Main Subjects : Architecture Engineering

Functional Durability in Local Schools Proximiti’s Characteristic Affecting the Spatial Compactness of Primary School Buildings

Muthanna A. Mahmood; Asma Hasan Hasan Al-dabbagh

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2022, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.130823.1126

The physical environment of schools is an important factor affecting students' learning. Appropriate educational institutions must be provided. It meets the various reasons for change, and the educational environment must enjoydurability with its spaces and ability to adapt to new jobs and activities. Reducing the surface area of ​​the structure, the research problem was that the available studies did not accurately determine the role of some design characteristics (Proximity characteristic) in achieving compact entity (as an indicator of functional Durability), and the possibility of applying these characteristics to local primary school models. The aim of the research is to (determine the role of that feature and the procedures available to the designer in absorbing the change in the buildings of the elected primary schools), and conduct a special practical experiment in addition to a generative program that works with algorithms (Dynamo); to ensure the impartiality of the results, the research found that the convergence property has a prominent role in maintaining On the compactness entity of the schools, and therefore the convergence property can be relied on in the architectural programming stage for the ease and accuracy of measuring that feature at that stage of the design process.

Pre-Fabrication of Alabaster Columns in Mosul's Traditional Houses /An Analytical Documentary Study of its Repeated Models

Abeer Khaleel Al_alaf; Ahmed Abdulwahid Dhannoon

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 75-95
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.130023.1092

The traditional alabaster columns with manufacturing techniques used by Mosul's architects represent one of the aspects of distinction within the heritage Mosul architecture, which gave this architecture aspects of its peculiarity and distinctive identity. After reviewing previous studies in this field, the research problem was represented by (Lack of knowledge related to the manufacturing technology and characteristics of alabaster columns in Mosul's traditional houses and lack of knowledge of their repeated models and details of their employment) The aim of the research was (revealing the techniques of manufacturing these elements as well as clarifying and analyzing its repeated models and clarify the details of the employment of each model) and thus providing a detailed documentary information base that can be adopted in the operations of restoration, reconstruction, and future designs. The final conclusions that showed the similarity and repetition of the models for this element in terms of dimensions and number of pieces, and that this element was governed by specific models. Each type has fixed measurements and specific installation and formation methods with some exceptions, which reinforced the assumption made by the research that this element is a prefabricated element.  

Pre-Fabrication of Marble Window Frames In Mosul's Traditional Houses / An Analytical Documentary Study of its Repeated Models

Abeer Khaleel Al_alaf; Ahmed Abdulwahid Dhannoon

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 54-74
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.129742.1086

The heritage city of Mosul was distinguished by the architectural and technical characteristics that distinguished it from the rest of the Islamic cities, which were affected by the surrounding environment and the quality of the natural materials available locally, the most important of which was the material of Mosul marble (alfarsh) on the one hand, and the techniques used in its manufacture on the other hand, , Which gave special features and characteristics of the Mosul's architecture.  In the beginning, previous studies related to the subject were reviewed to determine the research problem, which was represented by (lack of knowledge related to the technology of manufacturing marble window frames in Mosul's houses).
Consequently, the goal of the research was to reveal the manufacturing technology and characteristics of this important element in the traditional Mosul's house in detail by scanning its repeated models to provide a complete database that can be used in the future in the reconstruction operations. The research adopted the analytical documentary survey method for this element by extracting basic vocabulary for them from previous studies and then applying these terms in selected samples, and then drawing this element with all types and models with dimensions and detailed measurements in the AutoCAD program (2016) to be analyzed after that according to the vocabulary of the theoretical framework, reaching to the final conclusions that showed the similarity and repetition of the models for this element in terms of dimensions and number of pieces, and that this element was governed by specific models, fixed measurements, and specific installation and formation methods with some exceptions, which reinforced the assumption made by the research that this element is per-manufactured.

The Design Characteristics of the Architectural Elements in the Houses of the Old Mosul City -An Analytical Study of the Iwan Element -

Sinan Mohammad Talee; Anwar Meshal Shareef

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 32-53
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.129310.1079

Traditional architecture is characterized by specific configurations and elements, possessing design characteristics (formal and functional) that give the products of traditional architecture their character, As in the traditional architecture of the old city of Mosul. The buildings of the old Mosul city, have been subjected to damage as a result of the recent terrorist events, it was necessary to document and study these buildings by isolating the basic design elements that make up the building and studying its properties in a detailed method. The presentation of previous studies that dealt with the Mosul architecture revealed that there is a lack of knowledge specifically the Iwan element and its design characteristics, which determined (the nature of the research problem) while (the goal of the research) to discover the design characteristics (formal and functional) of the iwan in the architecture of old Mosul houses and extract the most important characteristics prevailing in it. The research Methodology builds on the structure of a theoretical framework that includes the definition of the architectural element and its design characteristics in general, and the definition of the iwan and its characteristics in the architecture of Mosul in particular. The analytical study of the Iwan was performed by two levels, depending on the database and images that were obtained and documented:The first (general level): This level included collecting and documenting various pictures of ‎‎24random samples from Iwans of the Mosul houses, and‎‏ ‏application of an analytical and descriptive study to discover their design characteristics.The second (detailed level): This level included collecting and documenting some pictures, information, and detailed drawings of 10 samples (For the element iwan predominant – pointed-), which were analyzed mathematically to reveal their proportions, and graphically using the AutoCAD program to reveal their detailed formal characteristics to reach a more accurate database that can be invested in restoring Construction of the old city.

