Keywords : Key Words

Suspended Particulates Levels in the Left Bank Residential Areas of Mosul City and Its Relation with Some Meteorological Factors

Abdulmuhsin S. Shihab; Taha A. Taha

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 158-164
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.88210

This research aimed to detect suspended particulate levels in Mosul city for the first time, as the previous studies depend on dustfall. The city was exposed in the last years to high levels of suspended particulates with the wind blowing. Many studies have found the risk of dust inhalation especially the very fine one. The measurements was conducted using Haz Dust-1100 device, including air temperature and wind speed during the study period from January to September 2010. The average suspended particulates of size 50 micron or less reached 230.8 microgram/m3 with a standard deviation of 210 microgram/m3 in the residential areas, which was higher than the allowable range of 200 microgram/m3. The months April, May and June recorded the higher levels of suspended particulates above the allowable level, while the lower levels was recorded in the cold rainy months January and February. The data analysis showed a significant inverse relationship between wind speed and suspended particulate levels of 50 micron size or less and significant direct relationship with air temperature. The research recommended to make a green belt around the city and increase the green areas to decrease the suspended particulate levels.
Key Words: Suspended Particulate, Dust, Wind speed, Air temperature, Mosul, Residential

The Dynamic Behavior of Different Hollow Flexible Robot’s Arms

Dr. Saad Zaghlul Saeed; Bakr Noori Alhasan

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 233-241
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.88216

In this paper, four different shapes of robots' hollow arm are suggested so as to inves-tigate the effect of shape on the dynamic behavior of the arm. The finite element method is used to determine the strength of the arms and their equations of motion. The static deflection, stress and moment of inertia are calculated and compared as well as the an-gular displacement and tip vibration of the four different shapes.
A PD controller with fuzzy logic is used for tracing the desired trajectory and reduc-ing the overshoot of the system. All simulations were presented using MATLAB and SIMULINK on the arms under the same desired step trajectory for a time of two seconds. The preferred robot arm is the one that has less vibration in trajectory and after reaching the target. As a result, the tapered arm (shape B) shows better characteristics in which less deflection, stress and tracking.

Key Words: Robot arm, Finite element, Flexible link, Fuzzy controller.

The Concept of Social Sustainability in Schools For the Contemporary Iraqi Architects

Dr. Ali Haider Al-Jameel; Tara A. Abbo al- Yase

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 36-49
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.88202

This paper tackles the problem of the decreasing social quality of Iraqi schools resulted from repeating school models designed long time ago, despite the world recent socially sustainable schools designs which was affected by profound changes in the fields of education, sociology and psychology culminated by the introduction of the concept of social sustainability. Accordingly, these nececiates parallel developments in the schools design thinking and practicing of the Iraqi architects. This paper intends to answer the question of the nature of the social sustainability concept for the contemporary Iraqi architects as its main problem. The method adopted to tackle this issue includes introducing an adequate theoretical framework of the different aspect of social sustainability in schools, then exploring those aspects for Iraqi architects through a practical study. The conclusions defines the nature of deviation of the local design thinking in comparison with the general theory of social sustainable schools. Then required proposals are recommended.
Key Words:Social sustainability, Schools, Design Thinking, Design Measures, Contemporary Iraqi Architects

Evaluation of Atmospheric and Aqueous Corrosion of Passenger Car Body in Mosul City through the Year 2009-2010

H. A. Al-kareem; G. M. Hannoush; R. J. Al - Ghadanfary

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2014, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 69-78
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.86996

Corrosion of five steel bodies of passenger cars of models 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, &
2005 that are used in Mosul city were studied under atmospheric and aqueous during
2009-2010. Atmospheric corrosion rates were below 1.7 mpy, which is classified as low
corrosion, this is due to dry weather conditions during the study period , and the quality
of steels of the car bodies. Aqueous corrosion rates were also low, below 4.57mpy, and
this is due to good water quality of Mosul , low Langelier saturation index, ideal
corrosion index, and the quality of steel body cars.
Key Words: Mosul city, Atmospheric Corrosion, Car Body Steels, 2010.

Patterns of Natural Lighting in the Architecture of Le Corbusier & Kahn

Dr. A.H. Al-Jameel; Dr. H. M. Hag Kasim; S. M. Kharrufa

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 6, Pages 37-54
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.82150

Le Corbusier and Kahn are two of the most distinguished architects who had employed natural lighting on the expressive dimension of Architecture. Despite the general impression given by previous literature about the resemblance between the two architects regarding natural lighting in Architecture, this research focuses on the problem of the inadequacy of the knowledge about the two architects variance regarding the expressive properties of natural lighting in their works and adopts defining this variance as its objective. The research adopts the approach of light zones and employs the relevant computer program for representing and analyzing natural lighting. And through a comparative study for two cases, the conclusions about the variance between the two architects, regarding defined variables representing a group of natural lighting properties, related to the expressive dimension of architecture, are introduced.

Key Words: Natural Lighting, Expressive Dimension of Architecture, Light Zones.

