Print ISSN: 1813-0526

Online ISSN: 2220-1270

Main Subjects : Geotechnical Engineering

Industrial Waste and its Impacts on the Engineering Properties of Soil: a Review

Abdulrahman Hani Aldaood; Ibrahim M. Al-kiki; Mohammed D. Abdulnafaa

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2022, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 25-35
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.131043.1125

This review evaluates industrial waste: its definition, components and types, and then its impact on the soil.  the remarkable ‎development in industry in recent times and its progression forward led to more secondary products, which at present ‎constitute one of the most important problems facing the scientist. The researchers discuss the extent to which they can be ‎used in soil stabilization by reviewing most of the research and studies on industrial waste and soil. In addition, the ‎advantages and disadvantages of using industrial waste in treating soil problems at the lowest possible cost without ‎resorting to other alternatives. This paper also presents the role of society in reducing its environmental damage by ‎reviewing researches and studies on recyclable materials and the most applicable at present by the industry, which is a ‎suitable idea to incorporate the best-recycled materials in the construction of roads and engineering facilities. These steps ‎came after taking the processes of recycling and reusing industrial waste in many forms and methods, and according to the ‎nature and type of waste and the purpose of its reuse, in addition to the state and nature of the material with which these ‎wastes are used.‎

Settlement Analysis of machine foundation Under Reciprocating Load using FEM

Noor Khalid Alhasso; Qutayba Nazar Qasim

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 37-43
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.128010.1057

The analysis of the machines foundations is an important issue in the geotechnical engineering as the foundations of the machine provide a strong platform for the machines to work in a smooth manner with minimal maintenance requirements. The process of analyzing of the machines foundations requires more attention since it includes not only the static loads but also the dynamic loads that result from the unbalanced forces that the machine generates or its vibratory motion. Of course, this movement load is transferred to the soil through the foundation and its effect can be calculated using the principles of kinetic soil and vibration theory. Here, the search deals with the study of analyzing machines foundations under the influence of kinetic loads taking into consideration the type of soil and its condition, the shape of the foundation and its location from the surface of the earth, the type of kinetic load projected and the method of analysis. In this study, and for the purpose of achieving what has been mentioned with using finite element method (program Plaxis 2D V8.6 ) three types of sandy soil (Loose, medium and dense) were taken. The effect of dynamic loads on different types of machine foundations (square, rectangular, and strip) was studied and under the influence of a different dynamic frequency (5,10,15, 20 Hz) was studied and the effect of a group of these factors on the amount of displacement of the machine foundation was studied and these results were compared with the maximum Amplitude when resonating with a special parameter called Normalized Displacement.
         It is noted from this study that the value of the displacement decreases by increasing the values of the (L / B) ratio of the foundation for the same frequency for the three soil states, , and that the increase the value of the elastic modulus (E), the Normalized displacement value approaches the number (1), that meaning it approaches the resonance at the frequency ( 5 Hz) for the case of the square foundation more than the rectangle and the strip , and for the remaind of the frequencies (10, 15, 20 Hz) the Normalized displacement value will be less compared to the frequency (5 Hz) as well as less variation between the cases of different foundations shape.

Numerical Investigation the Failure Mechanism of Left Slope of Darbandikhan Dam

Tareq H. AL-Rahal; Suhail I. Khattab; Bayar J. Al- Sulayfani

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2020, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.126573.1013

The aim of this research is to analyze the stability of the left shoulder slope of the Derbandikhan Dam failure due to rainfall and earthquake. This slope consists of unsaturated low plasticity clayey soil. All analyses were conducted by using the Geo-Studio program. The field survey was carried out for the study site and the soil samples were taken to perform the necessary laboratory tests to obtain the required soil properties. The field conditions (Rainfall and earthquake) were simulated, where the slope was exposed to rainfall at (24) mm / day intensity to various periods (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60) days. A slope stability analysis was performed at end of each period. Moreover, another analyses were performed by exposed slope to an earthquake at end of each rainfall period.  Safety factor reached to critical value (1) when slope was exposed to the earthquake after (20) days of rain. 

Soil Reinforcement Using Natural and Synthetic Fibers (A Review)

Abdulrahman Hani Aldaood; Amina A. Khalil; Ibrahim Mahmood Alkiki

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2020, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 118-125
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.126506.1006

Soil reinforcement is one of the important techniques in geotechnical engineering, which is used to enhanced the engineering properties of soil. Soil reinforcement means, addition of natural or synthetic fibers to soil which act as tension members and sharing together with soil to sustain the applied loads. In soil reinforcement technique different types of fibers having different shapes can be used. The fibers used in soil can be having a shape like staples, chips, yarns, crumbs, bristles/hairs and other shapes. In the present time the using of fibers (especially natural fibers) in the earth construction works represent one of the cost-effective and environmentally friendly ground improvement techniques. The main objective of this paper, is to review the definition, mechanism, and application of using fibers in soil reinforcement through different scientific papers published in this subject. Further, the advantages and executive problems related to using fibers in soil reinforcement were discussed.