Print ISSN: 1813-0526

Online ISSN: 2220-1270

Main Subjects : Architecture Engineering

Is Mosul University Campus Comfortable for Walking?

Rawia Marwan Dabdoob

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2023, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 74-88
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2023.136856.1213

Universities worldwide are essential institutions to upgrade society. Recently, the University of Mosul underwent certain circumstances after the 2003 and 2016 times of wars that varied among urban expansion, renovation, and rebuild some affected or demolished buildings, roads, walkways, and sidewalks. Hereupon, this research aims at measuring students´ comfort walking. This research contributes by advocating mobility network development on the main Campus. Six components involved with comfort walking were addressed namely: personal preferences, connectivity, accessibility, safety, convenience, and attractiveness. The study focused on the main Campus. Qualitative and quantitative approaches were adopted in data collection and analysis including observation, photography techniques, and questionnaire survey.
The sample of the study subjected the students who usually walk on the Campus. The findings reveal that the Campus generally gives the students a comfortable walking experience. Particularly, there is an agreement on connectivity aspects, moderate evaluation for accessibility aspects, agreement to some extent with safety aspects, moderate evaluation for convenience aspects, as well as attractiveness aspects. Besides, the findings indicate a requirement for further improvements especially in providing transportation services in the University for long distances, improving the physical elements, services, and facilities, which need more maintenance.

The Effect of the Mechanisms of Directing the Recipient to Perceive Uniqueness on the Production of Unique Forms in the Urban Context -Mosul as a Case Study-

Shahad Nathim Sheet Rasool; Momtaz Hazim AL Dewachi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2023, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 49-63
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.134726.1187

                   Architecture as a human production is considered as the principal source of distinguished elements within the city; such elements give the city its own identity. The progress of achieving such unique pieces is regarded as an urban design strategy which requires a particular methodology, depending not only on the designer but also on the perception of these elements. This paper concentrates on exploring the most important perceptual mechanisms that affect the recipient in making him distinguish the unique elements-particularly building- within an urban context. The study is spatially limited to the city of Mosul.
The problem of the current study is constituted in the lack of a comprehensive vision about the mechanisms affecting the direction of the recipient to realize the unique output, so that the designer can follow clear mechanisms to reach the realization of a unique building within its context.
This study aims to explore the mechanisms of guiding the recipient to realize uniqueness and the steps involved, within the different design practices, that affect obtaining a unique building. To achieve this goal, the research is defined by building the theoretical framework represented by the mechanisms of guiding the recipient to realize uniqueness, which includes two secondary axes: the first is the mechanisms of realizing uniqueness at the personal level of the recipient, and the second is the effectiveness of perceiving uniqueness at the level of urban structure.
The practical side of the study is conducted in two parts; The first is to nominate a number of unique local products based on the mental image of the users of that urban environment, and the second includes the application of the learned mechanisms to a number of unique local architectural products according to the mechanisms of guiding the recipient to realize the uniqueness.
The results show a great variation in the mechanisms that affect the realization of the unique building, which include the effectiveness of attracting attention, the element of surprise and mystery, the privacy of the building site, the available field of view and stimulation of the property of perception, and the size of the building in terms of distinguishing its height or size in its context, contrast with the background, through the type, color and properties of packaging materials that affect the realization of the unique building.
The study concluded that there is a significant role for the perception mechanisms followed by the recipient in achieving the uniqueness of the architectural production, as variables that contribute to the visual assessment of the output among users of the urban environment. These mechanisms vary in the extent of their impact on directing the perception of the recipient, in addition to the possibility of the influence of more than one mechanism in achieving the uniqueness of the same production within the urban context.

