Document Type : Research Paper


Mechanical Engineering Department, Collage of Engineering, University of Mosul


Solar energy is the best alternative to limited fossil fuels. The foremost important means of utilizing solar energy are solar collectors. The most common types of solar collectors are flat plate solar collectors. A great deal of theoretical research has been conducted to enhance the flat plate solar collector efficiency. One effective way to increase the efficiency is by using an improved thermal properties fluid as nanofluid. In this paper, a numerical study has been made to enhance the efficiency and improve the performance of solar collector via the use of (Multi-Wall Carbon Nano Tube-water) MWCNT-H2O nanofluid instead of traditional fluid like water as working fluid under the weather of Mosul city / Iraq (36.3489° N, 43.1577° E). One dimensional dynamic model using implicit finite difference method was used. Solving energy conservation equations through the various layers of the solar system is the basis upon which the current model was based. Effects of nanoparticle volume fraction and mass flow rate on the working fluid stream temperature differences, and the thermal efficiency were studied. The mass flow rate was varied from 0.004 kg/s to 0.03 kg/s, while the volume fraction was varied from 0% to 6%. The results of "Nanofluid Based Flat Plate Solar Collector" were compared with the experimental results presented by [1]. The comparison established a good match between the current results and experimental results. The results showed an increase in the working fluid outlet and inlet temperature difference and collector thermal efficiency due to the addition of MWCNT nanoparticles. The temperature difference of "Nanofluid Based Flat Plate Solar Collector" was found 28.8⁰C at 0.014 kg/s and 6% in April, while it was 25 ⁰C at the same condition in the "Water Based Flat Plate Solar Collector case". Also, the thermal efficiency of "Nanofluid Based Flat Plate Solar Collector" was found 2.41% to 6.68% more than the "Water Based Flat Plate Solar Collector case".


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