Print ISSN: 1813-0526

Online ISSN: 2220-1270

Current Issue
Volume 26, Issue 1

Volume 26, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2021, Page 1-178

Utilizing BIM 4D in Improving Project Execution Scheduling A Realistic Project for the Mosul Municipality as a Case Study

Mwafaq Ibrahim; Dhuha Al-kazzaz

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.128695.1068

The architectural projects in Iraq, designed according to the traditional method, face problems of the delay in the completion of work and the increase in the cost. The paper adopts the implementation of BIM system in the field of architectural design as one of the leading digital systems for estimating project scheduling accurately. The research problem was to identify the requirements for applying BIM 4D (one of the BIM tasks) in architectural projects in Iraq. The research goal was to determine the requirements of applying BIM 4D in public sector projects in Iraq. The research identifiedthe most important prerequisites, for examples: the adoption of Iraqi codes in defining the libraries of components involved in the design, the definition of the detailed components of building to take into account the local market such as manufacturers, setting determinants that require cooperation and communication between the relevant government agencies and the diverse design teams during the design phase to avoid future conflicts, and ensuring early participation of the contractor in the design stages.

The Use of Computerized Parametric Typology in the Generation of Single-Family Housing Designs

Doaa Attarbashi; Dhuha Al-kazzaz

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 19-36
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.129156.1077

In the era of digital architecture, parametric design plays a fundamental role in the generative architectural design process. The most important of its benefits are that it allows a visual representation of the design process, a designer interaction during the construction of the parametric model using visual codes, the representation of steps sequentially and logically, in addition to the ability to adapt the model according to the client’s requirements and the designer's wishes, and to generate various design solutions and alternatives for the same model.
Parametric Typology is an approach that combines typological design with computational parametric techniques in order to produce various designs that belong to a specific building type. The research problem revolves around the application of parametric Typology to generat initial designs for local housing. Previous studies have proposed different approaches in the implementation of parametric typology to designs ranging from urban scale, individual buildings, to building elements. The research presented a theoretical framework, drawn from previous studies, to clarify the concepts and techniques of parametric typology method. The methodology was applied to build parametric model using a visual algorithm in grasshopper software. Prototypes for single-family housing had been generated as a functional type that occupies the largest space in cities; in addition there is a huge demand for it. As a result of the study, initial models were implemented with variety of parametric in terms of the placement of activities and the number of spaces.

Settlement Analysis of machine foundation Under Reciprocating Load using FEM

Noor Alhasso; Qutayba Nazar Qasim

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 37-43
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.128010.1057

The analysis of the machines foundations is an important issue in the geotechnical engineering as the foundations of the machine provide a strong platform for the machines to work in a smooth manner with minimal maintenance requirements. The process of analyzing of the machines foundations requires more attention since it includes not only the static loads but also the dynamic loads that result from the unbalanced forces that the machine generates or its vibratory motion. Of course, this movement load is transferred to the soil through the foundation and its effect can be calculated using the principles of kinetic soil and vibration theory. Here, the search deals with the study of analyzing machines foundations under the influence of kinetic loads taking into consideration the type of soil and its condition, the shape of the foundation and its location from the surface of the earth, the type of kinetic load projected and the method of analysis. In this study, and for the purpose of achieving what has been mentioned with using finite element method (program Plaxis 2D V8.6 ) three types of sandy soil (Loose, medium and dense) were taken. The effect of dynamic loads on different types of machine foundations (square, rectangular, and strip) was studied and under the influence of a different dynamic frequency (5,10,15, 20 Hz) was studied and the effect of a group of these factors on the amount of displacement of the machine foundation was studied and these results were compared with the maximum Amplitude when resonating with a special parameter called Normalized Displacement.
         It is noted from this study that the value of the displacement decreases by increasing the values of the (L / B) ratio of the foundation for the same frequency for the three soil states, , and that the increase the value of the elastic modulus (E), the Normalized displacement value approaches the number (1), that meaning it approaches the resonance at the frequency ( 5 Hz) for the case of the square foundation more than the rectangle and the strip , and for the remaind of the frequencies (10, 15, 20 Hz) the Normalized displacement value will be less compared to the frequency (5 Hz) as well as less variation between the cases of different foundations shape.

Evaluation of Acceleration Noise Parameter as a Traffic Flow Performance Indicator for Multi-Lane Urban Highways

Mohammed Naef; Abdulkhalik Al-Taei

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 44-52
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.128127.1059

This study was conducted to use acceleration noise as an alternative measure to the level of service on multi-lane urban highways located within Kirkuk City. The study provides a simplified and easy way to evaluate the level of service (LOS) instead of the extended methodology proposed by the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM-2010). Ten (10) multi-lane urban segments were chosen within the study area for collecting the required field data. Moving Vehicle Method (MVM) with a digital camera equipped with a built-in GPS receiver were utilized to collect field data. Acceleration noise takes the form of an exponential function (y = ex) when associated with traffic flow variables (traffic volume, density, and speed). Final results have revealed that acceleration noise could be used as a surrogate measuring the level of service for multi-lane urban highways within the ranges of the level of service LOS A-LOS C.