A Comparison of Assessment Systems for Sustainable Transport in the Urban Fabric: Standards and Requirements

Mahmood Khalid Al-A’abachi; Emad Hani AlAlaf

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2023, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 64-73
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.134761.1190

With the beginning of the twentieth century, the radical change of the fabric shape of the modern city  into    vertical  complexes, low-cost ‎individual buildings as well as the complet  separation of city functions by using private vehicles as ‎the main means of transportation,  result in  polluting its environment ,  and weakening its ‎urban identity. The current research aims to compare the global sustainable transportation assessments in order to reach the criteria and indicators which affect sustainable transportation and its requirements,  that, in turn, ‎affect the urban fabric and reduce the negative effects of the modern city. Through the analysis of the most reliable global systems ‎and  some of previous studies and projects, the research paper    identifies a set of standards for those systems with ‎regard to sustainable transport, which directly affect the shape of urban fabric, and which contribute to providing necessary ‎physical infrastructure for the effective functioning of sustainable transport systems within these communities.

Integrative Conservation for the Reconstruction of the Historic Urban ‎Fabric: The Riverfront of Mosul Old City as a Case Study

Ammar Abdullah Hamad; Emad Hani Ismaeel

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2023, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 36-48
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.134593.1183

Due to the historical cumulative layers that were formed from the succession of construction, demolition, and sequential reconstruction, cities have become the essence of diversity, by evoking new urban forms that contribute to the creation and formulation of their urban heritage. Globally, redevelopment of the riverfront remains popular and is part of the urban planning agenda. However, this process is still often constrained by a set of strategic issues and difficulties in the cities of developing countries. The relationship between the urban fabric of the city of Mosul and its river frontage is a major criterion in evaluating the approaches and approaches to preserving the main features of the urban landscape of the city.
The current research aims to discuss the integrative preservation as a working methodology for a long-term plan based on previous global experiences and the basic guidelines approved by international laws to submit proposals for the reconstruction of the river front of ancient Mosul. It also aims to discuss the relationship between the historical urban fabric and the water environment and highlight the various methods that can be adopted to develop this essential part of the urban fabric of the city.
The research adopts the methodology of comparative analysis of conservation trends and intervention mechanisms, including integrative conservation, analysis of a number of relevant international studies, analysis of international conventions concerned with conservation, and obtaining qualitative data from a group of experts specialized in both aspects of urban preservation and urban renewal. This is in addition to obtaining quantitative data using the questionnaire method by designing a set of questions following Likert's Five-point Scale method and analyzing them using Microsoft Excel 2010, and applying them to the case study represented by the riverfront of the old city of Mosul.

Consistency Relationship between Fractal Geometry and Adaptation as a Principle for Achieving Sustainable Architectural Design

Firas Hamdy Alsaffar; Khalid J. Aldeen Ismail; Shishin Mikhail Yurievich

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2023, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.134271.1182

This study deals with the concept of adaptation in natural systems, and the principles used by these systems to enable them to respond to changes and perform their functions within the processes of continuous growth. These principles include static and dynamic characteristics, which are used to match their sustainable characteristics in growth and adaptation. Here, the importance of fractal geometry emerged in explaining the complex nature with its formations and characteristics, as it is also able to grow and adapt continuously and interdependently. Thus, it helps designers achieve adaptation and growth in functionality and spatial requirements in the built environment through time, guided by sustainable natural systems.
The importance of adaptation emerges as one of the most important strategies for achieving an environment that is more capable of accepting the processes of modification and change, and thus accommodating changes and renewable spatial and functional requirements, and conforming to them over time. A building that is more adaptable is more efficient in being able to respond to changes. The benefits of achieving adaptation in architecture are represented in the efficient utilization of space, the increase in the life of the building and its compatibility with the changing requirements of the occupants in a better manner and at a relatively lower cost. This, in turn, leads to a reduction in relocation and abandonment of buildings and contributes to preserving the environment, by reducing demolition and construction operations, which result in damage as is well known. Adaptation is associated with a range of economic, social and environmental benefits, being one of the features of sustainable architecture. And since fractal geometry derives its structure and material and essential characteristics from nature, which is sustainable by default, it has in turn become an entry point for employing the characteristics of nature in architecture. The fractal structure's ability to grow and adapt has become echoed and reflected in the work of many architects. Through this, the two main axes of this study stand out. The first axis includes introducing the vocabulary of adaptation, its characteristics and requirements in architecture, and the second axis is related to proposing the equivalent principles of adaptation in nature, by using fractal geometry as a mechanism that can be used to explore and transfer these principles to architectural designs that contribute to achieving successful and sustainable construction.
The research discusses the hypothesis that adaptation can be a critical factor associated with sustainable architecture by using fractal geometry tools. This is done by discussing the proposals of many researchers and crystallizing their ideas to serve the goal of the research, which aims to achieve sustainable architectural design through the concepts of adaptation. The most important results of the research indicated that there is a harmonious relationship between the concepts of fractal geometry, including mechanisms dynamic growth, repetition within graduated scales, symmetry, and others, on the one hand, and between the concepts of sustainable nature with its adaptive characteristics towards various changes over time, on the other hand.

