: SOA, Traveling-wave equation , Numerical simulations.

Improvement Of Video Decoder Decision In Wcdma System Using Hybrid Dwt And Dct

Yhya. R. Kuraz; Omar Hazim Salim

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 48-59
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38425

Video transmission in Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) system has to use compression technique to overcome the channel bandwidth limitation problem. The video compression uses the Variable Length Coded (VLC,s) to obtain high compression. VLC,s is very sensitive to errors in the transmission channel . Many methods are proposed to protect the video stream. This paper proposes a new method using hybrid Discrete Wavelet Transforms (DWT) & Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) technique to protect the more visually important VLC,s coefficients in video signal and completed by another technique to improve the performance of the video decoder decision at lower values of Signal to Interference Noise Ratio (SINR).

Keywords : Video Transmission , WCDMA, Wavelet , Decoder Decision.

Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Fibrous Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joints

N. S. Al-Saffar; S. A. Al-Ta

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 5, Pages 57-69
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44862

In this paper, the finite element method is used to study the nonlinear behaviour of beam-column fibrous reinforced concrete joints under short–term monotonic loading. Concrete is represented by eight nodded isoparametric elements and the reinforcement was represented by axial two noded bar elements embedded in the concrete elements. Strain hardening approach, has been employed to model the compressive behavior of the fibrous concrete. In tension a continuous function is used to model fibrous concrete in the pre-peak and post – peak states. Material nonlinearities due to cracking of concrete, crushing of concrete in compression, debonding and pull – out of fibers and yielding of reinforcement have been taken into account. A smeared fixed crack approach of the cracked concrete in tension is assumed. An incremental – iterative scheme based on Newton – Raphson’s method is employed for the nonlinear solution algorithm and a displacement criterion is adopted for checking the convergence of the solution. Several previously published test results for fiber reinforced concrete beam-column joints were analyzed and the numerical results showed good agreement with the published experimental results.

Keywords: Beam, Column, Fibrous concrete, Finite element, Joint, Nonlinear analysis.

Tele-operated Vehicles System Using WLAN and Industrial Ethernet Techniques

Qutaiba I. Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 5, Pages 33-42
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44856


Tele-operated vehicles have been used in different applications and environments. This paper studies the case in which a Tele-operated vehicle is guided through city streets. OPNET package is used to simulate the behavior of the system. Industrial Ethernet is assumed to be the field bus network of the vehicle and WLAN technique (IEEE802.11b) is assumed to be the communication link between the vehicle and the control center. The real time performance of the system is investigated during changing some important parameters. Then , image compressing technique is used to enhance the real time behavior of the system.

Keywords: Tele-operated Vehicle, Industrial Ethernet , WLAN , Image Compression

Forced Vibration Analysis Of Rectagular Plates Usinig Higher Order Finite Layer Method

J. H. Haido; A. A. Abdul-Razzak

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 5, Pages 43-56
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44859


In this paper a higher order finite layer formulation based on the auxiliary nodal surface (ANS) technique for a forced vibration analysis of rectangular plates is presented. The forced vibration analysis has been performed using the Newmark integration method for investigating the vibration characteristics and finding the response of rectangular plates under the action of dynamic loads. The forced vibration of the rectangular plates subjected to moving and impact loads has been studied.
Several examples have been studied to show the good performance of the higher order finite layer with one ANS for forced vibration analysis of plate.

Keywords: Finite layer, Forced Vibration, Thick Plate.

The Effect Of Center Distance Change On Gear Teeth Engagement And Stress Analysis

Omar D.Mohammad

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 5, Pages 70-81
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44864


The present study concentrates on the changes in gear teeth engagement and stress analysis of meshing teeth when gearing system is operated at a non-standard extended center distance. (Ansys) programming using F.E.M have been applied for stress analysis on a gear model. Many cases with changing center distance have been studied. It is clear that the operating center distance was increased; the stresses generated on tooth will be increased dependently.

Keywords : Spur gear, Center distance, Teeth engagement, Stress analysis

Load Sharing On Spur Gear Teeth And Stress Analysis When Contact Ratio Changed

Omar D.Mohammad; Sabah M.J.Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 5, Pages 94-101
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44869


The present research work concentrates on the effect of contact ratio change on the stresses generated on meshing gear teeth. Many cases of contact ratio (1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9 & 2.0) have been studied. In each case the value and location of load were determined on the involute profile of meshing tooth. Also the angular position of this tooth for critical loading condition (at the instant when the generated root stresses at the maximum state). (Ansys) programming using F.E.M have been applied for stress analysis on gear model. From this study it is clear that, the highest contact ratio resulted in the lowest generated tooth stresses (i.e. the highest load carrying capacity). This depends on the value, location and direction of load applied on tooth involute.

Keywords : Spur gear, Contact ratio, Load sharing, Stress analysis

Adaptive Filter Application in Echo Cancellation System and Implementation using FPGA

Rafid Ahmed Khalil

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 5, Pages 20-32
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44853


In telephony system, the received signal by the loudspeaker, is reverberated through the environment and picked up by the microphone. It is called an echo signal. Which is in the form of time delayed and attenuated image of original speech signal, and causes a reduction in the quality of the communication. Adaptive filters are a class of filters that iteratively alter their parameters in order to minimize a difference between a desired output and their output. In the case of acoustic echo, the optimal output is an echoed signal that accurately emulates the unwanted echo signal. This is then used to negate the echo in the return signal. The better the adaptive filter simulates this echo, the more successful the cancellation will be. This paper examines LMS algorithm of adaptive filtering and the application in acoustic echo cancellation system. Employing a discrete signal processing in Matlab for simulation with real acoustic signals. Also a hardware implementation of an adaptive filter have been developed using XC3S500E Xilinx FPGA chip, and VHDL language on RTL abstraction level.

Keywords: Acoustic echo cancellation, Adaptive Filter, FPGA, VHDL.

Effect of Induction Motors Parameters On the Performance at Transient Operating States

Abdul Ghani A. Abdul Ghafoor

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 5, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44872

The effect of induction motors as loads in modern electrical power systems is very large, specially when these motors suffer from transient behavior conditions. These transient conditions, which occur owing to electric faults characterized in turn by their high speeds, have their huge impact on the entire transient conditions occurring in electrical power systems. Park-Gorve equations technique is used in this research study in order to obtain the induction motor equations which are frequency variation dependent, and would thus result in getting the motor parameters under the transient operating conditions.
This research study shows that maximum torque tends to increase motor current and decreasing the motor reactance. It shows that short circuit currents increase with the increase of mechanical loads of the motor.
It also shows that lower moment of inertia result in larger starting motor currents and larger growth of motor current.

Keywords: Induction Motors, Parameters, Transient.

The Use Of Liquid Asphalt To Improve Gypseous Soils

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 38-48
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44727

This work aimed to study the effectiveness of liquid asphalt in the enhancement of gypseous soils properties. This enhancement is by reducing the effect of water on gypsum particles and increasing strength parameters.
The work included two types of treatments firstly is by mixing technique and the second type is by grouting technique.
The testing program included the determination of unconfined compressive strength, shear strength and collapsibility parameters of untreated and treated gypseous soil with different percent of liquid asphalt.
The test results showed that the maximum unconfined compressive strength and the shear strength of soil increased to an optimum value and then decreased with increasing liquid asphalt.
The study concluded that the mixing technique was better than the injection technique because the mixing technique will cover the particles with a film of asphalt while the injection fills the voids of soil with asphalt. Moreover the results show that the oblique injection gives more strength to the soil than normal injection.
Keywords: Gypseous soil, Liquid asphalt, Soil improvement, Grouting, Injection

Fpga Design And Implementation Of A Scan Conversion Graphical Sub-System

Amar I. Dawod; Fakhraldeen H. Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 80-92
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44735

One Major modeling primitive in the field of Computer Graphics is a planar polygon. This polygon can have an arbitrary number of vertices and different shapes. In this paper a graphic sub-system is designed and implemented using Field Programmable Gate Array
( FPGA ). One of the main tasks of the hardware designed is scan-converting convex planar polygons required to update an image in the image memory or video RAM which is used as a Frame Buffer. A facility to read the pixels (Picture Elements), from the frame buffer, for display on the monitor of the computer is also included in the design.
Keywords: frame buffer, scan-conversion, polygons, pixels, FPGA

Complexity Reduction and Performance Improvement of Multistage Detector with Parallel Interference Cancellation for DS-CDMA System

Sedki. B. T. Younis; Bayez K. Al-Sulaifanie

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 49-58
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44730

In this paper we propose a new method which combines the partial cancellation and differencing technique to achieve performance improvement and reduction in complexity, the proposed technique is named Multistage (DP-PIC) Detector. The simulation model for the proposed DP-PIC is implemented in floating and fixed point arithmetic. The simulation results illustrates that a partial cancellation factor of 0.7 and 0.8 in the first and second stage respectively gives a good performance for the proposed technique. A precision of 16-bit is enough to achieve a small performance degradation compared to floating point results. Finally the proposed fixed point DP-PIC is implemented on TMS320C6400 DSP simulator. The implementation results illustrate that 35% complexity reduction can be achieved compared with conventional PIC detection.
Keywords: DS-CDMA, PIC, Complexity reduction, performance improvement.