Influence of Number of Wire Mesh Layers on the Behavior Strengthened Reinforced Concrete Columns-ENG

B. J. AL-Sulyfani; M. N. Mahmood; S. M. Abdullah

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 5, Pages 80-91
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.79577


The main objective of the present experimental program is to study the behavior of reinforced concrete short columns subjected to combined axial load and flexure strengthened with ferrocement. To carry out the investigation, seven columns were tested. Out of which, one is the control un-strengthened column tested to failure to find out their load carrying capacity, six columns strengthened with ferrocement. The main objective of the present work is to investigate the effects of ferrocement thickness and number of wire meshes on the load capacity of those columns.
Increasing wire mesh layers from 2 to 5 causes an increase in the ultimate load of the strengthened column with ferrocement compared with the control column. Using 20mm ferrocement thickness with a 5-wire mesh layers, the ultimate load increases 36.8% when compared with the control column. Similarly, for 30mm ferrocement thickness with 5 wire mesh layers the increase is 48%.
Key Words:Column, Ferrocement, Reinforced Concrete, Strengthening.

Weight Optimization of Syme Socket Prosthesis

Bakr Noori Khudher

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 59-65
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.75557

In this paper the finite element analysis was achieved on the Syme socket prosthesis to know the possibility of weight reduction of the socket. Previous works were restricted to stress analysis and socket-stump pressure distribution. In this work, the maximum stress induced in the socket model was found out at the maximum load carrying capacity that is developed at push-off stage of gait. The stress calculated is less than the yield and ultimate strength of the socket material, from which the optimum weight of the socket is obtained. The weight reduction of the socket is achieved by decreasing its thickness. At this point, the maximum stress is calculated again at the same loading condition as before reducing the weight. The maximum calculated stress is still less than the yield stress of the socket material. As a result, further weight reduction is achieved and hence the overall cost can be minimized by saving the expenditure on the material. Besides, the patients will feel comfort with light weight sockets.

Key Words: stress, Syme, socket, prosthesis, finite element, weight optimization.

Estimation of Reference Evapotranspiration by Predicting Temperature Values Using a Stochastic Model

Dr.Taymoor A. Awchi; Mr.Ihsan F. Hasan

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 82-91
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.75441

In this research, the stochastic model (ARIMA) was applied to modeling the monthly temperature values for the area of Mosul, Northern Iraq, by utilizing the time-series data of monthly mean temperature for the period (1995-2010) using the Minitab Software.The performance of the proposed model has been approved through the prediction of monthly temperature values for the years 2009 and 2010 where the correlation coefficient value was (R2=0.99) with the values of the actual data for the same years. Then theproposed model was used topredict the mean monthlytemperature values for the years (2011-2012). Due to its importance in the preservation of water resources and rational use in line with the future state of water in the region, this data was used to estimate the future values of Reference Evapotranspiration (ETo) using different empirical methods basedessentially on temperature. The results ofBlaney-Criddle and Hamon methods showed high correlation with ETovalue calculated by Penman-Monteith model.
Key Words: Reference evapotranspiration, Temperature, ARIMA, Time series.

Experimental Comparative Study on Composite RC T-Beams Behavior with Diverse Distributions of Headed Studs in Sagging –Moment Tensioned Concrete Media(English)

L. Kh. Al- Hadithy; M. R. M. Al-Alusi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 101-114
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.67357

لغرض تقييم تأثير أعداد ونمط ترتيب روابط القص الوتدية ذوات الرؤوس في العتبات الخرسانية المسلحة بسيطة الارتكاز ذوات الوترات المصبوبة جزئيا والمرتبطة داخليا بحديد ساقية عند أسطحها السفلى ، تم تنفيذ منهاج تجريبي باستخدام ثلاث حالات من أعداد الأوتاد وتوزيعها إضافة إلى حالة السيطرة الخالية من الأوتاد .
لقد تبين إن حالة العتبة الحاوية على عدد معتدل من الأوتاد وغير متجانسة التوزيع بمسافات داخلية بين الأوتاد لا تقل عن عرض وترة العتبة تجمع المزايا الساندة للعتبتين الآخريتين اللتين تضمان أوتاد متجانسة التوزيع إحداهما غزيرة والأخرى متباعدة مع تحاشي عيوبها المحتملة . على وجه التحديد ، فان مجالات أفضلية العتبة المثلى هي : الجساءة والمطاوعة والمقاومة القصوى الإنثنائية ، إضافة إلى تقييد الانزلاق النسبي وخصائص الوحدة التمامية . رغم احتجاز الخرسانة في نطاق حديد الساقية ، فان انخفاضات حادة في مستويات مقاومة الانحناء القصوى والوحدة التمامية قد حصلت عند إزالة روابط القص .