Interactive Reconstruction of Damaged Historic Landmarks – Al-Qattanin Mosque in Mosul Old City as a Case Study

Raghad Akram Abdulrahman; Emad Hani Al-Allaf

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2023, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 24-35
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.134720.1186

The use of technology in the field of urban heritage has increased in recent times due to the possibilities that   contribute to the management of conservation operations. The use of virtual reality systems is considered as one of the most important methods of digital preservation through the production of 3D models of historical buildings and then inserting them into interactive environments, such as the use of augmented reality systems, which allow the user to identify historical buildings through tablets and mobile devices to make them quickly and accessible. The research problem lies in the absence of studies on re-creating interactive models of historical buildings in Mosul old city. The current applied research aims to provide a working methodology to form an interactive model for a lost or damaged historical landmark through a methodology that works on collecting information sources on the damaged building and trying to rebuild it or recover the damaged parts of it by linking the information to produce a stereoscopic building , and then linking them to books and historical sources  .So that the user can identify it with a three-dimensional model that appears on the screen of the mobile phone or tablet after making a digital scan of the relevant book page and using the Unite AR application.

Design Characteristics of the Interior Elements of a Prayer Hall in Congregational Mosques

Alaa Abdulkareem Suleiman ALsaydan; Ahmed Abdulwahid Dhannoon

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2022, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 28-38
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.133548.1168

The prayer hall was chosen as the target of this study as it is the main interior space within the building of a mosque where religious rites are held.
     The problem of the research is represented in the lack of a database that summarizes the design characteristics of the interior elements of the prayer hall, and their potential values in a way that ensures reaching quantitative and qualitative scales that allow conducting comparative studies between different styles of congregational mosques.
    The research aims to set a database for the characteristics of the interior elements of the prayer hall by building a theoretical framework supported by the previous studies, and by using the descriptive analytical method to set the essential vocabularies of the elements of the interior space with their possible values, which will enable future studies to develop these elements, in both quantitative and qualitative ways.
     A detailed table has also been completed to help researchers conducting more studies on how to develop the characteristics of the interior design in mosques, and the design of the interior elements, and to help conducting analytical comparison between the different types and models of mosques for ancient and contemporary times.

Employing Local Architecture Elements in Airport Buildings

Amaleid Abd- Alrhman Yousif ِAlabasee; Momtaz Hazim Aldewachi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2022, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 1-20
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.132340.1145

Airport buildings are among the complex and unique buildings of the contemporary century. Their importance lies in the fact that they represent the city’s gateway to the whole world. Employing local architecture elements is one of the design ideas used to design passenger buildings at airports, allowing the recipient (traveler) to define the urban identity of the city and the city’s history and culture, she indicated. There have been many proposals in architecture about the mechanism of employing the elements of local architecture in buildings, but none of these studies specifically addressed the mechanism used to employ elements of local architecture in airport buildings.
And the same thing is repeated when reviewing the architectural proposals related to the aspects related to airport buildings, so the general problem of research was identified by the lack of scientific knowledge and studies dealing with the employment of local architecture elements in airport buildings, while the special problem was identified in developing the approach or mechanism that shows how to employ local architecture in the passenger building.