A Pipelined Fault Tolerant Architecture for Real time DSP Applications

Ahmad Falih Mahmood

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 93-102
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44737

This paper presents a new, expandable, pipelined linear array architecture designed for transparently tolerating processor failures for real-time DSP applications. The proposed system use twelve TMS320C40 DSP processors ( Processor Modules PMs ) to construct ten stages pipelined system with two spare processors (SPs). However, the system can be expanded to increase the pipeline stages and the performance, and adding more spare processors to increase the dependability and reliability of the system. In Proposed scheme, the system can automatically reconfigure itself in the event of failure in one or two of its DSP processors and the computations continue unhindered without noticeable performance degradation. Each DSP processor communicates with neighboring processors through a high speed communication ports ( commport ). Some of these commports in every processor are used as a bypass links in case of failure of one or two processors. The system uses the forward-task-shift (FTS) mechanism to tolerate the fault by assigning the function of the failed processor to the next fault-free processor.

Keywords- Linear processor array, fault tolerant, bypass links, pipelining, TMS320C40, DSP processors.

Optimal Multicrop Allocation of Seasonal Water Under Limited Irrigation Water

Anmar Al-Talib; Abdul-Sattar Al-Dabagh; Eman Hazim Sheet

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 27-40
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44743

As water demand is increasing and the world food problem is becoming more pronounced، world efforts are forwarded towards the optimal usage of water resources، specially in regions where water is scare or irrigation is very costly. Inadequate irrigation is considered one of the methods that increase water usage efficiency and the application of optimization methods is essential in order to increase agriculture production.
A mathematical model was developed for optimal allocation of irrigation water under full and inadequate irrigation. The model determines the optimal seasonal allocation of irrigation water between crops. The output of the model are the area and water allocated for each crop under limited and full irrigation، the effects of various management options، as changing the plan of agriculture، type of production function، and value of irrigation water، were studied. The model was run for many percentages of full irrigation ranging from 10% to 100%. The model is considered a good approach for deciding on area and amount of irrigation water which achieves optimal values in irrigation planning projects under limited water resources.
Keywords: irrigation optimization, nonlinear programming, limited irrigation water, water allocation for different crops.

Behaviour And Strength Of High Strength Concrete L-Beams Under Combined Shear, Bending And Torsional Loading

Ferhad R. Karim; Ferhad R. Karim; Omer Qarani Aziz

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 13-29
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44722

This investigation examines experimentally the behavior and ultimate strength of L-shaped reinforced high strength concrete beams under combined shear, bending and torsion.
The experimental program consists of casting and testing (13) high strength concrete beams under bending, shear and torsion. The main parameters are the effect of compressive strength, the eccentricity and transverse to longitudinal reinforcement ratio.
An increase in transverse to longitudinal reinforcement ratio by (21.43%) for beams under 80mm eccentricity of loading causes decrease in ultimate resisting torsional moment by (13.19%), and for an eccentricity of 170mm; the decrease in resisting torsional moment is (15.14%). Increasing in eccentricity for torsion of (112.5%) caused a decrease in load carry capacity by (43.33%) if all types of reinforcement remain the same.
By using multiple nonlinear stepwise regression analysis, based on data in this research and from other literatures; equations are proposed for predicting shear strength at cracking and ultimate loads and torsional capacity at cracking and ultimate loads. These proposed equations showed good agreement when compared with equations given by Codes of practice like (ACI, Canadian and BS) and showed good relations..

Keywords: Bending, high strength concrete, L-shaped beams, shear, torsion.

Numerical Study Of Natural Convective Heat Transfer In An Inclined Square Porous Layer

Muyassar E. Ismaeel; Amir S. Dawood

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 81-95
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44651


In this paper, steady two-dimensional natural convective heat transfer in an inclined square porous cavity with two parallel walls kept at constant different temperatures, while the other two parallel walls were well insulated, has been studied numerically. The governing equations have been solved using finite difference method. Results have been obtained for modified Rayleigh numbers between 0 and 300 and inclination angle between 0° (heated from below) and 90° (heated from side). The rate of heat transfer was found a strong function of modified Rayleigh number and inclination angle. The maximum heat transfer was occurred at about ( 50  ≤  ≤ 57  ) degrees of inclination.

Keywords:Natural Convective Heat Transfer, Porous Medium, Inclined Enclosure.

Online Tracking Control System For Robot Manipulator Using Adaptive Fuzzy Wavelet Network

Yhya R. Kuraz; Waleed Ameen Mahmoud Al-Jawher

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44606

It is well known that Wavelet Networks (WN) are powerful tools for handling problems of large dimensions. The integration of Wavelet Network and Fuzzy Logic (FL) enable a tool condition monitoring system to have a high monitoring success rate and fast training feed over a wide range of cutting conditions in drilling applications. To overcome offline learning and to perform efficient tracking behavior, an Auto Tuning Adaptive Fuzzy Wavelet Network (ATAFWN) controller is proposed. It was shown that such structure don’t need offline learning to govern the system in stable regions. It can be handle also a wide range of parameter changes in comparison with the conventional controller as well as such controller is simple to configure since it doesn’t need a process model and can be easily adapted to the existing controller and plants.

Keywords: online controller, fuzzy logic, wavelet network, fuzzy wavelet network.

Development and Evaluation of two Memory Architectures for the Hardware Version of CNN Face Recognizer

Shefa A. Dawwd; Basil Sh. Mahmood

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 11-24
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44612

The design of the proposed Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architecture for face image recognition takes the constraints on the bandwidth of the communications between memory and processor into the account. The coarse grained parallelism which performed in the bottom layer node's calculations is reduced in consequent manner until the calculation of one simple node in the upper layer is achieved sequentially. Two methods of segmentation are used to buffer the image data required for these parallel to sequential calculations from the image RAM to multi-port RAMs. A comparison between these two methods with respect to the whole number of RAM access required to generate the system recognition code is performed. A speedup of 44 is achieved when the hardware system is implemented with the using of the 1st method of segmentation as compared to a Pentium 4, 2.4 GHz sequential computer software implementation. While a speedup of 88 is achieved when the same hardware system is implemented but with the using of the 2nd segmentation method, compared to the same mentioned sequential computer.
Keywords: convolution neural networks, parallel processing, memory architecture.

Scour Downstream an Ogee Spillway

Khalil I. Othman

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 143-155
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44680

An experimental investigation on the problem of local scour downstream Ogee spillway is presented here by using two types of noncohesive bed material. The paper briefly explains the effect of hydraulic conditions of flow and sediment characteristics on depth and the extent of scour. The obtained results show that the depth and extent of scour affect greatly by the rate of the discharge and the depth of tail water. The size and shape of bed material particles plays an important role in characteristics of the occurred scour. The experimental data was used to develop two empirical relations to predict the depth and the extent of the scour downstream the Ogee spillway.