Energy Efficiency Enhancement for Residential Sector: Case Study of Lighting in Iraq

Yasir Ameen; Omar Al-Yozbaky; Majid Al-Hafidh

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 53-62
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.127999.1056

The electrical energy crisis is a global problem that all developing countries face in general and Iraq in particular. A lot of body in the literature holds that lifestyle and consumption choices strongly affect residential energy consumption. Hitherto releasing energy savings in households is not simple. Previous studies indicate that the lighting requirements for the residential sector consume a significant amount of Iraq’s energy resources. In this study, the authors analyzed the energy consumption of 48 samples of residential loads at different dwellings in the country. In addition, the simulation study based on the DIALUX Evo 8 lighting software has been conducted, which shows the energy consumption savings for various types of luminaires. The results clearly show that a relatively large portion of lighting system consumption is because of the poor distribution of lighting fixtures and the use of relatively high-consuming traditional lighting luminaires. The study deduces that the energy efficiency of the lighting system may be improved by about 60% by simply replacing the traditional lighting systems with modern LED-technology-based systems. It is also necessary to redistribute lighting fixtures using state-of-the-art lighting software for achieving adequate levels of lighting and visual comfort for humans.

Hydraulic Properties Downstream Multi-Opened Sluice Gate

mohammad Al-Qattan; Ahmed Mohammed

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 63-68
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.127108.1037

In this paper four gate openings and fifteen operating scenarios in terms of the difference in the arrangement of working gates were studied. The Expansion Ratio (e) which is (the ratio of total width of the channel to the total width of the working gates) was calculated for each scenario. It can be seen that when the value of (e) was the largest possible, which is (5.34), the value of the discharge coefficient (Cd) was also as high as possible, reached to (0.845). Also, the value of the contraction coefficient (Cc) was the highest value, (0.693). The increasing in the value of (e) means that the number of openings that work is less. Both (Cd) and (Cc) are decreases when Froude Number increased for all scenarios of gate worked operations.

The Effect of Intermittent Constant Water Application on Soil Infiltration

Shamsaldeen khroofa; Dr. Younis Hassan

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 69-77
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.127633.1050

In this research ,20 laboratory experiments was carried out on a column of soil with dimensions (30 cm *30 cm *45 cm) on two types of soil loamy sand and loamy ,in order to study the infiltration characteristics of the soil under sprinkling application with constant application rate under continuous and intermittent application at three constant application rates (31,52.4 and68)mm/hr ,with four cycle ratios(cr=1,1/2,1/3,1/4) for loamy sand soil and application rate (31,52.4)mm/hr and  three cycle ratios(cr=1,1/2,1/3) for loamy soil for each application rate , the study focused on two basic factor : the time to ponding ( )and the infiltration characteristics after ponding time .the study showed that using intermittent application method improves infiltration characteristics as it leads to increase in time to ponding ,this increased ranged between (3.22% to 155%)for loamy sand soil and (13.77% to 239.67%) for loamy soil at circle ratio equal  as compared with continuous application in addition to increasing the accumulative infiltration rate depth at any time for example at 180min actual application time the accumulated infiltration depth increased by (3.26% to 47%)for loamy sand soil and (10.24% to 26.94%) for loamy soil using intermittent application (cr =   ) as compared with continuous application.

Life Losses Estimation Due to Hypothetical Momentary Mosul Dam Failure & Prepare Emergency Flood Action Plan for Mosul City

Mustafa Mustafa; Thair Al-Taiee

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 78-89
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.127901.1053

The life loss resulting from the momentary hypothetical failure of Mosul Dam for the area between Mosul Dam extending to the south of Mosul City was estimated depending on inundation maps resulting from flood wave simulation using IBER hydrodynamic model for storage elevation scenarios (300, 310, 320, 330 and 335) meters above sea level. The estimated number residents exposed to the flooding risk at minimum and maximum Mosul Lake storage elevation scenarios for the left and right sides of Mosul City were (257886-749625) person and for the residential communities between Mosul Dam and Mosul City were (10685-47925) person respectively. Saqib Ehsan (2009) approach was used to estimate the life losses for the study area. The human losses were estimated when there was no available warning time for minimum and maximum lake storage levels to be (17452 & 372958) persons respectively. The distances between safe places from the river center were calculated to be (3.09) km for the right side and (5.27) km for the left side of Mosul City at the lake storage elevation of 335 meter above sea level, so the average flood rise velocity and flood survival time till flood were recession completely was calculated for all the lake storage scenarios. An emergency notification action plan has been proposed for the Mosul Dam failure scenario with the most important recommendations and procedures to be under consideration during the flood disaster.