Sustainable Urban Renewal of the Old City of Mosul

Ibtihal Do Alfuqhar; Mehmet Emre Aysu

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2022, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 21-27
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.132545.1147

The research focuses on clarifying the relationship between sustainability and urban renewal project in the old city of Mosul, this city has a distinctive architectural character but it has lost many of its landmarks in the last war. From this point, the study began to assess the current situation of the site based on the concepts of sustainability that have become one of the basics of design at present. The research aims to clarify the ways of applying sustainability strategies in the urban renewal program of the study site on its social, economic and environmental aspects. The research adopts a data analysis system for the city in addition to the survey data that was conducted in it to determine the extent of the impact of the population of the area on this process.

Functional Durability in Local Schools Proximiti’s Characteristic Affecting the Spatial Compactness of Primary School Buildings

Muthanna A. Mahmood; Asma Hasan Hasan Al-dabbagh

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2022, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.130823.1126

The physical environment of schools is an important factor affecting students' learning. Appropriate educational institutions must be provided. It meets the various reasons for change, and the educational environment must enjoydurability with its spaces and ability to adapt to new jobs and activities. Reducing the surface area of ​​the structure, the research problem was that the available studies did not accurately determine the role of some design characteristics (Proximity characteristic) in achieving compact entity (as an indicator of functional Durability), and the possibility of applying these characteristics to local primary school models. The aim of the research is to (determine the role of that feature and the procedures available to the designer in absorbing the change in the buildings of the elected primary schools), and conduct a special practical experiment in addition to a generative program that works with algorithms (Dynamo); to ensure the impartiality of the results, the research found that the convergence property has a prominent role in maintaining On the compactness entity of the schools, and therefore the convergence property can be relied on in the architectural programming stage for the ease and accuracy of measuring that feature at that stage of the design process.

Pre-Fabrication of Marble Window Frames In Mosul's Traditional Houses / An Analytical Documentary Study of its Repeated Models

Abeer Khaleel Al_alaf; Ahmed Abdulwahid Dhannoon

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 54-74
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.129742.1086

The heritage city of Mosul was distinguished by the architectural and technical characteristics that distinguished it from the rest of the Islamic cities, which were affected by the surrounding environment and the quality of the natural materials available locally, the most important of which was the material of Mosul marble (alfarsh) on the one hand, and the techniques used in its manufacture on the other hand, , Which gave special features and characteristics of the Mosul's architecture.  In the beginning, previous studies related to the subject were reviewed to determine the research problem, which was represented by (lack of knowledge related to the technology of manufacturing marble window frames in Mosul's houses).
Consequently, the goal of the research was to reveal the manufacturing technology and characteristics of this important element in the traditional Mosul's house in detail by scanning its repeated models to provide a complete database that can be used in the future in the reconstruction operations. The research adopted the analytical documentary survey method for this element by extracting basic vocabulary for them from previous studies and then applying these terms in selected samples, and then drawing this element with all types and models with dimensions and detailed measurements in the AutoCAD program (2016) to be analyzed after that according to the vocabulary of the theoretical framework, reaching to the final conclusions that showed the similarity and repetition of the models for this element in terms of dimensions and number of pieces, and that this element was governed by specific models, fixed measurements, and specific installation and formation methods with some exceptions, which reinforced the assumption made by the research that this element is per-manufactured.

The Design Characteristics of the Architectural Elements in the Houses of the Old Mosul City -An Analytical Study of the Iwan Element -

Sinan Mohammad Talee; Anwar Meshal Shareef

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 32-53
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.129310.1079