Keywords: Scour, Ogee type Spillway, Hydraulics

Relation Between Pre Straining Before Welding , Joint Design , And Microstructure In Welding Of (7020) Aluminium Alloy

Shawnim R. Jalal

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 96-103
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44653

In the utilization of aluminum alloys for structural applications , one difficulty to be overcome is the reduction of mechanical properties of welded joints as compared to the parent material, consequent upon the weaker strength of the welded metal (WM) and the distortion in the heat affected zone (HAZ) due to the welding thermal cycle . In the present investigation the tensile characteristics of joints welded plates of 7020 alloy under Arc welding at different pre strain before welding (5 ,10 , 20 ,30 %) and joint design (single and double V with angles equal to 70º,80º,90º) are investigated ,and the subsequent microstructure evolution after welding is assessed which improve the properties . This paper show that the improvement in mechanical properties (Yield and Tensile strength) carried out with 20% pre strain at a single V with angle equal to 90º compared with double V and reduced with increasing pre strain (30%) due to phase transformation of ή to the stable microstructure η (MgZn2). And changing joint design angles has little effect on mechanical properties improvement compared with joint design shape (single and double V ).
Keywords: 7020 Aluminum alloy; pre strain ; Arc welding ; joint design

Improve Watermark Security Via Wavelet Transfrom And Cdma Techniques

Yhya. R. Kuraz; Modar A.H

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 39-49
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44625

With the growth of multimedia systems in distributed environments, the research of multimedia security as well as multimedia copyright protection becomes an important issue. As a potential and effective way to solve this problem, digital watermarking becomes a very active research area of signal and information processing. Many watermark algorithms have been proposed to address this issue of ownership identification. Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) based spread-spectrum watermarking is one of the famous techniques. Another possible domain for watermark embedding is the wavelet domain. One of the many advantages over the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is that more accurately model aspects of the human visual system (HVS).
In this paper a proposed algorithm is defined based on the combination between the benefits provides by using wavelet domain and profits of Code division multiple access (CDMA) spread-spectrum technique. A pseudo-random sequence (key) that related to hidden message is embedded into the significant DWT coefficients of a cover image to produce a watermarked image. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is perceptual invisible and robust against many attacks such as lossy image compression and Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN).
Keywords: digital watermark, wavelet transform, CDMA technique.

Buckling Of Beams On Elastic Foundations

Mereen Hassan

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 104-122
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44659

This study is an attempt to solve the general governing differential equation for buckling of beams resting on elastic foundation for different types of beams (pin ended, fixed ended and cantilever beams) taking into account the effect of soil sub-grade reaction value (K), axial load, lateral load and relative end settlement on the deflection and bending moment of the beams for prismatic and non–prismatic beams.
Approximate solutions are also presented using the extermization of the total potential energy equation (Rayleigh-Ritz method) using approximate shape functions for the deflection which satisfy the boundary conditions of the beam. The results show that one term series approximate solution gives acceptable results in comparison with the exact solution for practical case, the accuracy of the solution increases with increasing the number of terms up to 5 terms, beyond this limit the accuracy of the solution does not change. Buckling load increases linearly with increasing (K) while the deflection and the bending moment exponentially decrease with increasing (K).
Keywords: Bending moment, Buckling, Cantilever beam, Deflection, Fixed ended beam, Non-prismatic beam, Pin ended beam, Prismatic beam, Settlement and Soil sub-grade reaction.

Using of GPS and Leveling Techniques for Determining the Orthometric Heights inside Mosul University

Nashwan Kamal-aldeen; Sabah Hussein Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 132-142
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44669

It is possible to determine heights of selective locations through terrestrial means by tying these locations to the sea level. Practical heights in geodesy, known as orthometric heights are referred to the geoid, which is approximated by the mean sea level (MSL).
In the present study, A GPS and conventional leveling techniques were used to establish a network of (15) control points distributed inside Mosul University Campus, to be as a bench marks for the surveying applications which are very important and necessary for the civil engineering projects and the geophysical survey. The obtained results show that, there is an average variation between the orthometric heights measured by leveling instrument and the ellipsoidal heights measured by GPS, referred to as geoid undulation. ArcGIS9.1 software was applied in the study for the georeferencing process of the GPS measured dataset.

Keywords: GPS, orthometric height, mean sea level

Intelligent Systems based Selective Harmonic Elimination (SHE) for Single Phase Voltage SOURSE Inverter

Ahmed S. AL-soufy; Qais M. Alias; Basil M. Saied

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 71-81
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44650


Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) inverters are of huge and great impact in many engineering disciplines. It plays a big role in the field of power electronics regarding voltage sources to vast amount of electronics equipments and machine controllers. The use of artificial intelligence in gate signals control in PWM voltage source inverter (VSI) is tackled, analyzed, and implemented in this paper. The PWM technique that investigated in this work is the Selective Harmonic Elimination (SHE). For this technique, the single phase H-bridge inverter is considered for the study. In the SHE based inverter, the fundamental voltage level and the harmonics selected for deletion are decided using a neural network ad fuzzy logics. For the SHE technique, the results of generating switching angle patterns, using the neural and the fuzzy model controllers, for driving H-bridge inverter, show almost exact resemblance, compared to those obtained using conventional controllers. Also the superiority at the intelligent models overcome the problem of delay time and have fast response in selecting and generating the PWM patterns required to regulate the inverter output voltage.
Keywords: H-bridge inverter, Pulse Width Modulation, Selective Harmonic Elimination, Intelligent Techniques.

A Mathematical Model for Azizya Evaporating Pond Operation Using SIMULINK Techniques

Kamel A. Al-Mohseen

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 14-24
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44692

The present research is to study the water balance for Aziziya Evaporating Pond (AEP) project by building a simulation model to evaluate its hydraulic performance under different scenarios of operation and to estimate the expected discharge of its spillway, which gives the design discharge for the main drain of AEP.
The study revealed that the operation process of the pond is a balance among inflow , storage and released water. Furthermore, when the steady state condition is achieved, various operating scenarios lead to the same result, therefore, the decision maker must take the appropriate decision for implementation.
The study also showed that the maximum expected discharge during any month of the year is when the crest elevation of the spillway is (21.5) m , after reaching the steady state condition during the third year of operation , is about (16) m3 /sec. Furthermore, changing the elevation of the crest to (23.3 m) is associated with a zero discharge over the spillway.
The research work revealed the remarkable capability of SIMULINK techniques used to built the simulation model for AEP and the flexibility in accepting any change in the model components in addition to its high speed of execution.
Keywords: Simulation, Reservoir Operation, Simulink

The Effect of Lightning Impulse and Switching (over voltages) on stress distribution and space charge accumulation of HVDC XLPE cables at load and no load

Saad Samuel Sheet

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 50-61
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44628

High voltage direct current (HVDC) power cables are usually exposed to high value of stresses from lightning impulses and switching surges (over voltages) at working under load and no load. In this research used a detail analysis for stresses behavior in the insulation of cable at over voltages and at both modes (load & no load). It also shows the effect of such over voltages (lightning impulse & switching surges) on space charge accumulation in the insulation of the cables at load and no load. The investigated cable is of rated voltage 33Kv insulated by cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE).Electrical field and space charge accumulation are carried out theoretically by the aids of computer programs. The results give an indication of the maximum stresses occurs in the cables insulation at over voltages for both modes (load and no load), and also give an induction of the space charge accumulation at over voltage and at load and no load. The results show that maximum stress occurred by lightning impulse is found much higher than that of switching operation for load and no load but the switching surge has longer period. Also the results show that the space charges accumulation at lightning impulse are more than at switching surges for both modes (load & on load). Both main results (Electrical stresses and space charge accumulation) are found depends on the polarity of the over voltages.

Keywords: HVDC stress distribution at load, XLPE HVDC at load & no load

The Effect Of Different Influencing Parameters On The Design Of Concrete Mixes

B.M. Jassim; N. H. Al-jubory; Khalid A. A.Zakaria

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 123-131
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44665

The aim of this research work is to judge whether the inclusion of different influencing parameters on some concrete characteristics have been justified and materialized in four methods of mix design namely ACI , D.O.E , Murdock & the Basic, These were used to design mixes of a given workability ( a slump of 75- 90 mm ) at four strength levels 20 , 30 ,35 ,&40 MPa , the results indicated that at a random strength of 30 MPa :
1. CI method: highest cement content, lowest w/c ratio, lowest gravel content.
2. D.O.E method: second highest cement content, second richest mix, second lowest w/c ratio.
3. Murdock method: highest sand content, lowest water content, low cement content.
4. Basic method: lowest cement content, lowest sand content, highest gravel content, and leanest mix.
Keywords: Mix design, Influencing parameters, ACI, D.O.E, Murdock, and Basic.