Using the Submerged vanes to control the sediment entering branch channel with 30° angle with the direction of the main channel

Ehsan Salman; Mwafaq Mhammad

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 90-95
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.128056.1058

A common problems faced by the side intake channels are sedimentation and sediment entry. These cause problems as limiting the flow ability in irrigation channels, and threatening to waterway block when the water level is low. This laboratory study was conducted to find out the effect of using one-row immersed vans in the main channel to control the sediments amount of entering the intake channel at an angle  with two sand concentrations at granular diameter rate (  = 0.5mm). The first concentration flow rate was (1.8 ) And the second (2.22 ). The results showed that the use of a single row of submerged vans reduces the sediment amount that entered the intake channel by (35-65)% of the total sediments that were fed by the feeder channel for both concentrations. This indicates that use of submerged vans has a positive role in entry process and sediment transfer to branched channels.

The Use of Artificial Neural Networks In The Analysis of Seepage and Slope Stability for The Proposed Qaim Dam on The Khosar River

Farah Saeed; Kamel Almohseen; Abdulwahab Younis

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 96-104
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.128204.1062

In this study, two Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were built to predict the amount of seepage and the factor of safety for the upstream and downstream slopes of the Qaim Dam, which was proposed to be constructed on the Khosar River.  Two cases have been taken into consideration to analyze the operation of the dam, making use of previous study used Geo-Studio 2012 program studying the stability and the seepage through dam body and its foundation. Thus, two neural networks have been proposed, the first one was for the steady-state case of the reservoir water level and the second was for the rapid drawdown of the reservoir water level. The first ANN gave a coefficient of determination for the seepage process of (0.996),while these coefficients for upstream and downstream slopes were (0.957), and (0.925) respectively. The second ANN deals with calculation of the factor of safety for the upstream slope in a rapid drawdown case, which was (0.976). Sensitivity analyses were also conducted to figure out the most effective variables. It is shown that the most effective factor was the angle of internal friction for the soil.

Improving the Cultivated Area for the Ramadi Irrigation Project By Using Water Evaluation and Planning Model (WEAP)

Abu Baker Najm; Isam Al-bayati; Sadeq Sulaiman

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 105-114
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.128248.1063

In this study, the water evaluation and planning WEAP model was used to improve the Ramadi irrigation project with 28342 hectares and annual budget 326 million / year for the period (2018-2019). The results showed the total water used was 111.5 million /year and equalled 34.2% of Ramadi irrigation budget. The annual production was 39.3 million Kg/year for Ramadi irrigation, and total economic returns 16.04 million $/year. The study proposal two scenarios to improve the cultivated area. The first scenario increased water volume of the current year from 111.5 million /year to 272.12 million /year, which caused increased in annual productivity from 39.3 million Kg/year to 144.57 million Kg/year, and economic return rose from 16.04 million $/year to 65.25 million $/year. The second scenario record increased in annual production for the current year from 39.3 million Kg/year to 192.27 million Kg/year and economic return from 16.04 million $/year to 86.79 million $/year when using additional pumps for project 2, 3 and project 5. Also, the convey loss increased from 16.72 million /year for the current year to 48.47 million /year when applying the second scenario, which equals 15% from the water budget of Ramadi irrigation.

Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Drought Using the Standard Precipitation Index for the Northwestern Region of Iraq

Samah Kasim; Abdulwahab Youns; omar Mahmood-Agha

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 115-127
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.128386.1066

The purpose of the study is to meteorological drought analysis using a standard precipitation index (SPI) in (9) climatic stations spread over the northwestern part of Iraq for the period from 1981 to 2018. Analysis was done at different time intervals and different SPI thresholds. The study showed that the percentage for wet and dry years is 48.54% and 51.46%, respectively, when rated SPI-12 = 0, and this percentage improves for short periods of time to reach 59.94% and 40.06 for wet and dry years respectively when rated SPI-6 (7-12) ) = 0. It was found that the classification of moderate humidity and moderate dryness is prevalent during that period and at all classifications and time periods, while the classification of severe dryness and extreme drought appears clearly and clearly in short time periods, especially in the stations of group (A) and (B).