Water Treatment of the Khosar in Mosul City By Using Alum and Activated Carbon(Arbic)

Soad Abid Abawee; Halla Nabeel Elea

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2013, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 67-78
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2013.67346

This study aimed at treating the water of Al-Khosar in Mosul City , by using the alum as a coagulant and then treat the supernatant by adsorption on the activated carbon . The optimum doses of alum were (10 , 15 , 20 ) mg/l . At ( 20 ) mg/l , the alum achieved highest removal of (COD , Nitrate , Turbidity , Cd , Cu ) , which were ( 33% , 32.6% , 99% , 71.2% , 85% ) respectively . Then the supernatant treated by adsorption on the activated carbon were achieved removal efficiency of pollutants mension above (46.6% , 71.4% , 87% , 44.4% , 25%) respectively.At (15) mg/l of alum , the alum achieved highest removal of ( pb , Hardness, Magnesium, Calcium, and Sodium) which were ( 68%, 33.7%, 19.6%, 16.6%, 36.8%) respectively. The activated carbon achieved removal efficiencies for the supernatant at (15)mg/l (33% , 16% , 15% , 18.1%, 31.8% ) respectively . Whereas (10) mg/l of alum achieved best removal for the (Zn ,Phosphate , Chloride) which were (66%, 41% , 22.5%) respectively . The supernatant adsorped on activated carbon achieved removal efficiency ( 54%, 60% , 35.4%) respectively . The treated water was low in Sodium and suitable for most plants , and the pH value is in the range , and the heavy metals concentrations were in the range of normal water .
Key Words : the Khosar , Coagulation , Alum , Adsorption , Activated Carbon , Heavy Metals .

Pipeline Architecture for Clipping Straight Line Segments

Dena R. Ibrahim; Fakhrulddin H. Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 6, Pages 104-116
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.63399

Sometimes, in computer graphics, there is a need to show a part or a piece of a specific picture to study it accurately. For this purpose a window can be used to select the interested part of the picture for display out of other parts. This window is called a clipping window and this process is called a clipping process .On the other hand, clipping is required when a part of a moving image becomes out of the visible zone for display. So the clipping process is one of the important issues in the field of computer graphic specially for real time applications. Therefore a study of the line clipping with respect to a rectangular window while looking to various methods to achieve clipping process in the image space is presented in this paper. In addition to that, performance measurements are conducted and compared. The paper develops a method to perform clipping in the object space in which the line segment is clipped against a viewing volume. Finally, pipelining is adopted to realize clipping algorithm in hardware.
Key Words : Regional Code, Clipping Window , Viewing Pyramid, Pipeline.

Minarets of Mosul: Location and Signification of Style Change (Aabic)

Dr. Hassan Haj-Kasim

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 42-57
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.61023

Old Mosul –like other Islamic cities- is characterized by the architectural heritage, in particular Mosques with their towering Minarets. While analyzing the architectural characteristics of minarets, those related to their mosques and locations, and syntactical characteristics, most of the mosques have no minarets. Among the 32 old mosques, there are only 13 with minarets (40%). In accordance with architectural characteristics, they could be classified into: those derived from local minarets of previous ages, and those affected by Turkish minarets.
This research aims to examine and interpret these two phenomena. The research hypothesis is that they related to Islamic Law restrictions, and to the local identity related to political and cultural conditions. Islamic Law has restricted the existence of minarets in locations where there is no impacts on housing privacy. Thus, minarets were in markets, near city wall or in locations that were previously public areas. Minarets with local characteristics were built when native rulers ruled the city and local culture rooted from old ages. As for minarets affected by Turkish minarets; they were built when Mosul was directly ruled by Ottomans.
Key Words: Islamic Architecture, Minarets, City of Mosul

Design of Fractional Order PID Controller Based on Genetic Algorithms

Emad A. Al-Sabawi; Dr. Mazin Z. Othman

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 11-20
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.54151


Fractional Order Proportional-Integral-Derivative (FOPID) controller is based on integration and differentiation of non-integer order. It is usually denoted by (0 < µ < 1 and 0 < λ < 1) . In this work the gain values of the proportional, Integral, and derivative (i.e ) as well as the values of µ and λ are obtained using Genetic Algorithms (GAs).The tuning procedure is based on the principle of model reference control. Illustrative example is presented in which FOPID controller is designed and compared with Integer Order PID (IOPID) ones. It was shown that FOPID controllers gave more freedom in faithfully following the dynamics of the reference model.

Key Words: Fractional order, PID tuning rules, Genetic Algorithms, Model reference control.

The Hydraulic Characteristics of Tigris River at Mosul City

T. A. Chilmiran; I. A.I. Al-Hafith; Kh. I. Othman

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 48-59
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.54142

In this research the hydraulic characteristic of seventy seven cross sections along 21 km of Tigris River at Mosul city were studied. These cross sections were surveyed and their bed and water surface elevations were measured.
The river at the studied reach have a different morphology and includes three different shapes (meander part braided part and straight part). The results of the study showed that the river at study reach has an average water surface slope equal of 4.7*10-4. The straight part of the river reach has uniform and regular hydraulic characteristic compared to other river parts. The river have wide cross sections, the values of T/D varies between 50-1500 and due to reduction in discharge there was a great reduction in flow depth and the river was receded and river reach was narrowed than before . The deepest part was extended beside the right bank from upstream of Ninevah Bridge to downstream of Al-Horriya Bridge. Application of HEC-RAS Model showed that the model can simulate the hydraulic characteristics of river under different flow condition. Data obtained from the model was used to find empirical relations between (average velocity, average depth, cross section area, Top width and discharge with the stage.

Key Words: Tigris River, Mosul City, Hydraulic Characteristics, HEC-RAS Model.

