Document Type : Research Paper


1 Directorate of Buildings, Government of Nineveh, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq

2 Architecture Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq

3 Institute of Architecture and Design, Altai State Technical University, Russian Federation


This study deals with the concept of adaptation in natural systems, and the principles used by these systems to enable them to respond to changes and perform their functions within the processes of continuous growth. These principles include static and dynamic characteristics, which are used to match their sustainable characteristics in growth and adaptation. Here, the importance of fractal geometry emerged in explaining the complex nature with its formations and characteristics, as it is also able to grow and adapt continuously and interdependently. Thus, it helps designers achieve adaptation and growth in functionality and spatial requirements in the built environment through time, guided by sustainable natural systems.
The importance of adaptation emerges as one of the most important strategies for achieving an environment that is more capable of accepting the processes of modification and change, and thus accommodating changes and renewable spatial and functional requirements, and conforming to them over time. A building that is more adaptable is more efficient in being able to respond to changes. The benefits of achieving adaptation in architecture are represented in the efficient utilization of space, the increase in the life of the building and its compatibility with the changing requirements of the occupants in a better manner and at a relatively lower cost. This, in turn, leads to a reduction in relocation and abandonment of buildings and contributes to preserving the environment, by reducing demolition and construction operations, which result in damage as is well known. Adaptation is associated with a range of economic, social and environmental benefits, being one of the features of sustainable architecture. And since fractal geometry derives its structure and material and essential characteristics from nature, which is sustainable by default, it has in turn become an entry point for employing the characteristics of nature in architecture. The fractal structure's ability to grow and adapt has become echoed and reflected in the work of many architects. Through this, the two main axes of this study stand out. The first axis includes introducing the vocabulary of adaptation, its characteristics and requirements in architecture, and the second axis is related to proposing the equivalent principles of adaptation in nature, by using fractal geometry as a mechanism that can be used to explore and transfer these principles to architectural designs that contribute to achieving successful and sustainable construction.
The research discusses the hypothesis that adaptation can be a critical factor associated with sustainable architecture by using fractal geometry tools. This is done by discussing the proposals of many researchers and crystallizing their ideas to serve the goal of the research, which aims to achieve sustainable architectural design through the concepts of adaptation. The most important results of the research indicated that there is a harmonious relationship between the concepts of fractal geometry, including mechanisms dynamic growth, repetition within graduated scales, symmetry, and others, on the one hand, and between the concepts of sustainable nature with its adaptive characteristics towards various changes over time, on the other hand.


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