Empirical Equations for Estimation of Water Distribution Uniformity Coefficient in Case of the Alternate Setting of Sprinkler Laterals

Haqqi Yasin; Zeyad Sulaiman; Ahmed Al-Ogaidi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 128-139
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.128679.1067

Among the operating and management practices that can increase the uniformity of water distribution in the portable sprinkler irrigation systems is the alternate setting of sprinkler laterals. Shifting the laterals by half the distance between laterals results in a single alternate set and shifting the laterals by half the distance between the sprinklers results in double alternate set. Data representing 66 patterns of water distribution for a single sprinkler of different types of sprinkler heads were used. By choosing many suitable sprinklers spacing and using Microsoft Excel to implement the field distribution that free of dry spots, the following coefficients were computed: uniformity coefficient, uniformity coefficient of single and double alternate set, distribution uniformity, distribution uniformity of single and double alternate set and coefficients related to sprinklers spacing. Then, using the nonlinear regression analysis provided in SPSS, empirical relationships were derived to estimate both the single and double uniformity coefficients and the single and double distribution uniformity with determination coefficients of 0.783, 0.810, 0.720, and 0.766, respectively. The spacing coefficients that lead to the maximum values ​​of the different uniformity coefficients were determined based on inferred equations. In addition, the functions proposed in previous studies used in estimating the single and double uniformity coefficients with determination coefficients of 0.608 and 0.539, respectively as well as the single and double distribution uniformity coefficients with determination coefficients of 0.584 and 0.491, respectively showed low accuracy as compared with the ones proposed in the current study.

Handling the Error in Weighing Signal

Abdelkader Faris Al Shalji; Fakhrulddin Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 140-145
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2020.128292.1064

The paper presents and discusses how to use some  software techniques to handle the  error in the  weighing signal that  is  produced from a load cell . The load cell is the best sensor used to  transform the weight to an electrical signal.   In  industry the production of an accurate  weighing signal suffers from a noisy environment. Different sources of noise like electromagnetic fields from machines, motors,   microwaves and power lines  in addition to tempreture variations and humidity have significant effects on weak electrical signals produced by load cells. The software filtering is adopted to reduce or remove  the unwanted effects. The measured combined error is 0.416% when the load is 6000g. The error normal distribution has a sigma improvement equals to 6.922%. With the adaptive hardware gain the measurement time is reduced by about 20%.

A Survey on Smart Monitoring System of Environment Based on IoT

Raghad AlSheikh; Rabee Hagem

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 146-158
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.128944.1072

This paper introduces different topics about Air pollution monitoring based on IoT (internet of things). It describes different methods used for monitoring and measuring Air pollution using different techniques. Some papers discussed Air pollution monitoring using (Arduino uno, Raspberry or ESP8266, PIC microcontroller). All would be presented to improve air monitoring efficiently and to clarify the tools used in each technique giving the differences between one technique and another. Reducing air pollution is necessary for the future, and cities around the world are using technology and smart city initiatives to take on the problem because it is considered as the major environmental risk factor for human health. Air pollution causes heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer and acute lower respiratory disease. Therefore, it is important to reduce traffic and output from factories to decrease pollution

Real-Time Signature Recognition Using Neural Network

Ahmed Fadhil; Mayada Faris; Ali Al-Saegh; Mohammad Mohammad

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 159-165
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.129871.1088

The human signature is an important biometric feature that is used to identify human identity. It is essential in preventing falsification of documents in numerous financial, legal, and other commercial settings. The computerized system enters many aspects of our life, security is one of them, continues developing in computer vision and artificial network leads researcher to develop computerized signature recognition. This paper proposed a real-time algorithm for signature recognition. It is based on client and server which, client agent captures a signature and sends it to the server through the network. The server receives data and performs processing on it. Processing algorithm is based on weightless neural network. It is chosen for its simplicity and few numbers of sample required for training. The algorithm is tested and evaluated and show the ability to process 4.7 images per second.

The Effect of Educational, Economical Level, Household Size on Indoor Domestic Water Consumption of Some Residential Areas in Mosul city for 2011- 2013, 2018

Ahlam Kassabbashi; Abdulmuhsin Shihab; Ahmed Shehab

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2021, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 166-178
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2021.126639.1014

The research presents the site surveying data for per capita indoor water consumption that carried out in Mosul city, Iraq.
 A questionnaire containing over 30 questions was developed to collect a precise information on household characteristics (family size, number of children, income and educational level of house parents), with daily  indoor water consumption, according to the days of the week, taking into consideration water supply continuity, in addition to the built and site area of the house. Over 132 households of standalone, houses with different characteristics were obtained.
The data showed abnormal distribution due to a Non-parametric statistical analysis. Indoor water consumption revealed a positively significant relationship with family size, site area and built area of the house. Whereas, there were a negatively correlation with number of children, monthly income of householder and their educational level, were tabulated, No significant relationship with number of interrupted supply days was observed. Statistical regression analysis elucidated that the educational level of householder followed by family monthly income, family size, the built area and the site area were the crucial weighted factors affecting the indoor water consumption.