Evaluate the Performance of stochastic models in Generating Monthly Discharges for the Rivers in North of Iraq

Gada Younis Abdullah AL-ubaidy; Dr. Khalid Mahmood Khidir

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 7-22
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.50467

The data of monthly discharge which are available for most of the rivers in the north of Iraq have a short recorded period ,which has a great influence in the design and planning of water resources systems , where this short recorded not contain a critical and extreme flows sample of the low flow sequences.
Two stochastic models , bivariate "Thomas & Fiering" model and multi-side "matalas" model were used for generating time series for(100) years for the lower Zab and Diyala river at upstream of Dokan Dam and Derbendekhan Dam using the available recorded data for the period (1962-1997) .
From application of different statistical tests (Kolmogrov–Smirnov), Chi-Square (X2), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE, Z), found that "Matalas" model is more performance than the bivariate model, "Thomas & Fiering" generate time series for both rivers, so it can be concluded that the "Matalas" model can be proposed to be used for generating the flow series for the different rivers in the northern Iraq.
Key Words: Time Serious for monthly discharge, Stochastic Models , bivariate "Thomas & Fiering" model, "Matalas" model, Statistical Tests

Effect of Spans Length on Structural Design of Multi story Buildings

Tarek Edrees Saaed; Nuha Hemedy Al-Jubory

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 40-62
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.26769

The aim of this research is to obtain the optimum spacing between columns in both directions for multi story buildings through the optimization of reinforced concrete required to construct them. This will help the designer in determining the economic spacing in the preliminary design stage, to predict the cross section sizes of members for these spans and to determine the most influenced structural members. A four story (ground + 3 floors ) virtual reinforced concrete building was analyzed and designed for three cases of columns spacing ( 3.0 m , 6.0 m , 9.0 m ) using reinforced concrete frame structures for the same working load conditions. A detailed estimation and comparison for reinforced concrete quantities was carried out for the structural members and the average per square meter was calculated.
The results showed that the foundation was the most influenced members due to increase in the span of columns, 3.72 m was the optimum spacing concerning the quantity of Concrete required for construction (0.965 m3/m2) while the span of 4.23 m was the optimum span for reinforcing steel (86.64 kg/m2).

Evaluation of the Acceptance of the Hot Mix Asphalt Paving Mixture Using Backpropagation Artificial Neural Network

Mohammed Y. Taha

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 40-54
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.27341

The asphalt content in hot mix asphalt paving mixture is a key factor in producing quality pavements. In recent years, the artificial neural networks approach has attracted wide attention and found a growing number of pavement applications. This paper explores the feasibility of using the backpropagation artificial neural network with sigmoid function as activation function by MATLAB 7.8 software to determine the acceptability of the hot mix asphalt paving mixtures based on the percent of asphalt content and aggregate gradation using their Marshall properties. Several networks architectures, using two hidden layers with different numbers of nodes, are tested to obtained the best results.
The results showed that the network ( 10-20-10-3) had the best performance, and this network can be used as appropriated method for determining the asphalt content and aggregate gradation acceptability of hot mix asphalt paving mixture. This work concludes that the artificial neural network is a good method which can reduce the time consumed and can be used as a tool in evaluating the hot mix asphalt paving mixtures

Effect of Size and Surface Roughness of Cylindrical Weirs on Over Flow Characteristics

Ibrahim A. I. Al-Hafith; Tahssen A. Chilmeran; Khalil I. Othman

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 77-89
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.27351

weirs are the most commonly used device in channels for flow measurement and flow regulation due to its simplicity. Conventional rectangular, triangular and trapezoidal weirs are among the most common oldest types of weirs, progress ogee crest weir and cylindrical weirs are started to use in hydraulic engineering. The advantages of the circular weir shape are the stable overflow pattern compared to sharp-crested weirs, the ease to pass floating debris and the simplicity of design. The concern of this paper is to study the effect of size and surface roughness of cylindrical weirs on discharge coefficients (Cd) under different flow conditions.
The work was conducted in experimental flume by using three sizes of cylinders and three types of surface roughness. The obtained results show that Cd values will increase with increasing flow rate as well as with decreasing in cylinder diameter; an increase in surface roughness of weir can makes great reduction in Cd value. The h/R effect on Cd values increase with increase in cylinder diameter. An empirical relation was obtained to estimate the coefficient of discharge Cd under different size and surface roughness of cylindrical weirs.


Abdulrahman H. T. Al-Zubaydi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 12-28
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.27331

This work aims to study the effect of erosion on the strength, loss in weight and gypsum dissolution of gypseous soil stabilized with (4%) lime, take into account the following variables: initial water content, water temperature, soaking duration or flow duration and water velocity. The results indicate that, the unconfined compressive strength decreased for samples soaked in water have low temperature (50 and 250 C), further decrease in strength with increasing soaking duration. The higher water temperatures (490 and 600 C) showed increasing in the unconfined compressive strength. High water velocity causes decreasing in unconfined compressive strength, more loss in weight and more loss in gypsum content, for all values of flow duration and water temperature.

