Document Type : Review Paper
University of Mosul, College of Engineering, Architecture Engineering Department, Mosul, Iraq
College of Engineering, University of Mosul
In recent decades, the number, and height of buildings have increased dramatically. As height has become a kind of urbanization all over the world, people tend to build high-rise buildings, but the higher the building height, the greater the risk. Safety is one of the main tributaries on which the local economy is based, and it occupies an important place at the level of international organizations anywhere to protect lives and property. These towers accommodate a large population density, and given the large number of floors, the difficulty of controlling the spread of fire and evacuating the building's occupants appears. Therefore, the study aims primarily at a general evaluation of the available research dealing with design variables in high-rise buildings and their effects on the spread of fire, whether in terms of temperature, smoke, or toxic gases. The architect’s role is activated through the development and improvement of design methods and the efficiency of the building's functional performance and protection measures when fire hazards occur in these buildings.
- A. Al-Aqili and S. H. Al-Ahbabi, " Vertical urban design: the impact of tall buildings (skyscrapers) on the urban structure of the contemporary city", Babylon University Journal, Engineering Sciences, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2013.
- A. J. Al-Tai and H. M.H. Kasim, "Dual twins in architecture," AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 46–68, 2011,doi:10.33899/rengj.2011.27002.
- O. Hamouda," Evaluation of the safety and security means in high-rise residential buildings Gaza city case study", Msc thesis, Islamic University of Gaza, Gaza, Palestine, 2012.
- A. Yazdanfar and N. Nazari, "Proposed physical-environmental factors influencing personal and social security in residential areas," Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 201, pp. 224–233, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.08.171.
- B. Al-Hassan, "Fire fighting in high rise Buildings (Case Study The state of Khartoum)", Msc thesis, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan, 2019.
- K. Chow and W.Y. Hung , "On the fire safety for internal voids in highrise buildings", Building and environment, Vol.38, No.11, pp.1317-1325,2003.
- W .K. Chow, "Fire safety concern on open kitchen in small residential units of tall buildings" , International Journal on Engineering Performance-Based Fire Codes, Vol. 10, No. 3, p.58-62, 2011.
- Cowlard, A. Bittern, C. Abecassis-Empis, and J. Torero, “Fire safety design for tall buildings,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 62, pp. 169–181, 2013. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2013.08.053.
- Li, P. Rao, X. Zhang and G. Hadjisophocleous, "A case study on the effect of building construction type, height and area on the building fire risk using the fire risk assessment model CUrisk",14th International Conference And Exhibition, 2015.
- S. Ali, "Regulations and Procedures in Safety on Residential Complexes Against Fire: Case Study (Al Reel Residential Complex Tower)", M.Sc. Thesis, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan, 2015.
- Węgrzyński and M. Konecki,"Influence of the fire location and the size of a compartment on the heat and smoke flow out of the compartment", AIP Conference Proceedings. Vol. 1922. No. 1, 2018.
- M. Abbas, "The Role of Modern Architecture in Securing Health Facilities from Fire Risks, Case Study: Salah Al-Din Hospital in Tripoli," The 15th International Conference of Al-Azhar on: Engineering, Architecture and Technology. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2018.
- I. Ashour, "Evaluation of The Safety and Security Means in High – Rise Residential Buildings Within the Established Procedures (Hebron City - Case Study)", M.Sc. Thesis, Hebron University, College of Graduate Studies and Scientific, Palestine, 2020.
- Zhang, "Simulation study on fire visibility of typical floor planes of modern super high-rise office buildings in China," Complexity, vol. 2021, pp. 1–14, 2021.
- Muhammad and C. J. Eze, "Assessment of Design Method on Fire Prevention Strategies for High Rise Buildings in Lagos, Nigeria", SETIC 2020 International Conference:Sustainable Housing and Land Management, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna PP.656-663, 2021.
- Konbr and E. Maher, "Investigating the Impact of Staircases Rotation on the Evacuation Efficiency", Civil Engineering and Architecture, Vol. 10, No. 6, pp. 2524-2540, 2022, DOI: 10.13189/cea.2022.100622.
- Zhang, F. Yu, S. Gao, C. Chang and X. Zhang, "Experimental and Numerical Study on Rapid Evacuation Characteristics of Staircases in Campus Buildings", Buildings,Vol.12, No.6, PP.1-12, 2022, Doi.org/10.3390/ buildings12060848.