Traditional architecture is characterized by specific configurations and elements, possessing design characteristics (formal and functional) that give the products of traditional architecture their character, As in the traditional architecture of the old city of Mosul. The buildings of the old Mosul city, have been subjected to damage as a result of the recent terrorist events, it was necessary to document and study these buildings by isolating the basic design elements that make up the building and studying its properties in a detailed method. The presentation of previous studies that dealt with the Mosul architecture revealed that there is a lack of knowledge specifically the Iwan element and its design characteristics, which determined (the nature of the research problem) while (the goal of the research) to discover the design characteristics (formal and functional) of the iwan in the architecture of old Mosul houses and extract the most important characteristics prevailing in it. The research Methodology builds on the structure of a theoretical framework that includes the definition of the architectural element and its design characteristics in general, and the definition of the iwan and its characteristics in the architecture of Mosul in particular. The analytical study of the Iwan was performed by two levels, depending on the database and images that were obtained and documented:The first (general level): This level included collecting and documenting various pictures of ‎‎24random samples from Iwans of the Mosul houses, and‎‏ ‏application of an analytical and descriptive study to discover their design characteristics.The second (detailed level): This level included collecting and documenting some pictures, information, and detailed drawings of 10 samples (For the element iwan predominant – pointed-), which were analyzed mathematically to reveal their proportions, and graphically using the AutoCAD program to reveal their detailed formal characteristics to reach a more accurate database that can be invested in restoring Construction of the old city.

Interactive Design in Urban Outdoor Spaces A Comparative Study of the Employment of Digital and Traditional Technologies

Suha Imad Aldobouni; Ahmed Y. Alomary

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 18-31
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.129352.1080

Interactive design is a modern design approach that have gained a clear interest in the field of outdoor spaces. It depends on increasing elements of suspense, pleasure, learning, changing behavior and enriching the users' sensory experience and interaction through the five senses, to achieve an enjoyable experience and a good function that is easy to use. The research problem represented by the existence of traditional, passive and inactive urban spaces intended by few urban users. The research aims to explore employing digital technologies, formulas and methods of generating them for the purpose of applying them in external spaces, trying to revive urban outer spaces in contemporary cities. In this study, many examples of projects designed and implemented for external spaces that employ digital and traditional technologies have been analyzed and compared with each other, based on interaction criteria extracted from previous studies. Through the application of statistical tests, the results indicated that designs based on digital technologies generate relatively more interaction than those that rely on traditional techniques. The results indicated that optical technology is the most widely used technique in interactive outdoor spaces. The most effective interactive technologies on the recipient work through stimulating interest and curiosity.

Pre-Fabrication of Alabaster Columns in Mosul's Traditional Houses /An Analytical Documentary Study of its Repeated Models

Abeer Khaleel Al_alaf; Ahmed Abdulwahid Dhannoon

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 75-95
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.130023.1092

The traditional alabaster columns with manufacturing techniques used by Mosul's architects represent one of the aspects of distinction within the heritage Mosul architecture, which gave this architecture aspects of its peculiarity and distinctive identity. After reviewing previous studies in this field, the research problem was represented by (Lack of knowledge related to the manufacturing technology and characteristics of alabaster columns in Mosul's traditional houses and lack of knowledge of their repeated models and details of their employment) The aim of the research was (revealing the techniques of manufacturing these elements as well as clarifying and analyzing its repeated models and clarify the details of the employment of each model) and thus providing a detailed documentary information base that can be adopted in the operations of restoration, reconstruction, and future designs. The final conclusions that showed the similarity and repetition of the models for this element in terms of dimensions and number of pieces, and that this element was governed by specific models. Each type has fixed measurements and specific installation and formation methods with some exceptions, which reinforced the assumption made by the research that this element is a prefabricated element.  