Truth in Modern Architecture A Study of the concept of Truth in Selected Works

Talaat I. Alaane; Dr. Ali H. Aljameel

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2011, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 70-92
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2011.27824

Truth is considered as an important concept in the modern architectural discourse as it appeared explicitly within the theoretical statements and the practices of Modern Movement. This research explores the concept of (Truth) in Modern Architecture to clarify the items on which it is based and how it is produced in architectural artifacts. However, this study concludes that (Truth) is a relative concept and it is based on two types of items (conceptual and formal). These items and their related mechanisms are explored empirically in selected works from Modern Architecture. It is concluded that those items and mechanisms were varied regarding the clarity of occurrence and the mechanisms used to imply the concept of (Truth) the selected works
Key Words: Truth, Sincerity, Frankness, Modern Architecture, Truth Architecture

Removal of PO4, NH3 and NO3 from hospital wastewater in Mosul City by SBR technique

Waad mohammed ali abbas; Fakhri Yassin Mahmood

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 30-44
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43625

The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) method was used throughout this research, for the treatment of hospital waste water in mosul. This system has also the advantages of low initial and performance costs. Different time periods were used in this study ranging (6-24) hrs for 6 months . The tests has been conducted in the environmental laboratory of the civil engineering department at the university of Mosul. Efficiency of PO4 removal from waste water depends on the change of anoxic conditions to aerobic. The efficiency is maximum when the periods of the two types of conditions are equal.. NO3 removal depend on food supply for micro- organisms to convert nitrates to nitrogen gas under anoxic conditions so it is change able.
According to the results gained, this kind of treatment could be used to remove phosphates & nitrates from hospitals wastewaters, and could be used for other cases when the discharge is relatively low, or unstable percentages of removal were 67% & 99% for SO4 & NH3 relatively.
Key Words :
phosphates , nitrates , sequencing batch reactor , biological treatment , hospital ww

Laboratory Comparison Study of Scour Downstream Weirs and Communed Gates

Ahmad A. A. Alkatan; Mwafaq Y. M. Aljubori; Bahzad M. A. Noori

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 5, Pages 60-75
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43392

In the present investigation , a laboratory study of scour characteristics downstream weirs , compound gates has been conducted . The study included the measurement of maximum scour depth and the length of scour hole downstream these structures . Also , the effects of structure height , undersluice opening height , discharge variation and bed material size on the depth and length of scour hole , Two hundred eighty eight Experiments were conducted in a concrete laboratory channel Three sizes of rocks were used are in range of (1.43-2.21) cm and three of 15,20 and 30cm and Three under gate opening heights of 1,2 and 3cm were tested Experimental. Results of this study showed a good direct relationships between relative scour depth (Ds/D50) with Froud Number (Fro) of correlation factor (R2) between (0.9729-0.9911) and other between relative scour length (Ls/D50) with (Fro) of correlation factor (R2) between (0.9636-0.9947) for weirs and another good direct relationships between (Ds/D50) with (Fr0) of correlation factor (R2) between (0.972-0.9866) and with (qu/qd) of correlation factor (R2) between (0.9608-0.9904) and other relationship between (Ls/D50) with (Fro) of correlation factor (R2) between (0.9861-0.9985) and with (qu/qd) of correlation factor (R2) between (0.9847-0.9955), many relationships were obtained the first to estimate (Ds/D50) of correlation factor (R2=0.9311) , the second for (Ls/D50) of correlation factor (R2=0.9421) downstream weirs each of them in terms of (Fr0) and (ΔHw/P) , the third to estimate (Ds/D50) of correlation factor (R2=0.8989) and the forth for (Ls/D50) of correlation factor (R2=0.9212) downstream compound gates each of them in terms of (Fr0),(ΔHw/P),(h0/ΔHt) and (qu/qd) . It was also shown that the scour depth and length downstream compound gates are less than those downstream weirs but the percentage decrement will decrease if the opening of compound gate is increased .

Wastewater Treatment of Khanssa Hospital by Using Some Types of Muds

Halla Nabeel Elea; Soad Abid Abawee

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 5, Pages 49-59
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43388

This study aimed to treat the wastewater of Khansaa Hospital in Mosul city by using mud of ( Bentonite , Ninavite & Kaoline ) the experiments were conducted by using the Jar-Test as laboratory scale .The efficiency had been calculated by the following characteristics :-( Chemical Oxygen Demand ( COD ) , Biochemical Oxygen Demand ( BOD5 ) , Oil and grease , Chloride , Sulphate ,Turbidity ,Total Hardness , Calcium , magnesium , Phosphate , Nitrate, Electrical conductivity ( Ec ) & ( pH ) ) . Bentonite showed the best removal efficiency , followed by Ninavite and Kaoline respectively . The removal efficiency was shown at the optimum doses for Bentonite then Ninavite and Kaoline at doses ( 40 , 50 & 60 ) mg/l respectively .Removal of COD give (62%,58%,51%) and (55%,50%,45%) for BOD5 at optimum doses , while oil and grease removal efficiency was (56%,51%&44%).Phosphate removal was (48%,42% & 39%) and efficiency of sulphate removal (46%,41.6% & 38) , while chloride removal efficiency (22%,20% & 17.2%).
Key Words: Bentonite Clay, Ninavite Clay, Kaoline Clay, Coagulation,Hospital Wastewater Treatment.