Parametric Customization of Single-Family Housing Designs Ain Al-Iraq Housing Complex as a Case Study

Doaa Mosab Attarbashi; Dhuha Abdulgani Al-kazzaz

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 1-17
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.129519.1083

The advent of digital architecture, including parametric design, enabled the customization in housing design. The parametric typological design allowed diversity, difference, and individuality with the same ease of mass- standardized production. Accordingly, the paper investigated the customization of housing components to satisfy the customer's options and in response to different local conditions. The research problem was the application of customization in parametric typological design to generate prototypes for single-family houses of Ain Al Iraq project in Mosul city. The research aims were to identify the customization methodology and to apply it in a case study. The previous studies put forward different approaches combining generative systems controlled by a set of parameters, constraints and rules developed by the designer, and the interactive customized systems that allow customers to participate in the design process. In the light of these studies, the paper presented a theoretical framework to define the methodology of applying the customization in the parametric typological design process using four vocabularies to identify the types of customization, the methods of standardization, and the roles of a designer and a customer. In the practical study, the approach was applied to create a parametric model using (Grasshopper) software, in order to generate initial plans for single-family houses that were customized according to the customer's need. The user interface was also designed by the researchers to provide direct interaction and ease of use by regular customers. The results showed the generation of initial plans having varied parameters according to the customer's options.

Interactive Design in Urban Outdoor Spaces A Comparative Study of the Employment of Digital and Traditional Technologies

Suha Imad Aldobouni; Ahmed Y. Alomary

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 18-31
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.129352.1080

Interactive design is a modern design approach that have gained a clear interest in the field of outdoor spaces. It depends on increasing elements of suspense, pleasure, learning, changing behavior and enriching the users' sensory experience and interaction through the five senses, to achieve an enjoyable experience and a good function that is easy to use. The research problem represented by the existence of traditional, passive and inactive urban spaces intended by few urban users. The research aims to explore employing digital technologies, formulas and methods of generating them for the purpose of applying them in external spaces, trying to revive urban outer spaces in contemporary cities. In this study, many examples of projects designed and implemented for external spaces that employ digital and traditional technologies have been analyzed and compared with each other, based on interaction criteria extracted from previous studies. Through the application of statistical tests, the results indicated that designs based on digital technologies generate relatively more interaction than those that rely on traditional techniques. The results indicated that optical technology is the most widely used technique in interactive outdoor spaces. The most effective interactive technologies on the recipient work through stimulating interest and curiosity.

Utilizing BIM 4D in Improving Project Execution Scheduling A Realistic Project for the Mosul Municipality as a Case Study

Mwafaq Yousif Ibrahim; Dhuha Abdulgani Al-kazzaz

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.128695.1068

The architectural projects in Iraq, designed according to the traditional method, face problems of the delay in the completion of work and the increase in the cost. The paper adopts the implementation of BIM system in the field of architectural design as one of the leading digital systems for estimating project scheduling accurately. The research problem was to identify the requirements for applying BIM 4D (one of the BIM tasks) in architectural projects in Iraq. The research goal was to determine the requirements of applying BIM 4D in public sector projects in Iraq. The research identifiedthe most important prerequisites, for examples: the adoption of Iraqi codes in defining the libraries of components involved in the design, the definition of the detailed components of building to take into account the local market such as manufacturers, setting determinants that require cooperation and communication between the relevant government agencies and the diverse design teams during the design phase to avoid future conflicts, and ensuring early participation of the contractor in the design stages.

The Use of Computerized Parametric Typology in the Generation of Single-Family Housing Designs

Doaa Mosab Attarbashi; Dhuha Abdulgani Al-kazzaz

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 19-36
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.129156.1077

In the era of digital architecture, parametric design plays a fundamental role in the generative architectural design process. The most important of its benefits are that it allows a visual representation of the design process, a designer interaction during the construction of the parametric model using visual codes, the representation of steps sequentially and logically, in addition to the ability to adapt the model according to the client’s requirements and the designer's wishes, and to generate various design solutions and alternatives for the same model.
Parametric Typology is an approach that combines typological design with computational parametric techniques in order to produce various designs that belong to a specific building type. The research problem revolves around the application of parametric Typology to generat initial designs for local housing. Previous studies have proposed different approaches in the implementation of parametric typology to designs ranging from urban scale, individual buildings, to building elements. The research presented a theoretical framework, drawn from previous studies, to clarify the concepts and techniques of parametric typology method. The methodology was applied to build parametric model using a visual algorithm in grasshopper software. Prototypes for single-family housing had been generated as a functional type that occupies the largest space in cities; in addition there is a huge demand for it. As a result of the study, initial models were implemented with variety of parametric in terms of the placement of activities and the number of spaces.