Design Fuzzy Self Tuning of PID Controller for Chopper-Fed DC Motor Drive

Yhya R.M.Kuraz; Maher M.F. Algreer

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 54-66
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44538


Tuning the parameters of a PID controller is very important in PID control. Ziegler and Nichols proposed the well-known Ziegler-Nichols method to tune the coefficients of a PID controller. This tuning method is very simple, but cannot guarantee to be always effective. For this reason, this paper investigates the design of self tuning for a PID controller. The controller includes two parts: conventional PID controller and fuzzy logic control (FLC) part, which has self tuning capabilities in set point tracking performance. The proportional, integral and derivate (KP, KI, KD) gains in a system can be self-tuned on-line with the output of the system under control. The conventional PI controller (speed controller) in the Chopper-Fed DC Motor Drive is replaced by the self tuning PID controller, to make them more general and to achieve minimum steady-state error, also to improve the other dynamic behavior (overshoot). Computer Simulation is conducted to demonstrate its performance and results show that the proposed design is success over the conventional PID controller.

Keywords: PID controller, Fuzzy logic control, Self tuning controller, Chopper fed-DC motor drive.

Tensile Strength of Natural and Lime Stabilized Mosul Clay

Jaro M.N; Al-Dabbagh A.W; Al-Layla M.T

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44529


The Purpose of this study is to investigate mainly the tensile stress properties of natural and stabilized clayey soil selected from Mosul area .The tensile strengths of compacted specimens of natural soil and lime stabilized soil are obtained using the flexural test (third-point loading). The tensile and the compressive stress-strain curves of both soils are evaluated. The compressive strength on a portion of the beam is determined for both soils. The results reveal that both the tensile and compressive strengths increase with the addition of lime and with the increasing the curing time .Furthermore ,the results show that the tensile strength is more sensitive to lime stabilization than the compressive strength .The stress-strain curves of the stabilized specimens are rather irregular .All specimens, natural and stabilized show sudden type of failure .The method of analysis used for determining the tensile stress-strain curves are the direct method of analysis.

Keywords:Tensile Strength, Lime Stabilization, Flexural Test, Mosul Clay, Irregular Stress Strain Curves

The Effect of the Over Voltage on the Stress Distribution at the Terminals of H.V. XLPE Cables

Saad S. Sheet; Farook k. Amouri

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 31-41
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44534

The power cables are usually subjected to over voltages from lightning impulses and switching surges, such over- voltages effects are concentrated at terminals of the high voltage cables .
The longitudinal and radial stresses through cable terminals are computed by using Schwarz christoffel transformation used for sketching the electrical fields.
The investigated cables are of rated voltage 33Kv and 132Kv insulated by cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE).
Electrical field sketching at the cable terminals is carried out theoretically by the aids of computer programs. The results give an indication of the maximum stresses occurs in the cables insulation at the terminals and the maximum longitudinal stresses along the cables screen at outer surface of the XLPE insulation. The results show that maximum stress occurred by lightning impulse is found much higher than that of switching operation but the later has longer period. And both are found depends on the polarity of the over voltages and the polarity of the (power/frequency) voltages.

Keywords: stress distribution ofover voltage XLPE cables, termination of XLPE cables

Effect Of Fault Resistance On The Performance Of Mho Relays

Noha Abed Al-bary Al-jawady

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 42-3
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44535


For distance protection to perform its function perfectly without errors, it should be characterized with ideal characteristics that is to operate within forward faults those are included by protection zone, and to exclude the outer faults.
In order to get an ideal tripping area for distance relays, all the factors and limitations imposed by power system on the measuring accuracy of distance relays must be identified.
This paper includes a study of the fault resistance effect on the performance of distance protection when using mho relays.
This study is done by steady state analysis of fault circuit to find the current & voltage at the relay location for different value of fault resistance for Line to ground faults and double line to ground faults.

Keywords: fault resistance, Protective relays, Mho relays.

Interpretation Of Ground Water Quality Data Variation In Erbil City, Northern Iraq

Mus’ab A. Al-Tamir

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 24-30
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44532

In Erbil city; more than 30% of the water supply is derived from wells. Since the wells are located through the city, the quality of their waters may have widely variation.
Principal components analysis technique (PCA) was used to processing the physical, chemical and biological data of several wells at different parts of Erbil city to define the components or factors that responsible to the main variance in Erbil ground water quality. The correlation matrix also adopted in data analysis to determine the relationships of each parameter with the others.
The results of PCA showed the domination of three factors that responsible of about 68% of the ground water variation these factors are: change of the rock nature with 31%, human activities impact with 20.9%, and 16.8% of variation is according to the agricultural and storm water effects.
The correlation matrix had shown that there are two strong direct correlation between TDS and TH with 0.73, and opposite correlation between pH and Coliform bacteria with 0.53 the correlation between other water quality parameters is weak and less than 0.40.
Keywords: Ground water quality, Principal component analysis, Factor analysis, Erbil.

Implementation of MAC Units on FPGAs for DSP Architecture

Shavan K. Asker

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 48-58
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44002

This paper is an attempt to design and implement MAC (multiply-accumulate) units for pipeline DSP architectures on FPGAs. An application has been chosen to evaluate the results of the architecture. Results show that these units are applicable and can be used by the developers especially by the lifting based discrete wavelet transform.
Keywords: MAC unit, FPGAs, Architecture.

Position Control Using Fuzzy Logic

Dr. F. H. Ali; Maher M. F. Algreer

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.43935


Fuzzy logic controllers have been emerged as one of the most active and useful research areas in the field of fuzzy control theory. That is fuzzy logic controllers haven successfully applied for controlling various physical processes.
This paper shows how fuzzy logic is used for position control application. Three types of Fuzzy Controllers are implemented and their position control response is measured. Two of them are FPI, FPD with two inputs (e ,∆e). The third controller is build via connecting the first two in parallel. Two dimensional rule bases, with seven memberships for both inputs and output, are used to perform the control action. Computer simulation is guided to illustrate the performance and show the result for the three types.
Keywords: Fuzzy PID Controller, Positional Control, Error, Change of Error.

Strength, Durability And Hydraulic Properties Of Clayey Soil Stabilized With Lime And Industrial Waste Lime

Ibrahaim M. A. Al-Kiki; Khawla A. K. Al-Juari; Dr.Suhail A. A. Khattab

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 102-116
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44026

This research aims to study the effect of utilization of industrial waste/lime (by-product of sugar factory) on some engineering properties of clayey soil selected from Mosul city. These characteristics are unconfined compressive strength, permeability, soil-water characteristic curve and Durability. The tests were performed at different percentages of lime (2, 4 and 6) % and industrial waste/lime (2, 4, 6 and 8) % by dry weight of soil.
Results showed a decrease in the plasticity, swelling pressure and swelling potential of treated soil. The soil became non plastic at optimum lime, waste lime contents of (4, 6) % respectively. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) increased with increasing of curing time and stabilizer contents and reached a maximum value at optimum stabilizer contents. The (UCS) of soil stabilized with industrial waste lime was more than that stabilized by lime at different curing times. Durability tests (immersion and slaking) showed that the treated soil with lime was more durable than that treated with waste lime. The Permeability of treated soil was found to be more than that of natural soil. On the other hand, the permeability of soil treated with waste lime was more than that of treated by lime at different curing time and it reached a maximum values at (4, 2)% for the soil treated with waste lime and lime respectively. The soil-water characteristic curve showed that the soil ability to hold water increased with increasing lime and industrial waste contents.
Keywords: clayey soil, lime, industrial waste lime, strength & durability, hydraulic properties.

Evaluation of Power Budget and Cell Coverage Range in Cellular GSM System

Dr. S. A. Mawjoud

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 37-47
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.43987

The paper deals with study of affecting parameters on the communication performance and the coverage range of the cell, and thereafter on the efficient coverage of the intended area. The coverage starts within the basic unit (the cell), by estimating the affecting parameters on the signal power level in the uplink and downlink at the worst practical circumstances (the mobile station at the cell boundary, or in a high fading region), taking into consideration the factors causing fading and other losses is the signal power.
Keywords: Cellular system, Power Budget, cell range.