- T. C. Onyenobi, J. Hudson and M. Ormerod, "The effect of building morphology on fire spread in UK timber-floor high-rise" , Research Institute For The Built And Human Environment, University Of Salford, United Kingdom, pp. 488-504, 2005.
- J. Alnimra, "Safety measures Criteria in buildings and its impact on architectural design (Al-Quds Educational building at IUG as a case study)", National Research Center, Vol. 2009, No. 4 , pp.3-34, 2009.
- H. Mirghani, "Evaluation of the safety and security means in high-rise residential buildings, Case study (Al Neel and Al Neft Residential Complex Towers)" Msc thesis, Sudan University of Science and Technology,College of Graduate Studies, Sudan,2018.
- Ž. Jakšić and M. Trivunić, "Fire Protection of The Building - Part Ii: The Facilities Geometry", Conference FIRE PROTECTION OF THE BUILDING - PART II,
- AH. Raheem, "The modern technologies role in enhancing design determinants of safety and security factors in buildings", Journal of Engineering Sciencesand Information Technology, Vol 3, NO. 4 , PP. 22 - 41, 2019, DOI: https://doi.org/10.26389/AJSRP.N110719 .
- F.Abd Rabbo, A. M. Arab, A. A. Attia and M. Shalaby,"Ceiling Shape in industrial building effect on fire behavior", Engineering Research Journal-Faculty of Engineering, Vol. 1, no. 44,pp.10-16, 2020.
- R . Wang, Lan and L. Xu, "Smoke spread process under different heights based on numerical simulation", Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, ,Vol. 21,2020,doi.org/10.1016/j.csite.2020.100710 .
- S. A. Ahmed, "A Study Of Methods For Protection & Prevention Of The Effects Of Fires In Buildings", Journal of Al-Azhar University Engineering Sector, 17, No.65, pp. 1415 -1430 ,2022.
- H. Mammoser and F. Battaglia, "A computational study on the use of balconies to reduce flame spread in high-rise apartment fires",Fire safety journal, Vol. 39, pp.277-296, 2004, doi:10.1016/j.firesaf.2003.11.011.
- R . Dârmon, " The Fire Spread Outside of a Building", Acta Technica Napocensis – Series Civil Engineering and Architecture, Vol.53, pp.152-155, 2010.
- L. Chow, "Numerical studies on smoke spread in the cavity of a double-skin façade." Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 371-392 ,2011.
- P. Giraldo, J. Avellaneda, A. M. Lacasta and V. Rodríguez, "computer-simulation research on building-facade geometry for fire spread control in buildings with wood claddings", The 2012 World Conference on Timber Engineering At: Auckland, New Zealand, vol.2, pp. 1-8, 2012.
- F. AbdRabbo, A. M. Ayoub, M.A. Ibrahim and A. M.SHARAF ELDIN, "Effect of Window Configurations on Fire Spread in Buildings", in 11th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, 2013, DOI: 10.2514/6.2013-3947.
- L .Peng , Z. Ni, and X. Huang, "Review on the fire safety of exterior wall claddings in high-rise buildings in China", Procedia Eng, 4 ,pp. 663-670, 2013.
- H . J. L. Morgado, J. P. C. Rodrigues and L. M.S. Laim, "Experimental and numerical study of balcony effect in external fire spread into upper floors", Proceedings of International Conference Applications of Structural Fire Engineering,At: Prague, pp.79-85, 2013.
- P. Giraldo, A. Lacasta, J. Avellaneda and C. Burgo, "Computer-simulation study on fire behaviour in the ventilated cavity of ventilated façade systems" , In MATEC Web of Conferences, vol. 9, p. 03002, 2013, DOI: 10.1051matecconf20130903002.
- Wang, Y. Wu , Q. Wang, K.M. Liew , H. Chen , J. Sun and L. He, "Numerical study on fire response of glass facades in different installation forms", journal of Construction and Building Materials, Vol.61, pp.172-180, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.03.012 .
- P. Giraldo, J. Avellaneda, A. Lacasta and C. Burgos," Numerical-Simulation Research On Building-Façade Geometry And Its Effect On Fire Propagation In Wooden Façades", World Conference on Timber Engineering, Quebec City, Canada, pp. 1-8, 2014.
- x. Zhou, "Application and design requirements of fire windows in buildings", Procedia engineering ,Vol.71,pp. 286-290, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2014.04.041.
