Print ISSN: 1813-0526

Online ISSN: 2220-1270

Main Subjects : Architecture Engineering

Comparing the Rules in Digital Algorithmic Generation Methods for Architectural Designs

Aseel Ibrahim AL-Habeeb; Dhuha Abdulgani Al-kazzaz

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2020, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 97-117
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.126470.1007

The paper deals with digital generative algorithmic systems. Its aim is to investigate the extent to which the difference between rule-based algorithmic systems affects the definition of rules themselves. To achieve this aim, the paper put forward a theoretical framework of rule-based systems including the characteristics of rules, and the way they work. The framework was adopted as a basis for the comparison of four common rule-based algorithmic design approaches in architecture. They are Shape Grammars, L-systems, Cellular Automata, and Swarm Intelligence Algorithm. The results showed that the differences between the rule-based algorithmic systems are slightly reflected in their rules. The similarities are identified in many rule’s properties and their way of work such as: using symbols in the representation of rules, using substitution rules in the generation process, using the same procedures included in rules, the possibility of rule’s repetition and rule’s termination. However, shape grammars showed some individuality, especially in the reference of rules to architectural precedents.

Architectural Image of Mosques in terms of Historical Drawings Mental Image of Mosques in Miniature of Maqamat Al-Hariri

Sura Mohammed Adil Khaleel; Hassan Mahmood Kasim

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2019, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 81-100
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2019.164322

Islamic architecture (and Mosques) still the focus of attention for researchers and architects, there are continues attempts to renew the way that we look at the heritage of this architecture; to find what enrich and present new knowledge about the emergence of forms that was unique. The perception process is the most important part of architectural design process, It is the result of the designer's effort to determine the final outcome of the architectural work. This is because of the importance of the mental images that are formed in the recipient's perception of architecture he sees and lives in.
         As for Mosque architecture, scarceness of evidences and researches about the perception of people (whether they were producers or recipients) who lived in buildings of Islamic architecture at old ages when it was built.... In order to inquest recipients of Islamic Architecture at time when it was built; the aim of this research is to analyze the historical drawings (specifically the Arab miniatures), as an aspect to reveal the mentality of the recipient of that age which considering the painter who produced it as a witness to his age by his drawings which documented his mentality (the mentality of the prevailing culture). Research  procedure was to explore Moaque Architecture Factors from literature of Islamic Architecture, then to explore these factores by analyzing 12 miniatures selected from the two miniatures manuscripts of "Maqamat Al Hariri".
       By the discussion of results, it became clear that the mental image of the general architectural characteristics of the mosque extracted from the miniatures is represented by focusing on the inner spaces more than the external spaces, especially facades of courtyard, mosque extended horizontally dominated by strictly symmetry, and with high diversity in the use of architectural and decorative elements, and thus be compatible with the image of the mosque in modern literature. As for the mental image of mosque in terms of the architectural elements, it is mainly depicted as spaces with arches carried by columns with lamps hanging from them with much of decorative and secondary elements, with the presence of the mihrab, and minbar with moderate rate, minarets appeared in a few rates, while domes, doors and windows in rare rates. Thus this mental image of the mosque at that time realizes the architectural elements in rates that differ from what modern literature provides, specially about the importance of minarets and domes.

Using Intelligent Techniquesin Sustainable Buildings

Sinan Mohammad Talee

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2019, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 39-55
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2019.164354

Intelligent techniques represent integration between building system and technology. The merge of these techniques within a building serves and eases our life. Intelligent techniques became a common concept that defines the highest levels of various standards, which determine indoor environmental health. In other words, they increase productivity, raise prosperity, as well as enhancing the efficiency of resources, cost, flexibility, and adaptability. Thus, intelligent techniques reflect the concept of sustainability, as their effects cover all the main building aspects of function, structure, and form. The study considers form as the most obvious affected aspect of a sustainable building, especially as the intelligent techniques and materials formed the building envelope.
 The research is conducted on case-study samples from the region of Arab Gulf, which have a hot desert climate that is similar to the third desert climate in Iraq. The study defines the research problem as The knowledge insufficiency of the formal aspect identifications (with various classifications) that affected by intelligent techniques of sustainable buildings in the hot desert climate. The research aims to determine the aspects affected by intelligent techniques of the sustainable building in general and to verify their role and impact on the formal aspect of the façade design that can achieve the sustainability standards. Further, the samples of the case-study location in the hot desert climate aim to employ results on our local architecture in Iraq particularly.
The study defines its own structure and methodology in order to achieve its goals and solve the research problem, by dividing the research into several stages. Starting from defining the concept of the intelligence, and exploring previous studies to represent the theoretical framework. Then, listing the case-study samples, and measuring them using the descriptive analysis method, by analyzing the critical contexts upon the selected samples. The research concluded important points of the impact of the intelligent techniques on the formal aspect of the building. As the harsh conditions of the hot desert climate represent itself as a main challenge in the process, building protection against solar radiation and incandescent is vital. That is possible by methods of stirring, resistance, modulation, the control of the intelligence and the sustainability of the exterior materials.