Enhancement of Token Ring LAN Performance Using Multiple Tokens Technique

Dr. A.I.A Jabbar; Dr. Qutaiba I. Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 25-36
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.43973

Token ring LAN’s have been used for many years and occupied an important part of the computer network world. It has the advantage of stabilized performance over variable load conditions. In this paper, a new method is introduced to enhance the characteristics of the LAN. The idea behind the new method is to give the stations on the ring more opportunity to transmit by splitting the main ring into mutiple subrings each one of them use the same protocol of the ordinary token ring LAN and managed by supervisor stations. Discrete event simulation is used to examine the effect of adopting the new method on the performance of the ordinary LAN(for simplicity of simulation, two subrings is considered in this research). The results obtained from the simulation program show the benefit obtained from the new method.
Keywords : Token Ring , Throughput , Delay

Reconfigurable Hardware Based Programmable Digital Circuit Design for a Rotational Stepper Motor

Rabee Mouffag Hajim; Yahya Taher Qassim

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 15-24
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.43968

In this research, a hardware digital circuit was designed for a programmable rotational stepper motor using VHDL as a design tool and the FPGA as a target technology. The design is implemented on a Spartan 3 starter kit (supported with XC3S200 field programmable gate array). The 50 MHz provided by the starter kit is divided to obtain the necessary delay time between the motor phases that ranges between 2-10 m seconds. Through output selections, the direction of rotation of the stepper motor besides the magnitude of the angle of movement and the rotation speed can be controlled. The advantage of using reconfigurable hardware (FPGA) instead of a discrete digital component is that the designer can make modifications to the design easily and quickly, and the total design represents an embedded system (which works without computer). The total programmable hardware design that make control on the stepper motor movement, occupy an area that did not exceed 12% of the chip resources.
Keywords: Stepper Motor, Motion control, FPGA.

Application of Radial Basis Function Neural Networks for Reference Evapotranspiration Prediction

Dr. Taymoor A. Awchi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 117-130
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44029

The present study investigates the potential of Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural networks for the prediction of reference evapotraspiration (ETo). The study utilizes daily climatic data of temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, wind speed, and rainfall for five years collected from Mosul meteorological station, north of Iraq. Thirteen RBF networks each using varied input combination of climatic variables have been trained and tested. The network output is compared with estimated daily Penman-Monteith ETo values. To evaluate the performance of RBF networks, the same networks in the studied cases were re-trained using the well-known feedforward-backpropagation (FF-BP) networks. In addition, the effect of including a time index within the inputs of considered networks is investigated.
The study shows that the RBF network is seen to emulate the FF-BP in its performance and can be effectively used for ETo prediction. Besides, it is much easier to built and much faster to train. It is noticed that the networks’ output are very highly correlated to estimated ETo, especially when concerning all the climatic parameters. The study results reveal that adding a time index to the inputs highly improves the ETo prediction of the studied cases.
Keywords: Radial Basis Networks, reference evapotranspiration, climatic data.

Paradigms of Dealing with Context of Place in Iraqi Contemporary Architecture (1960-1980)

Niem B. Manouna; Huda A. Al-Daheen

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 4, Pages 94-112
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.45258

Architecture of place is a preposition presented in the modern architectural trends, especially in post-modernisim as a reaction against modern architecture and its planning ideology of architectural unity. New trends were emerged concentrating on architecture related to place. As in Iraq. The paper discusses the importance of this subject, in order to explore the particular problem which has been represented as (lack of clarity of architecture of place in Iraqi contemporary architecture 1960-1980).
Thus the objectives of the paper has been formed and method has been specified by building theoretical framework consisting of two main items as the following: (Responses and considerations relating to architecture of place), firstly, then the application of the cultural considerations on selected architectural trends through Iraqi contemporary architecture (1960-1980), secondly, finally, concluding paradigms of dealing with context of place, thirdly.
Coclusions have been declared the importance of the role of place in works of Iraqi architects during sixties and seventies concentrating on the strong relationship between the place with its natural and cultural considerations, on one hand, and the product (building) and the human being who inhabits it, on the other hand.

Keywords: Architecture of place, Iraqi contemporary architects, Context of place.

Teaching Architectural History _ Goals and Tools Study in Literatures of Architectural History Curriculums

Dhuha Abdul Ghani Abdul Aziz

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 4, Pages 113-127
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.45262

The research deals with architectural history as one of the basic subjects in architectural teaching and learning, exploring both its’ goals and tools. Its’ goals concentrated directly on developing mental skills of students, and indirectly on either the concept of historical continuity or the concept of historical development. Its’ tools can be defined by the procedures of knowledge communication which includes both procedures of teaching and studying history, and the scientific content to be communicated to students.

Keywords: architectural history curriculums, procedures of teaching history, historical knowledge communication, historical knowledge content.

Simulation of Handoff Techniques in Mobile Cellular Networks

Dr. S. A. Mawjoud

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 4, Pages 31-39
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.47090

Mobility is the distinct feature of wireless mobile cellular system. Usually,
continuous services is achieved by supporting handoff which is the transfer of an
ongoing call from the current cell to the next adjacent cell as the mobile moves
through the coverage area. usually handoff calls are given higher priority than new
calls since it has a significant impact on the network performance. Simulation study
of the relative signal strength with hysteresis and threshold (RSS-HT) algorithm for
varying hysteresis and threshold are studies to evaluate the mean number of cell
handoffs, mean number of wrong cell handoffs and expected average signal strength.
Keywords- Cellular network, signal strength, handoff schemes.

Role Of Clays Addition On The Stability Of Collapsible Soil Selected From Mosul City

Khawla A. K. AL-Juari; Dr.Salah W. I. Bahhe; Dr. Suhail A. A. Khattab

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 4, Pages 13-30
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.47080

Volume changes of a collapsible soil selected from Hawy Al-Kanissa in
Mosul city were studied. The Influence of addition of (5, 15 and 30) % of low (CL)
and highly plastic (CH) clayey soil were studied. Many variables as: the initial dry
unit weight, water content and applied stresses on volume change were considered.
State diagrams representing gradual volume change due to these variables were also
presented and discussed.
The main results were showed that the collapse potential (Cp) increased
continuously for samples mixed with (CL) soil while there were a maximum value at
(5%) of (CH) soil. At low unit weight, (Cp) for samples mixed with (CL) reached a
highest value at certain stress, then started to decrease, while it increased
continuously using (CH). (Cp) of soils containing (CH) was found to be less than that
mixed with (CL) soil. Concerning soil volumetric changes using state diagrams
presentation, volume change for undisturbed natural soil at low moisture content was
found less than that in disturbed samples, but the inverse was obtained at saturation.
Besides that, volume changes increased with the increase of the clay additive in
different manner for (CL) and (CH) soils.
Keywords: Clay, Collapsible soil, Volume change, unsaturated soil.

Prediction Of Behaviour Of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams With Web Openings Using Finite Elements

Khalaf Ibrahem Mohammad

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 4, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.47078

This study presents a nonlinear analysis using the finite element method to predict
the ultimate load and mode of failure for reinforced concrete deep beams with web
openings. Materials nonlinearities due to cracking, plastic flow or crushing of
concrete and yield conditions of the reinforcing steel are considered. The capabilities
of the proposed model have been examined and demonstrated by analyzing five
reinforced concrete deep beams with web openings.
Keywords: nonlinear, elasto-perfect plastic, finite element, reinforced concrete, deep
beams, web openings

Investigation of Shear Response of Fibrous Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Incremental-Iterative Method

N. S. Al-Saffar; S. A. Al-Ta

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.45048

The brittle nature of concrete leads to a brittle shear failure, which the designers try always to avoid by making the flexural strength of the member less than the shear strength. The addition of steel fibers to concrete converts the brittle characteristics of concrete to a ductile one, such fibers are uniformly distributed and randomly oriented throughout the volume of the concrete. The steel fibers are suitable as shear reinforcement especially in thin members such as slabs and thin webs, where the use of shear reinforcement is not possible.
An incremental- iterative method which utilizes the equations of equilibrium, compatibility of deformations and materials constitutive relationships is employed to find out the complete response of beams under increasing shear loads. The method gives detailed information about the flexural and shear stresses in concrete, steel stresses, cracks initiation and propagation and failure loads. The results obtained such as failure load and failure pattern showed good agreement with some published experimental results.