Parametric Customization of Single-Family Housing Designs Ain Al-Iraq Housing Complex as a Case Study

Doaa Mosab Attarbashi; Dhuha Abdulgani Al-kazzaz

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 1-17
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.129519.1083

The advent of digital architecture, including parametric design, enabled the customization in housing design. The parametric typological design allowed diversity, difference, and individuality with the same ease of mass- standardized production. Accordingly, the paper investigated the customization of housing components to satisfy the customer's options and in response to different local conditions. The research problem was the application of customization in parametric typological design to generate prototypes for single-family houses of Ain Al Iraq project in Mosul city. The research aims were to identify the customization methodology and to apply it in a case study. The previous studies put forward different approaches combining generative systems controlled by a set of parameters, constraints and rules developed by the designer, and the interactive customized systems that allow customers to participate in the design process. In the light of these studies, the paper presented a theoretical framework to define the methodology of applying the customization in the parametric typological design process using four vocabularies to identify the types of customization, the methods of standardization, and the roles of a designer and a customer. In the practical study, the approach was applied to create a parametric model using (Grasshopper) software, in order to generate initial plans for single-family houses that were customized according to the customer's need. The user interface was also designed by the researchers to provide direct interaction and ease of use by regular customers. The results showed the generation of initial plans having varied parameters according to the customer's options.

Utilizing BIM 4D in Improving Project Execution Scheduling A Realistic Project for the Mosul Municipality as a Case Study

Mwafaq Yousif Ibrahim; Dhuha Abdulgani Al-kazzaz

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.128695.1068

The architectural projects in Iraq, designed according to the traditional method, face problems of the delay in the completion of work and the increase in the cost. The paper adopts the implementation of BIM system in the field of architectural design as one of the leading digital systems for estimating project scheduling accurately. The research problem was to identify the requirements for applying BIM 4D (one of the BIM tasks) in architectural projects in Iraq. The research goal was to determine the requirements of applying BIM 4D in public sector projects in Iraq. The research identifiedthe most important prerequisites, for examples: the adoption of Iraqi codes in defining the libraries of components involved in the design, the definition of the detailed components of building to take into account the local market such as manufacturers, setting determinants that require cooperation and communication between the relevant government agencies and the diverse design teams during the design phase to avoid future conflicts, and ensuring early participation of the contractor in the design stages.

The Use of Computerized Parametric Typology in the Generation of Single-Family Housing Designs

Doaa Mosab Attarbashi; Dhuha Abdulgani Al-kazzaz

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 19-36
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.129156.1077

In the era of digital architecture, parametric design plays a fundamental role in the generative architectural design process. The most important of its benefits are that it allows a visual representation of the design process, a designer interaction during the construction of the parametric model using visual codes, the representation of steps sequentially and logically, in addition to the ability to adapt the model according to the client’s requirements and the designer's wishes, and to generate various design solutions and alternatives for the same model.
Parametric Typology is an approach that combines typological design with computational parametric techniques in order to produce various designs that belong to a specific building type. The research problem revolves around the application of parametric Typology to generat initial designs for local housing. Previous studies have proposed different approaches in the implementation of parametric typology to designs ranging from urban scale, individual buildings, to building elements. The research presented a theoretical framework, drawn from previous studies, to clarify the concepts and techniques of parametric typology method. The methodology was applied to build parametric model using a visual algorithm in grasshopper software. Prototypes for single-family housing had been generated as a functional type that occupies the largest space in cities; in addition there is a huge demand for it. As a result of the study, initial models were implemented with variety of parametric in terms of the placement of activities and the number of spaces.

Comparing the Rules in Digital Algorithmic Generation Methods for Architectural Designs

Aseel Ibrahim AL-Habeeb; Dhuha Abdulgani Al-kazzaz

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2020, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 97-117
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.126470.1007

The paper deals with digital generative algorithmic systems. Its aim is to investigate the extent to which the difference between rule-based algorithmic systems affects the definition of rules themselves. To achieve this aim, the paper put forward a theoretical framework of rule-based systems including the characteristics of rules, and the way they work. The framework was adopted as a basis for the comparison of four common rule-based algorithmic design approaches in architecture. They are Shape Grammars, L-systems, Cellular Automata, and Swarm Intelligence Algorithm. The results showed that the differences between the rule-based algorithmic systems are slightly reflected in their rules. The similarities are identified in many rule’s properties and their way of work such as: using symbols in the representation of rules, using substitution rules in the generation process, using the same procedures included in rules, the possibility of rule’s repetition and rule’s termination. However, shape grammars showed some individuality, especially in the reference of rules to architectural precedents.