Numerical Study of Natural Convection Heat Transfer of a Square Eccentric Body Buried in a Porous Media

Ramiz Ibraheem saeed; ed Ahmed Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 51-62
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43283


Natural convection in a saturated porous medium bounded by two horizontal eccentric ducts is studied numerically by solving the governing Darcy-Boussinsq equations using finite differences on very fine grid. This paper reports the effect of the position of a cooled square body with respect to the centre of the square cavity vertically and horizontally. The numerical results of heat transfer are presented for modified Rayleigh number Ra* (based on width of cavity) in the range (50 to 400) and for different size of the body with respect to the width of the cavity (0.25x0.25,0.3x0.3,0.5x0.5) and six positions of the body respect to the center of cavity. The results are represented by streamlines and isotherms to show the behavior of the flow and temperatures distribution. Also some graphics had been obtained which represent the relationship between Nusselt and Rayleigh numbers with eccentricity. (Key words: natural convection, porous medium, cavity)
Key Words : Porous medium , Thermal nonequilibrium , Heat transfer , Natural convection.

Evaluation of Ignition Method for Determining Asphalt Content of Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures

Mohammed Y. Taha

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 39-49
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.39961

The asphalt content of an asphalt mixture, as binder, is an important physical characteristics and influences the performance life of flexible pavements. Traditionally, in Iraq the asphalt content has been measured in laboratory by extraction from the mixture with chemical solvents. Recently, a new technology, known as the ignition method, has been developed to eliminate the need for these harmful solvents and to make the laboratory more safer. The main objective of this work was to evaluate and use the ignition test method to determine asphalt content and aggregate gradation in hot mix asphalt mixtures. An extensive laboratory work was conducted to meet this objective, which involving more than 300 samples of asphalt mixture, with five asphalt contents and two types of aggregate of three types of gradation, were prepared and tested using ignition and extraction methods.
Data from ten laboratories was analyzed and used to determine the accuracy and precision of this test method. The study results and statistical analysis have show that the ignition method can be used to accurately and quickly determine the asphalt content and aggregate gradation of asphalt mixtures with same, if not greater, precision than the extraction method.

Key Words: asphalt content, ignition test, hot-mix asphalt, statistical analysis

Fault Location Estimation Algorithm for Digital Distance Protection Relay Based on Artificial Neural Network

Ahmed Ateya Albadrani

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 43-56
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38801

This paper investigates study the influence of a fault resistance on the performance of a digital distance protection installed on a transmission lines, it is well known that augment of fault resistance can cause seriously overreach or underreach to distance relay depending on the different operational situations of power system, To compensate the magnitude and phase error of the apparent impedance, This algorithm uses the angle of an impedance deviation vector ( ). The impedance correction algorithm for ground faults has been employed by the Fault Resistance Compensation Block (FRCB) to compensate fault resistance effect.

Artificial neural network technique using Matlab/Simulink software is trained to determine the suitable value of an impedance deviation angle for the FRCB, In order to minimize the estimated impedance error of a distance relay. The results of simulation showed that compensated scheme relay performance are acceptably improve and the impedance estimated by relay is close to the actual value via FRCB with ANNS. So the performance of distance relay is much more reliable and accuracy.

Key Words: - Distance protection, Fault resistance, Artificial neural network

Effect of Magnetizing Water on Uniformity of Sprinkle Irrigation

Ziyad A. AL-Sinjary; Anmar A. AL-Talib

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2009, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 68-79
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38687

Recent researches indicate that if water is exposed to an intense magnetic field, it is possible to obtain many positive effects on water properties that improve water use in irrigation application. Therefore, a field study has been conducted to evaluate the extent of there positive improvements under sprinkler irrigation. Uniformity of sprinkler irrigation is used as a performance indicator under different pressure heads.
The research included experimental work on solid set sprinkler system (single sprinkler type Rain Bird) using rotating sprinkler heads with single nozzle of diameter 5.2mm. The sprinkler was tested under pressures ( 10,12,15,17,20,22) psi.
Treatments have been conducted using normal water with 1 to 5 runs. Direct current (DC) magnetic field for magnetizing water is used to magnetize water. Five levels of the DC magnetic flux densities are used (525,603.1,650,1608.5,3016) Gauss.
The study has revealed the performance of the sprinkler irrigation system is improved when the magnetized water is used compared to non–magnetized under the same operating and climatologically conditions . The degree of improvement depends on the intensity of the magnetic field used.Under low and very low pressures, the most effective intensity on uniformity was the intensity 1608.5 Gauss . The best performance of the system was achieved at (15) psi with direct magnetic flux density of 1608.5 Gauss. There variables have achieved the highest increase in irrigation uniformity compared with irrigation in normal water which was 24.2 %.
Key Words: uniformity of irrigation, magnetized water, sprinkler irrigation.

The Earth Thermal Machin And The Green House Effect Bassam M. Mustafa

Bassam M. Mustafa

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 5, Pages 12-19
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44877

In this research we try to explain the greenhouse effect by suggesting a model looking to the earth –atmosphere system as a thermal machine .In this model earth absorbed heat and light energy from the sun ,doing work in achieving biological and other activities . the access energy is transmitted to the space. This system really represent a reversible thermal machine obey the 2nd law of thermodynamics and with efficiency about 56% . But the increase in the burning materials lead to an increase in the percentage of CO2 ,and since its molecules can absorb the radiation from the earth . thus leads to form irreversible engine with entropy production , by calculating the increase in CO2 the increase in entropy production is calculated . The increase in entropy increase earth’s temperature and lead to the greenhouse effect .