Optimal Reservoir Sizing for Small Scale Water Harvesting System at Al-Hader in Northren Iraq

Dr. Mohammad E. Mohammad; Dr. Ahmed Y. Hachum

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 83-97
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.45057

A procedure is presented for determining the optimum reservoir size for supplemental irrigation using Linear Programming technique. The volume of water stored depends on the available runoff during the time interval considered along the rainy season, and the water demand which also varies depending on stage of plant growth. The runoff amount is estimated using the well-known Soil Conservation Services (SCS) curve number method. The required input data for the model are the daily rainfall depth for each time interval, soil type, construction cost per unit volume of reservoir, loss of economical return per unit area of land left as a catchment, and the maximum allowable catchment area which depends on total available area of land considered. The computerized model consists of two parts; in the first part, the program formulates the input data in the form of Linear Programming problem, while in the second part the program solves the problem by the Simplex method. The model is applied using data for Al-Hader area in Nineva Governorate. The long-term mean annual rainfall of the selected site is about 150 mm. The results showed that the most economic design is the one in which the required harvesting area is about three quarters of the total area under consideration. In this case the yield is sub-maximal, but most economical, and the irrigation depth is only about 87.5% of the case that gives the maximum yield. The required reservoir volume for the most economic design is about 111 m3/ha of the land area considered.
Keywords: linear programming, modeling and simulation, reservoir sizing, supplemental irrigation, water harvesting.

Effect of Coarse Aggregate Gradings on Some Properties of No-Fines Concrete

Hassan E. Al-Khatib; Khalid A. Zakaria

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.45058

The present work deals with the effect of graded coarse aggregates on some properties of no-fines concrete.
Seven mixes of no-fines concrete having (1-6) (cement - coarse aggregate by weight) and (50-60%) flow were tried with different gradation of aggregates (first three were single sized, the remaining four were graded aggregate with different maximum aggregate size).
The main parameters investigated were the compressive strength, flexural strength, dry density (unitweight) and thermal conductivity.
The results showed that the use of graded aggregates as compared to single size resulted in an increase in both compressive and flexural strength in the order of (56% and 21%) respectively and a lesser increase of dry density and thermal conductivity in the order of (3% and 8%) respectively.

Keywords: No-Fines Concrete, Aggregate Gradings, Maximum Aggregate Size.

Mathematical Modeling For Multi-Layer Optical Fibers

Dr. Manaf G. Said; Dr. Abdulghafoor I. Abdullah; Dr. Maan M.Shaker

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 73-82
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.45056

A mathematical model to solve a scalar wave equation based on weakly guiding approximation for multi-layer (or multi-step) optical fibers is numerically carried out. The suggested numerical method is suitable to any multi- layer index profile (including W-fiber and conventional fiber) and sufficiently accurate if fiber materials for successive layers have small index differences. The general characteristics of multi-layer fiber such as cutoff wavelength and dispersion are obtained employing this model.

Keywords: optical fiber, multi-layer and dispersion

Air Pollution and Rainwater Properties in Mosul City

S. S. Abdelwahab; T. A. Mahmood; Riyadh M. Al-Obaidi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 21-31
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.45072

Concentration and cumulative depositions of some major air pollutants (especially Lead Pb and Cadmium Cd ) was measured in six locations distributed with certain patern in Mosul city .It was possible to survey more than (10) separate rainfall storms during the period of study.
Locations near the city center exhibited the highest Cd and Pb value due to heavy traffic .
The level of Cd and Pb is still moderate, but due to probable effect on Tigris and groundwater as well as direct air quality, it is important to control sources of these two heavy metals in the future.

Free Vibration Analysis Of Rectangular Plates Using Higher Order Finite Layer Method

J. H. Haido; A. A. Abdul-Razzak

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 19-32
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.45049


في هذا البحث تم استخدام طريقة الطبقة المحددة ذات النسق العالي المعتمدة على الخط العقدي المساعد وذلك لتحليل الاهتزاز الحر لصفائح المستطيلة. تم اجراء تحليل الاهتزاز الحر باستعمال الطريقة التكرارية العامة لجاكوبي وبهذا توجد الترددات الطبيعية وانماط الاهتزاز. تم الاخذ بنظر الاعتبار تأثير اختلاف المادة والابعاد للصفيحة على تحليل الاهتزاز الحر لها.
تم دراسة عدة امثلة لاظهار الفعالية الجيدة لطريقة الطبقة المحددة ذات النسق العالي باستخدام السطح العقدي المساعد في تحليل الاهتزاز الحر للصفيحة.

Matlab-Based Design and Implementation of Time-Frequency Analyzer

Soad Taha Abed; Abdul-Bary Raouf Sulaiman

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 60-72
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.45055

Spectrum analysis uses Fourier analysis for detecting the spectrum of a signal. The signals to be analyzed must be stationary that their spectra must not varying with time. For signals whose spectra varying with time (non-stationary) such as seismic signal, biomedical signal, speech signal, Joint Time-Frequency Analysis (JTFA) must be used. The work is to design PC- based Joint Time- Frequency Analyzer including the methods that used to calculate and display energy in Time-Frequency domain. These methods are the Short time Fourier transforms (STFT), Wavelet Analysis (WT), and Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD). Using the Graphical User Interface (GUI) for the Matlab software, front panel is designed as control panel involving all functions and tools necessary for the analysis.
Hardware requirements for interfacing the signal to the PC are considered and designed. The sound card used for signals in the audio range. External signals can be recorded, displayed, measured, stored and processed in time-domain, frequency-domain, and time-frequency domain.
Keywords: Digital signal processing, JTFA, Time-Frequency Analyzer

Setting Of Distance Protection For Ehv Doubled Circuit Line By Using Quadrilateral Relay

Yousuf Mohammed Younis; Dr. Abdul Ghani A. Abdul Ghafoor

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 32-44
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.45073

This study describes the setting of distance protection for quadrilateral distance relay for double circuit lines which work at Extra High Voltage (EHV) by using (MATLAB SIMULINK) to simulate the three phase faults and states of earth faults for operation at different conditions taking into consideration the factors which effect on the measured impedance by relay especially the effect of zero mutual reactance to achieve the best setting.
The results proved that the setting with earth fault is the same as with phase fault. Also the change of setting factor causes undetermining of the fault location accurately. Also the results proved that the effect of intermediate station causes under reach and the reactance setting for backup zones tend to match among the different operation states.
Keywords: Protection, Distance, Relay, Setting.

The Impact of Break-Through Streets on Changıng The Spatıal Confıguratıon Of Old Mosul

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 78-91
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.45089

Mosul is one of the cities that appeared before Islam. Later on it was reformulated according to the islamic planning principles. It remained a model of an arabic islamic city, till the beginning of the twentieth century, when it had witnessed the construction of a number of wide and straight streets penetrating the urban texture of the traditional city, leading to the destruction of its social and physical structure. Then, break-through streets started to be more convenient strategy adopted by the planning authorities to realize their urgent objectives for raising the quality of life in the traditional city of mosul. After critically reviewing the previous literature, it was concluded that none of those studies have dealt, scientifically and objectively, with the problem of defining the impact of break-through streets upon the spatial organization of Old Mosul. This defect was adopted as the problem of this study aiming at the definition of that impact.
Suitable methodology was adopted to realize the study objectives, using space syntax techniques to analyze and describe the spatial organization of Old Mosul before and after the adoption of break-through streets strategy.
The conclusions provide a more clear description of the spatial organization of the old city of Mosul before and after the penetration of break-through street


Design of DAQ Card to Control the Speed of DC Motor Using ISA Slot

Firas Ahmed Alderzey; Dr. Abdelelah K. M

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 45-60
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.45082

Data acquisition card has been designed as a card connected to the industrial standard architecture (ISA) slot in the motherboard of a Pentium III personal computer in order to control the speed of a DC motor in real time. A program in C++ language has been written to realize and implement an algorithm of the controller and to get in and out of the signals to and from the designed card. The two sampled signals, the speed of the DC motor and the current in the armature, are processed by using digital proportional plus integral (PI) control and the output signal is the actuating signal for a thyristor bridge to control the speed of DC motor. The transient response for current and speed are drawn in PC monitor in the real time with different colors using graphics.

Keywords: Data acquisition, card (DAQ), ISA, speed control, DC motor, PI controller.