Architectural Image of Mosques in terms of Historical Drawings Mental Image of Mosques in Miniature of Maqamat Al-Hariri

Sura Mohammed Adil Khaleel; Hassan Mahmood Kasim

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2019, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 81-100
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2019.164322

Islamic architecture (and Mosques) still the focus of attention for researchers and architects, there are continues attempts to renew the way that we look at the heritage of this architecture; to find what enrich and present new knowledge about the emergence of forms that was unique. The perception process is the most important part of architectural design process, It is the result of the designer's effort to determine the final outcome of the architectural work. This is because of the importance of the mental images that are formed in the recipient's perception of architecture he sees and lives in.
         As for Mosque architecture, scarceness of evidences and researches about the perception of people (whether they were producers or recipients) who lived in buildings of Islamic architecture at old ages when it was built.... In order to inquest recipients of Islamic Architecture at time when it was built; the aim of this research is to analyze the historical drawings (specifically the Arab miniatures), as an aspect to reveal the mentality of the recipient of that age which considering the painter who produced it as a witness to his age by his drawings which documented his mentality (the mentality of the prevailing culture). Research  procedure was to explore Moaque Architecture Factors from literature of Islamic Architecture, then to explore these factores by analyzing 12 miniatures selected from the two miniatures manuscripts of "Maqamat Al Hariri".
       By the discussion of results, it became clear that the mental image of the general architectural characteristics of the mosque extracted from the miniatures is represented by focusing on the inner spaces more than the external spaces, especially facades of courtyard, mosque extended horizontally dominated by strictly symmetry, and with high diversity in the use of architectural and decorative elements, and thus be compatible with the image of the mosque in modern literature. As for the mental image of mosque in terms of the architectural elements, it is mainly depicted as spaces with arches carried by columns with lamps hanging from them with much of decorative and secondary elements, with the presence of the mihrab, and minbar with moderate rate, minarets appeared in a few rates, while domes, doors and windows in rare rates. Thus this mental image of the mosque at that time realizes the architectural elements in rates that differ from what modern literature provides, specially about the importance of minarets and domes.

Using Intelligent Techniquesin Sustainable Buildings

Sinan Mohammad Talee

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2019, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 39-55
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2019.164354

Intelligent techniques represent integration between building system and technology. The merge of these techniques within a building serves and eases our life. Intelligent techniques became a common concept that defines the highest levels of various standards, which determine indoor environmental health. In other words, they increase productivity, raise prosperity, as well as enhancing the efficiency of resources, cost, flexibility, and adaptability. Thus, intelligent techniques reflect the concept of sustainability, as their effects cover all the main building aspects of function, structure, and form. The study considers form as the most obvious affected aspect of a sustainable building, especially as the intelligent techniques and materials formed the building envelope.
 The research is conducted on case-study samples from the region of Arab Gulf, which have a hot desert climate that is similar to the third desert climate in Iraq. The study defines the research problem as The knowledge insufficiency of the formal aspect identifications (with various classifications) that affected by intelligent techniques of sustainable buildings in the hot desert climate. The research aims to determine the aspects affected by intelligent techniques of the sustainable building in general and to verify their role and impact on the formal aspect of the façade design that can achieve the sustainability standards. Further, the samples of the case-study location in the hot desert climate aim to employ results on our local architecture in Iraq particularly.
The study defines its own structure and methodology in order to achieve its goals and solve the research problem, by dividing the research into several stages. Starting from defining the concept of the intelligence, and exploring previous studies to represent the theoretical framework. Then, listing the case-study samples, and measuring them using the descriptive analysis method, by analyzing the critical contexts upon the selected samples. The research concluded important points of the impact of the intelligent techniques on the formal aspect of the building. As the harsh conditions of the hot desert climate represent itself as a main challenge in the process, building protection against solar radiation and incandescent is vital. That is possible by methods of stirring, resistance, modulation, the control of the intelligence and the sustainability of the exterior materials.