Key Words : Green house , Global otel for Green house, Atouspheric changes.

The Relation of Space Containment of Traditional Alleys with its Integration Degree (An Analytical Study of the District of Jame Al-Kabeer in the Old City of Mosul)

Hatim Hazim Al-Sofi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 5, Pages 51-62
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44900

The Arabic–Islamic cities is characterized with its narrow alleys and their hierarchy in width and containment. So the district of Jame Al-Kabeer which represents an example of the urban fabric of the old Arabic–Islamic city of Mosul has been selected to measure the degree of alley's containment enclosure by measuring the percentage of the width (W) of the alley to the height (H) and its integration within the Space Syntax theory. The shape of the integration core was peripherical integration core and the segregation core was in the center of the district. The percentage of the narrow alleys was 60.6% and the normal alleys 3.4% which represent the high degree of enclosure of the alleys in general. The statistical relation between the degree of integration and the degree of containment of the alleys was significant.

Key Words: Urban Design, Urban Space, Arabic – Islamic Cities.

A Simulation Study of Tunneled Voice over Internet Protocol System

A. I. A. Jabbar; D. M. Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 25-38
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44619

In this paper, the effects of real time traffic on non real time traffic are explained for conventional VoIP system. Also two types of Quality of Service models are applied; the End to End delay, the throughput, and the number of dropped packet are the main parameters used to evaluate the network performance. A new technique is proposed to solve the above problems. This technique is based on the tunneling process to carry the real time traffic. Some analysis is performed to expect the maximum call number served by a network. To overcome the overhead problem due the tunnel, two parameters are included; the first one is the number of real time packets tunneled in each frame, and the second one is the voice frame size. The analysis and the simulation show that as the number of the tunneled packet becomes larger, the maximum call number approaches to the non tunnel situation. On other hand, as the frame size becomes larger, the maximum call number exceeds the non tunneled situation. Of course, the maximum number of tunneled packets and the frame size affect the End to End delay which is controlled by the type of CODEC being used. A compromised value can be found to achieve the better network response. OPNET MODELER is the simulating software being used together with a dedicated program for performing some calculations related to network performance.
Key Words :VOIP, Accelerator,QoS,weighted Fair Queuing, Priority Queuing, Bandwidth efficiency, Header Compression, Tunneling, OPNET Modeler.

Three-Dimensional Numerical Study of Flow Characteristics Through a Centrifugal Pump

Dr. Hussein M. al-Yassiri; Dr. Khalaf H. Ali; Dr. Jalal M. Jalil

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 75-88
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44016

A solution method is developed to obtain three-dimensional velocity and pressure distribution within a centrifugal pump impeller. The method is based on solving fully elliptic partial differential equations for the conservation of mass and momentum by finite difference method to convert them into algebraic equations. The effect of turbulence introduced using a certain algebraic model based on modified Prandtl’s mixing length theorem. The conical coordinate system is used in order to fit an arbitrary hub-to-shroud shape. The set of algebraic equations is solved simultaneously by “SIMPLE” algorithm to obtain velocity and pressure distribution within the impeller passage. The results are compared with previous experimental results of other researcher under the same operating circumstances and acceptable agreement has been found.
Key Words: Numerical Analysis, centrifugal Pump, Performance, Flow Analysis.

“Effect Of Surface Treatments On The Adhesive Wear Of Low Carbon Steel”

Ahmed S.Abdalazez; Dr.waleed J.Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2008, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 17-25
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2008.44037

Wear is one of the problems that occur in the moving parts either by rolling or sliding. This work includes experimental study on the wear of low carbon steel. Three surface treatments were chosen these are cyaniding, solid carburizing and hard chrome plating. The wear test was made under dry contact condition for the treated and the untreated surfaces. A constant load and speed were used for two types of motion: sliding-rolling and pure rolling. An Amsler machine was used. The high carbon steel was chosen for making the upper specimen and the low carbon steel was chosen for making the lower specimen. The high carbon steel was hardened while the other was surface treated (carburizing, cyaniding). The hard chrome plating was also used to increase the surface hardness. It was noticed that increasing of surface hardness reduced the wear amount produced, and the cyaniding gave the highest resistance to wear whereas the hard chrome plating gave the lowest one, and the wear under pure rolling condition was small .It was found that the wear rate of treated surfaces is high in the first stage of the test then the rate decreases until it reaches a steady state and for both motions.

Key Words: Wear, surfaceو treatment, hardening, steel.

Factors Affecting the Occupation Devaition of Dwelling Units Spaces in New Districts in Mosul

Nasma M. thabit; Ghada M. Yonis; Momtaz . H.D. Aldewachi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 4, Pages 62-79
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.45252

The Actual occupation of Spaces in dwelling units is assummed to be coincidence with the desingated pattern of these spaces . This research aims to determine first the swerving of the actual occupation from the designated pettern , and second the factors affecting this swerving both related to dwellings attributes or occupants characteristics .
A sample of (100) dwelling units is randomly selected in Mosul For the studyو the statistical analyses of variables lead to findings which explain the effect of both dwellings and occupants attributes on the occupation pattern .
Key Words :Housing , Spaces Occupation , Post Occupancy Evaluation

Methods Of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Planning and Design

Maha Akram Sadala

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 61-77
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.45085

The role of the architectural environment :

Some modernization and immigration have accompanied the fast transferring from the traditional environment to the modern one. The complication of Mans life leads to the loss of the social unity in-between the old and new combination of societies. Besides, it results too discover new kind of societies suffer from financial and economical crisis that its causes have shown the dangerous effect on the city safety. One of the most important conclusions is the creation of criminal environment that would be inhabited by outlaws and these areas would be far away from the justice jurisdiction.
Mixing the usages of the land creates duality in the areas results out of the handling of these lands. The criminal density and existence is controversially related to a simple gathering downtown .
Key Words: Crime Prevention , Environmental Design , Modern Design.