Study of Microstructure and Some Mechanical Properties of Ceramic Matrix Composite Material

Salim Aziz Kako

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 9-20
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.45070


The aim of this research is to study microstructure and some mechanical properties of ceramic matrix composite material. Powder of Al2O3 was used as ceramic material after had been pressed by different pressures (58 Mpa, 117 Mpa and 176 Mpa) in metallic mold. The sintering process has been preformed at 1200oC for two hours. After that, the porosity percentage has been measured and the samples were heated to 700oC and then immersed in the molten pure aluminum and (Al-2.26% Mg), and heated to about 1000oC for half an hour. Then, the samples were cooled to 650oC. Microscopic tests and x-ray diffraction analysis has revealed zones with different hardness and with different structures. Moreover, the results showed that the adhesion between the ceramic matrix and the deposited metal depends on the molten metal type and the percentage of magnesium content of aluminum.

Keywords: Composites, Ceramic-metal bonding, Infiltration

Improving the Throughput of a Network using VLAN Switch Techniques

Mohammed Basheer Abdullah; Dr. A.I. A. Jabbar

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 33-49
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.45051

High throughput with minimum delay is the ultimate demand being required from any network. Traffic congestion is the major problem that deteriorates the performance of a given network. Although switches help to a large extent in improving the traffic efficiency, but this is not the case with large scaled networks (WAN for example). VLAN switches play important roles in further improvements of network performance. The available types are based on port number and the new versions are based on MAC address, both types suffer from lack of security. The proposed VLAN switch provides higher network security because it is based on a simultaneous port and MAC functions. This benefit justifies the slight reduction in the throughput-delay performances as compared with the other types.

Keywords: VLAN, Switch, Throughput, Delay, MAC

The Effect Of Particle Size Distribution (Psd) Concept Of Coarse Aggregates On The Water Demand Of The Concrete Mix”

Dr. Khalid A. A.; Ghanim H. Koja; Nadiya S. I. Al Saffar

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 30-41
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.44953

The effect of particles size distribution of the coarse aggregates on the water demand of the concrete mix was studied and analyzed using the concept of particles size distribution in so far as they deviate from the avera size or fineness modulus as indicated by the standard deviation of the sample.
Six concrete mixes 1:2:4 by weight (320 kg/m3 cement content) were designed for a given slump of (30-60) mm. The main variable being the gradation of the coarse aggregates.
The results showed that an increase in the S.D of the coarse aggregate particle distribution resulted in an increase in the water demand of the mix, this was further substantiated by a decrease in the resulting compressive strength. An extra 38 similar concrete mixes were selected randomly from the literature for further supporting evidence.

Keywords: Particle size distribution, Water demand, standard deviation, average size of aggregate

Compressive and Tensile Strength of Natural Fibre-reinforced Cement base Composites

Dr M. A. Ismail

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 42-51
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.44954


This paper describes the effect of the addition of various volume fraction (0-%4) of short natural fibres on the behavior of the composites. An experimental work has been carried out to study the mechanical properties of Roselle fibre-reinforced cement composites. The results show that the tensile strength of composite increases, (this increase in strength is about 53%), while the compressive strength decreases as the fibre volume fraction is increased.
Keywords: Cement , Composites ,Compression , Mechanical Properties Natural Fibre ,Roselle Fibre, Strength, Tensile.

Factors affecting the static operation of Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier(EDFA)

T. A.AL-Jumailly; F. Y.AL-Abayagee

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 52-70
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.44955


Doping a part of the optical fiber core by ( ) ions with the availability of external pumping power (pump laser),will lead to the formation of erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA).The performance of this optical amplifier depends on the parameters in this article which form this optical amplifier (the power and the wavelength of the pumping laser,the power and wavelength of the input signal, amplifier length,ion concentration).The effects of these quantities on the action and performance of erbium amplifiers such as amplifier gain,gain saturation,noise figure and out power of the amplifier are investigated.

Keywords: Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier(EDFA), Single mode, Population inversion.

Rationale of Deficit Irrigation Planning and Management

Dr. Ahmed Y. Hachum; Dr. Anmar A. Al-Talib

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 85-103
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.44960

A simulation model for evaluating the effect of water availability in the soil and salinity on yield under deficit irrigation has been developed. The model is based on water volume balance concept for scheduling irrigation using different levels of allowable percent water depletion. To take the effect of salinity on yield into consideration, the crop evapotranspiration is linked to the salinity level in the soil water using the procedure described in FAO (1998). The model was used to study the effect of both water deficit and salinity build-up during the growing season on yield of cotton for different scenarios, assuming zero leaching, with different irrigation water salinity levels, and allowable percent depletion of water in the root zone.
To verify the validity of the model, preliminary one year data from experiment conducted in northern Syria during the summer season of year 2004 for cotton are used. The data included four deficit irrigation levels using drip irrigation system: full irrigation (no deficit); applying 80%, 60%, and 40% of full irrigation. The experiment was laid out in three replications. The main outcome of the study included useful relationships between relative yield with relative crop evapotranspiration as affected by different levels of deficit irrigation and water salinity. Given the salinity of irrigation water and selecting a cretin level of percent water depletion, the relative evapotranspiration (Etcadj/ETc) can be predicted. Upon knowing the relative evapotranspiration, the relative yield under the given conditions can be also evaluated.

Keywords: deficit irrigation, irrigation scheduling, soil salinity, simulation, evapo-transpiration, leaching requirements.

Ornament In Architecture Particularity of Ornament in Modern Movement

Shatha Yacoub Al - Sheikh

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 63-83
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.44967

Ornament is considered one of the significant concepts in the recent architectural thought , it has emerged clearly as a mean of creating the highest levels of beauty in Architecture ,especially in late-modernisim and post-modernisim as a reactiom towards the problems of modernity connecting with the creating ornamental productions as well as what is known about modernity from rejecting ornamentation . The paper has discussed the importance of the concept concentrating on a well-known realism about ornamentation in the architectural reality, in order to explore the particular problem which has been represented as (the ornament in modern movement).
Thus the problem of the paper has been formed and its objective and method has been limited, by building a comprehensive and theoretical framework consisting three main items of detailed theoretical field as the following : (intellectual attitudes related with ornament, means and methods of creating ornament and aims of ornament) which limit the concept in Architecture, firstly, then the application of the items on selected architectural trends through modernity like Corbusier and Mies, secondly, at last concluding the particularity of ornament in modern movement, thirdly.
Conclusions have been contradicted with the familiar expression of modernity rejection to ornament, and it has been clear that modernists used ornaments in their projects but in a new style, and modernists ornaments were considered as symbols through architectural form expressing their era.

Keywords: Ornamentation, decoration, adornment, embellishment in architecture

Numerical Study Of The Effect Of Some Forming Paramiters In Hemispherical Punch Stretching

W.J. Ali; A. Alsaati; F. M.Alkaissy

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 71-84
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.44958

In this work a finite element simulation is used for the hemispherical punch stretching test. The effect of strain hardening exponent, the original thickness of the sheet metal and the coefficient of friction between the punch and the blank on the formability of sheet metal are investigated. The results of this simulation are used to derive an empirical formula combining the simultaneous effect of the three parameters on the final thickness of the sheet. This formula is used to derive a numerical criterion which can be used in a separate finite element program for predicting the initiation and the position of localized necking. The effect of the three parameters on the level of the forming limit diagram is also investigated. An emphasis is put on the relation between the coefficient of friction and the strain path.

Keywords : Localized necking, empirical formula, strain path

Influence of Mutual Coupling due to Zero-Sequence On The Performance of Distance Relay

Dr. Abdul Ghani A. Abdul Ghafoor; Mr. Ahmed Ateya Al-Badrany

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.44935

To get accurate performance of the distance protection function, Must be all influencing quantities and limitations on the measuring accuracy of distance relay that imposed by power system in considered. This research includes study and analysis of the problems which faces the conventional distance relay which was designed for single circuit distance protection when applied double circuit of over head transmission line, due to mutual coupling zero - sequence system in this case, For various operational conditions and fault location,This work had been conducted with (I.N.R.G. 132 kV) transmission lines systems under to ground fault condition, The current and voltage at the relay and fault location were calculated.
The results show that zero sequence mutual coupling may cause the distance relay to seriously over reach under reach for different operational situations and fault locations, Values of short circuit levels ratio and power flow for feed sources which connected to the line ends have major effect in this problem.
This research indicate the possibility of zero sequence coupling compensation by injecting proportion of the zero sequence current flowing in the parallel feeder into the relay to reduce this effect, This method is successful when relay and fault location are in the a same circuit, Also when relay and fault location are in different circuits but with limits .
Keywords: Protection, Distance Relay, Influence of Mutual Coupling.

