Document Type : Research Paper


Electrical Engineering Department, Collage of Engineering, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq


This paper presented a new structure for the CMOS power amplifiers as a more effective trend to amplify radio frequency (RF) signals compared to polar power amplifiers PA's by using envelope removal and restoration (EER) technique. Polar PA offers high-efficiency RF-modulated linear signal amplification. However, these amplifiers need high uniformity between the amplitude and phase of the modulated signals. The last translates promptly into higher energy consumption. Rather than deconstructing the quadrature signals into the combination of phase and amplitude signals, it is suggested that the CMOS quadrature power amplifier (QPA's) technique had been used to amplify RF signals immediately. The linearity, bandwidth, efficiency, and power consumption of the QPA's has been improved by separate amplitude and phase quadrature signals. The quadratic geometry architecture contains two bridges from modulated PA's that are able to treat negative or positive voltages, modulation, and RF-power bundling. The design of the new structure is compared with respect to parameters such as fundamental frequency, power gain, PAE, output power, technology or fabrication process, and number of stage transistors. Simulation results for PA's design using CMOS process show an effective quadrature model by a power-added-efficiency (PAE) of 78.413% at a maximum output power of 21.619dBm. The third intermodulation IDM3 is -49.2dBc at output power driven at frequency 2.4 GHz and input power greater than 20dBm. The amplitude and phase distortion has been obtained of 1.4 and 0.26 ᵒ/dB respectively at 50MHz of bandwidth for modulated signals.


Main Subjects

[1]     S., Yichang. Wireless communications circuits and systems. Vol. 16. IET, 2004.
[2]     M., Joseph F. Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (1857–1894): A Collection of Articles and Addresses. Routledge, 2018.
[3]     R., and Wolfgang H. Müller. "Examination of electromagnetic powers with the example of a Faraday disc dynamo." Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics 30, no. 4, pp. 861-877, 2018.
[4]     S., Daniel M. Innovation in Maxwell's electromagnetic theory: Molecular vortices, displacement current, and light. Cambridge University Press, 2003.
[5]     M., Aleksandar, and D. Budimir. "Tesla's contribution to radio wave propagation." In 5th International Conference on Telecommunications in Modern Satellite, Cable and Broadcasting Service. TELSIKS 2001. Proceedings of Papers, vol. 1, pp. 327-331. IEEE, 2001.
[6]     N., Juri I. "Faraday–Maxwell theory of electromagnetism and the Maxwell–Hertz electromagnetic waves." In Mathematical Models in Natural Science and Engineering, pp. 375-379. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2003.
[7]     N, T. Kien, "A Low-Power RF Direct-Conversion Receiver/Transmitter for 2.4GHz-Band IEEE 802.15.4 Standard in 0.18 CMOS Technology." IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 54, pp. 4062-4071, 2006.
[8]     F., Qiang. "CMOS RF Power Amplifier Design for Wireless Communications." PhD Thesis., UC Riverside, 2012.
[9]     S., and M. Silveira. "Low cost measurement system for broadcast power amplifiers." International Journal of Communication Systems 27, no. 12, pp: 4346-4354, 2014.
[10]  K., Ki-Won, and Samuel Cho. "1kW Solid State Power Amplifier for L-band radar system." In 2011 3rd International Asia-Pacific Conference on Synthetic Aperture Radar, pp. 1-4. IEEE, 2011.
[11]  R., Frederick H. "RF and microwave power amplifier and transmitter technologies." high frequency electronics 2, no. 3, pp: 22-36, 2003.
[12]  S., N., and J. Laskar. "Linear RF CMOS power amplifier with improved efficiency and linearity in wide power levels." In 2005 IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium-Digest of Papers, pp. 251-254. IEEE, 2005.
[13]  G., Andrei. RF and microwave power amplifier design. McGraw-Hill Education, 2015.
[14]  C., Steve C. RF power amplifiers for wireless communications. Vol. 2. Norwood, MA: Artech house, 2006.
[15]  B., Bo, Jan Johansson, and Thomas Lejon. "High efficiency power amplifiers." Ericsson Review 83, no. 3, pp. 92-96, 2006.
[16]  L., C. H. "Quadrature power amplifier for RF applications." Master's thesis, University of Twente, 2009.
[17]  K., Ildu, Young Yun Woo, and Bumman Kim. "High-efficiency hybrid EER transmitter using optimized power amplifier." IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 56, no. 11, 2582-2593, 2008.
[18]  S., Minoh, and Changkun Park. "A CMOS power amplifier using a Balun embedded driver stage for IEEE 802.11 n WLAN applications." Progress in Electromagnetics Research C 90, pp. 169-181, 2019.
[19]  W., Feipeng, and L. Larson. "Wideband envelope elimination and restoration power amplifier with high efficiency wideband envelope amplifier for WLAN 802.11 g applications." In IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, 2005., pp. 645-648. IEEE, 2005.
[20]  L., Jerry, and Gin-Kou Ma. "Design of highly efficient wideband RF polar transmitters using the envelope-tracking technique." IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits 44, no. 9, pp.  2276-2294, 2009.
[21]  W., Feipeng, and Lawrence E. Larson. "An improved power-added efficiency 19 dBm hybrid envelope elimination and restoration power amplifier for 802.11 g WLAN applications." IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 54, no. 12, pp. 4086-4099, 2006.
[22]  H., and Mourad Gamal. "Class-E CMOS power amplifiers for RF applications." In Proceedings of the 2003 International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, vol. 1, pp. I-I. IEEE, 2003.
[23]  H., Tsai-Pi, and Peter M. Asbeck. "Design of high-efficiency current-mode Class-D amplifiers for wireless handsets." IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques 53, no. 1, pp. 144-151, 2005.
[24]  R., Patrick, and Michiel Steyaert. "A fully integrated CMOS RF power amplifier with parallel power combining and power control." In 2005 IEEE Asian Solid-State Circuits Conference, pp. 137-140. IEEE, 2005.
[25]  A., Al-Shorbaji,  SH. Hussein, and A. S. Al-Jawadi. "Microwave Radiometer for Temperature Sensing of Food." Jour of Advance Research in Dynamical & Control Systems 10(4), 605-615, 2018.
[26]  P., and B. Rachmatul Alam. "Design power amplifier using load pull method in WLAN 802.11 ax access point application." In 2017 International Symposium on Electronics and Smart Devices, pp. 304-309. IEEE, 2017.
[27]  S., Minoh, Jinho Yoo, Changhyun Lee, and Changkun Park. "A CMOS power amplifier using a Balun embedded driver stage for IEEE 802.11 n WLAN applications." Progress in Electromagnetics Research C 90, pp: 169-181, 2019.
[28]  S. H. Hussein, "Design and Simulation of a High Performance CMOS Voltage Doublers using Charge Reuse Technique." Journal of Engineering Science and Technology 12, no. 12, pp.  3344-3357, 2017.