Effect Of Types Of Bearing On The Load Distribution Among Girders Of The Bridge

Eman K. Ibraheem; Dr. Mohammad N. Mahmood

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 13-29
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.44950


The present paper involves three-dimensional nonlinear analysis for reinforced concrete bridge deck consisting of three main girders. Finite brick element is used to predict response of the bridge under monotonically increasing static loads up to failure.
A main concern is given to the effects of boundary conditions at the supports, and their effects on the behaviour of the bridge. Three types of supports were considered, these are simple support, elastomeric pads and a simple springs. The study includes also the effect of boundary conditions on the failure load, the load distribution amongst the main girders, and variation of bearing reactions in both pre and post cracking phases. The study shows that the method of representing the supports significantly affects the distribution of the loads among the main girders of the bridge.
Key Words : Bearings, Bridge, Finite Element, Load Distribution, Nonlinear Analysis, Reinforced Concrete.

The Attributes of Spatial Distribution of Mosques in Islamic City Until the Beginning of 20th Centuary - A Case Study of Mosul

Momtaz H.D. Aldewachi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 105-118
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.44969

Abstract :
The significance of mosques in the definition of an Islamic city-pattern is acknowledged by all general theories of the Islamic city . Mosques are a common feature to all Muslim cities as well as they have had a continuous existence and exert a profound influence upon the cities . Friday mosque represents the core of the Islamic city where other urban facilities are sequenced around .
Due to vast expansion of Islamic cities , more Friday mosques were erected to fulfill the occupants‘ needs . These had their religious justifications . The spatial distribution pattern of these mosques represents a phenomenon that deserves study assuming that this distribution is goverened by some rules.This is to be examined by adopting the nearest neighbor analysis and by selecting Mosul old town as a case study .The research is ended with findings that describe and explain this distribution pattern .
Key Words:Islamic City , Mosques , Nearest Neighbor Analysis .

The Effect of Welding on the Formability of Carbon Steel Sheet

Waleed J. Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2007, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2007.44961


Forming Limit Diagram ( FLD ) is considered as an important tool in the determination of the formability of metal sheets . There is a Forming Limit Curve ( FLC ) for each sheet metal shows its formability, limit strains and forming regions. It is required some times to butt welding of two or more sheets of different thicknesses to get one blank to be formed latter , such as in some parts of car body . In this work the effect of electric arc welding on the forming limit diagram, of carbon steel , was studied .It was noticed that welding affects the forming limit curve ,where the major and minor strains are lowered for the steel sheet.

Effect of Urea on the Engineering Properties of Gyseous Soil

Qutayba N. Al-Saffar; Prof. Mohammed T. Al- Layla

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2006, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2006.46591

This study investigates the effect of urea product on the engineering properties of
gypseous soil obtained from Baiji area. The investigated soil can be described as
silty soil with low plasticity and high gypsum contents (32% gypsum). The
maximum dry density of the compacted soil increased with the addition of urea up
to 8% urea then decreased.
The direct shear test results showed that the effective angle of the internal
friction (

Hydraulic Characteristics of Flow Over Compound Crested Weir

Tahssen Ali Hassan Chilmeran; Thair Mahmood Al-Taiee

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2006, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 81-87
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2006.46586

The hydraulic characteristics of a compound crested inclined weir which
consists of both quarter round and sharp crest weir configuration under free
conditions were studied experimentally in order to investigates the discharge
coefficient Cd and the performance of weirs for discharge . The experimental tests
were carried out on a model of weir manufactured of compound crest shape fixed
perpendicular and inclined with an angles 35°,45° and 60° across the direction of
flow in the experimental channel. Number of flow discharge were dependent.
Results showed that the model with an angle of weir inclination of 35°
with the center line of the channel had a better performance than the other models


Farook kh. Amori; Saad Samuel Sheet

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2006, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 39-46
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2006.46253

Longitudinal and radial stresses in a M.V. and H.V. cables through terminals
are computed using Schwarz Christoffel transformation for field sketching.
The terminals and associated cable are rated at 11KV, 33KV and 132KV a.c
insulated by cross–linked polyethylene (XLPE). The electrical field sketching at the
cable terminations is carried out theoretically and the results are confirmed by
It seems that the maximum stresses occurs in the cable insulation and the
maximum longitudinal stresses along the screened outer surface of the cross-linked
polyethylene (XLPE) insulation occurs between the cable and the termination center.
The results show that the maximum longitudinal stress is many times the
oncorrespding maximum radial values.
Key Words: Stress distribution for XLPE cable, Termination of XLPE cables