Modeling and Simulation of multi-pulse Cycloconvereter-fed AC induction motor and study of output power factor

Maamoon Al-Kababjie; Rezgar Mohammed Khalil

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.44905

The need for use of cycloconverters is in controlling a.c motors at low speed drive especially in high power application. The MATLAB-SIMULINK model for three pulse, six pulse and twelve pulse three phase to three phase cycloconverter has been constructed. The control strategy of supplying the firing pulses is based on the cosine wave crossing method. The SIMULINK model for the control circuits to perform the procedure of this strategy has been constructed. A control circuit for each thyristor to control its firing pulses has been constructed separately to prevent any complexity in the control circuit. An R-L load was used. In additional a three phase induction motor has been connected to test the reliability of the system in controling the output frequency and then the motor speed. The present study includes circulating current and semi-circulating current modes of operation with study of measuring and correction of output power factor of the cycloconverter and output voltage waveform harmonics.

Keywords:Three-phase to Three-phase, Cycloconvereter, Modeling and Simulation, MATLAB-SIMULINK model

Towards the Improvement of the Computer Network of Mosul University Using (OPNET) Software

Dr. A.I. A. Jabbar; Mohammed Basheer Abdullah

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 15-26
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.44924


Mosul University network which covers most of its departments and colleges has been implemented in a star topology using fiber optic cables and Cisco switches. In order to participate in optimizing the network performance by minimizing broadcast and collision domains, a proposed network (as an example) for the Engineering College based on VLAN technique has been developed using the network simulator software (OPNET IT GURU). The suggested model could be applied to other colleges. The results being obtained represent the optimum possible improvements in terms of node delay, throughput and minimizing unnecessary traffic to avoid network congestion.

Keywords: Network Simulation, OPNET, VLAN, Switch

The Attributes of Spatial Organisation of Traditional and Contemporary Urban Structures -A Comparative Study of Two Selected Areas in Mosul -

Miqdam A.M.Alkurukchi; Mumtaz H.D.Aldewachi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 81-95
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.44943

The urban environment represents an expression of the temporal status of its society . Any alterations caused by the development of this society will be followed by changes in the built environment and these will affect the spatial organisation attributes of this environment .
This research explains the similarities and dissimilarities of spatial organisation attributes for both traditional and contemporary urban areas . Two temporally different districts in Mosul are selected as a case study and they are analysed using the space syntax methodology .
The research is ended with a number of findings which explain the attributes of each district , the traditional one has its efficient accessability with high control on any strange traffic while the influence of the designer is obvious in the organization of spaces in the contemporary district.
Keywords : Spatial Organisation , Spatial Configuration , Space Syntax

Behavior Assessment Of Various Filters Configuration In Removing Water Low Turbidity: A Statistical Treatment

Ahlam Z. Ameen; Abdulmuhsin S. Shihab; Sati M. Al-Rawi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 72-83
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.44933

The research focuses on the behavior of laboratory bench-scale filters that receive low-turbidity raw water. The filters have different configuration in terms of materials type, materials size and thickness. These filters operate under in-line and direct mode of filtration with different doses of alum and coagulant aid.
A total of 200 filter runs were conducted. Statistical methods had been used in the determination of best configurations of tried filters. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan multiple range test had been employed for this purpose.
The results showed the superiority of filters operating under direct filtration mode compared to those of in-line filtration mode. It was thought that flocculation played a role in this result. Fine sand media of 0.56 mm E.S appeared to surpass the coarse media due to more trapping of impurities at pore spaces. The effect of coagulant aid addition was detected to act positively only with capping media filters, where an improvement in performance did occur. However, such improvement was low and did not justify importation of anthracite coal and coagulant aids and add an economic burden.
Keywords: Filtration modes, Filtration, Water turbidity, Water treatment.

Enhancement Of Spatial Structure Of An Image By Using Texture Feature Extraction

Turkan Ahmed Khaleel

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 27-39
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.44927

In this paper a new algorithm has been developed to enhance spatial structure by using texture feature extraction. Then, this algorithm has been programmed and an integrated program has been prepared by using Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0. In order to ascertain the usefulness of this algorithm, it has been applied in two groups of images, the first group consisted of three images of different feature. The results have been evident enhancement in spatial; structure. The second group of images consisted of multi-spectral images taken by Thematic Mapper (TM) in the city of Mosul. The results of this algorithm have been used in the classification.
The measurement of classification accuracy of the results of this algorithm compared with the original images which have not undergone any spatial structure enhancement revealed that this algorithm executed the process of texture feature extraction excellently. Further, the results were clear in the barren areas, Agricultural fields and the other areas as well.
Keywords: texture feature extraction, Spatial filter , Classification

Numerical Investigation of Natural Convection Heat Transfer from a Cylinder in a Vented Enclosure

Dr. Ghalib Y. Kahwaji; Mutaz A. Yonan

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2006, Volume 14, Issue 4, Pages 1-19
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2006.45369

In this work, Natural convection heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder placed in a vented enclosure was investigated numerically to infer the effect of Rayleigh number (Ra) having the values 1*104 , 5*104 and 1*105, the effect of the ratio of the enclosure width to the cylinder diameter (W/D) having the values 1.5, 1.75, 2, 2.25, 2.5, 2.75, 3 and 3.5, the effect of the ratio of the vent size to the enclosure width (O/W) for a range starting from 0 for a closed enclosure to 1 for an enclosure having two vertical walls only, and the effect of time variation, on the Nusselt number (Nu), the mass flow-rate, the flow and temperature patterns as well as the boundary layers, where the results showed that, Nu. number always increased with Ra. Number. Furthermore, Nu. number increased with the increase of the ratio W/D for ratios of O/W greater than 0.25, and Nu. number decreases with the increase of W/D for the range below this value.

Keywords : Convection , Enclosures , Cylinders Heat

Reflections Of Motor Vehicle Transportation On The Pollution Of Iraqi Environment

T.A .Al-Tayyar; S. M. Al-Rawi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2006, Volume 14, Issue 4, Pages 59-68
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2006.45377

The paper shows that the number of vehicles in the country amounts to 3.14 millions, a two- folds compared to the vehicle numbers in the last decade. This huge number emits as much as 17.2 tons of exhaust gasses such as COx, NOx, SOx, lead, and other pollutants. This is equivalent to 40 gm/sq. kilometer of Iraq area. This paper also addresses the adverse consequences of this fast-becoming major problem for physical and mental health. It appears that this sector may lead to 40-100 deaths/10000 vehicle, a value that exceeds the global rate. Vehicles are gluttony consumers of fuel. It is estimated that 71 million liters of fuel are daily burnt in vehicles. This may create odor, thermal pollution, as well as other pollutants. More than 3 million used batteries and 6 million tires are yearly discarded. The fate of these materials is either burnt causing more air pollution or left on land and creating solid waste problems. This sector has other detrimental effects on environment. Noise pollution, tourist activities consequences, and military actions using such vehicles could bring about a detrimental bad impact on the environment. The paper concludes with some steps to be adopted so as to reduce the burden caused by motor vehicle sector on the Iraqi environment.
Keywords: Transportation pollution, Environmental pollution, Pollution.

Fractal Image CompressionَQuad-tree

Dr. Fakhiraldeen H. Ali; Azzam E. Mahmood

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2006, Volume 14, Issue 4, Pages 82-98
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2006.45367

The demand for images, video sequences and computer animation has increased drastically over the years. This has resulted in image and video compression becoming an important issue in reducing the cost of data storage and transmission time. JPEG is currently the accepted industry standard for still image compression, but alternative methods are also being explored. Fractal Image Compression is one of them. In this paper implementation of fractal compression with quadtree partitioning have been done, this paper also includes a study of the parameters that affect fractal image compression.

Keywords: fractal, compression, quadtree .