Comparing the Rules in Digital Algorithmic Generation Methods for Architectural Designs

Aseel Ibrahim AL-Habeeb; Dhuha Abdulgani Al-kazzaz

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2020, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 97-117
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.126470.1007

The paper deals with digital generative algorithmic systems. Its aim is to investigate the extent to which the difference between rule-based algorithmic systems affects the definition of rules themselves. To achieve this aim, the paper put forward a theoretical framework of rule-based systems including the characteristics of rules, and the way they work. The framework was adopted as a basis for the comparison of four common rule-based algorithmic design approaches in architecture. They are Shape Grammars, L-systems, Cellular Automata, and Swarm Intelligence Algorithm. The results showed that the differences between the rule-based algorithmic systems are slightly reflected in their rules. The similarities are identified in many rule’s properties and their way of work such as: using symbols in the representation of rules, using substitution rules in the generation process, using the same procedures included in rules, the possibility of rule’s repetition and rule’s termination. However, shape grammars showed some individuality, especially in the reference of rules to architectural precedents.

Architectural Image of Mosques in terms of Historical Drawings Mental Image of Mosques in Miniature of Maqamat Al-Hariri

Sura Mohammed Adil Khaleel; Hassan Mahmood Kasim

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2019, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 81-100
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2019.164322

Islamic architecture (and Mosques) still the focus of attention for researchers and architects, there are continues attempts to renew the way that we look at the heritage of this architecture; to find what enrich and present new knowledge about the emergence of forms that was unique. The perception process is the most important part of architectural design process, It is the result of the designer's effort to determine the final outcome of the architectural work. This is because of the importance of the mental images that are formed in the recipient's perception of architecture he sees and lives in.
         As for Mosque architecture, scarceness of evidences and researches about the perception of people (whether they were producers or recipients) who lived in buildings of Islamic architecture at old ages when it was built.... In order to inquest recipients of Islamic Architecture at time when it was built; the aim of this research is to analyze the historical drawings (specifically the Arab miniatures), as an aspect to reveal the mentality of the recipient of that age which considering the painter who produced it as a witness to his age by his drawings which documented his mentality (the mentality of the prevailing culture). Research  procedure was to explore Moaque Architecture Factors from literature of Islamic Architecture, then to explore these factores by analyzing 12 miniatures selected from the two miniatures manuscripts of "Maqamat Al Hariri".
       By the discussion of results, it became clear that the mental image of the general architectural characteristics of the mosque extracted from the miniatures is represented by focusing on the inner spaces more than the external spaces, especially facades of courtyard, mosque extended horizontally dominated by strictly symmetry, and with high diversity in the use of architectural and decorative elements, and thus be compatible with the image of the mosque in modern literature. As for the mental image of mosque in terms of the architectural elements, it is mainly depicted as spaces with arches carried by columns with lamps hanging from them with much of decorative and secondary elements, with the presence of the mihrab, and minbar with moderate rate, minarets appeared in a few rates, while domes, doors and windows in rare rates. Thus this mental image of the mosque at that time realizes the architectural elements in rates that differ from what modern literature provides, specially about the importance of minarets and domes.

Using Intelligent Techniquesin Sustainable Buildings

Sinan Mohammad Talee

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2019, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 39-55
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2019.164354

Intelligent techniques represent integration between building system and technology. The merge of these techniques within a building serves and eases our life. Intelligent techniques became a common concept that defines the highest levels of various standards, which determine indoor environmental health. In other words, they increase productivity, raise prosperity, as well as enhancing the efficiency of resources, cost, flexibility, and adaptability. Thus, intelligent techniques reflect the concept of sustainability, as their effects cover all the main building aspects of function, structure, and form. The study considers form as the most obvious affected aspect of a sustainable building, especially as the intelligent techniques and materials formed the building envelope.
 The research is conducted on case-study samples from the region of Arab Gulf, which have a hot desert climate that is similar to the third desert climate in Iraq. The study defines the research problem as The knowledge insufficiency of the formal aspect identifications (with various classifications) that affected by intelligent techniques of sustainable buildings in the hot desert climate. The research aims to determine the aspects affected by intelligent techniques of the sustainable building in general and to verify their role and impact on the formal aspect of the façade design that can achieve the sustainability standards. Further, the samples of the case-study location in the hot desert climate aim to employ results on our local architecture in Iraq particularly.
The study defines its own structure and methodology in order to achieve its goals and solve the research problem, by dividing the research into several stages. Starting from defining the concept of the intelligence, and exploring previous studies to represent the theoretical framework. Then, listing the case-study samples, and measuring them using the descriptive analysis method, by analyzing the critical contexts upon the selected samples. The research concluded important points of the impact of the intelligent techniques on the formal aspect of the building. As the harsh conditions of the hot desert climate represent itself as a main challenge in the process, building protection against solar radiation and incandescent is vital. That is possible by methods of stirring, resistance, modulation, the control of the intelligence and the sustainability of the exterior materials.