- Wang, Q. Wang, J. Sun, L. He and K. M. Liew, "Thermal performance of exposed framing glass façades in fire", Materials and Structures, Vol. 49, No. 7,pp. 2961-2970, 2016, DOI 10.1617/s11527-015-0698-z.
- K . T. Nguyen, P. Weerasinghe, P. Mendis and T. Ngo, "Performance of modern building façades in fire: a comprehensive review", Electronic Journal of Structural Engineering, 16, pp. 69-87, 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.56748/ejse.16212 .
- M .Nilsson, A. Mossberg, B. Husted and J.Anderson, "Protection against external fire spread-Horizontal projections or spandrels", In 14th International Fire Science & Engineering Conference, Royal Holloway College, University of London, UK, vol. 2, pp. 1163-1174. 2016.
- Nilsson ,"The impact of horizontal projections on external fire spread-a numerical comparative study" ,Report ,nr. 5510. Lund University, Division of Fire Safety Engineering. 2016.
- Jie, Y. F. Li, W. X. Shi, and J. H. Sun. "Numerical studies on smoke spread in the cavity of a double-skin façade." Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 470-479,2016, https://doi.org/10.3846/13923730.2014.897992 .
- Yan, L. Jiang, W. An, Y. Zhou and J. Sun, "Large scale experimental study on the fire hazard of buildings’ U-shape façade wall geometry", Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, Vol .23, No. 4, PP. 455-463, 2017.
- Hu, Milke JA and B Merci, "Special Issue on Fire Safety of High-Rise Buildings", Fire technology, Vol. 53, pp. 1-3, 2017.
- Elhefnawi, "fire spread in curtain wall façade",architecture and planning journal,Beirut arab university, lebanon, Vol. 24, 2018.
- Ž. Jakšić and M. Trivunić, "Fire Protection Of The Building - Part I: Contact Facade ", Conference: Fire Protection Of The Buildings, At: Serbia, 2015.
- A. Alfakhry,"new vision of provisions in iraqi code of practice for fire protections in buildings (646) to regulate the use of aluminum composite panels (acps) in building facades", Journal of Built Environment, Technology and Engineering, Vol. 6 pp. 60-68,2019.
- B. Chen, A. C. Yuen, G. H. Yeoh, W. Yang and Q. N. Chan ,"Fire risk assessment of combustible exterior cladding using a collective numerical database", Fire, Vol.11,No.1,2019, doi:10.3390/fire2010011.
- A . A. Alfakhry, "A Comparative Analytical Study of Some External Finishing (Cladding) Material in Terms of Their Ability to Spread Fire in Multi-story Building Facades in Iraq", International Journal of Safety and Security Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 5, pp. 647-654,2020.
- R .M. Rathnayake, P. Sridarran and M.D. Abeynayake ,"Factors contributing to building fire incidents: A review", International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, Dubai, 2020.
- Yan, J. Li, Y. Shen, and K. Wang. "Experimental investigations on the flame spread of building’s vertical U-shape façade" Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Vol. 147,No. 10, pp. 5961-5971, 2022.
- Iringová and D. Vandličková, "Analysis of a Fire in an Apartment of Timber Building Depending on the Ventilation Parameter" , Civil and Environmental Engineering, Vol.17, NO.2, PP. 549-558, 2021, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/cee-2021-0056 .
- BM. Faudzi, J. Schulz and G. Dodd,"Qualitative assessment of fire hazard posed by laminated glass balcony balustrades on fire spread", Fire Technology, Vol.57, No.4, pp.1951-1967, 2021, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10694-020-01085-8 .
- G. Yılmaz, "Fire Safety of Tall Buildings: Approach in Design and Prevention", Proceedings of the International Conference of Contemporary Affairs in Architecture and Urbanism-ICCAUA, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 206-216. 2022, https://doi.org/10.38027/ICCAUA2022EN0215.
- A. Alfakhry, "Study Of Safe Separating Distances Between The Newly Constructed Buildings At Mosul University To Prevent Fire Propagtion By Radiation", Diyala Journal Of Engineering Sciences,Vol. 7,No. 3, pp.19-31, 2014.
- Pesic, D. Zigar, M. Raos and I. Anghel, "Simulation of fire spread between residential buildings regarding safe separation distance",Tehnički vjesnik, Vol.24 , No. 4 , pp.1137-1145, 2017, https://doi.org/10.17559/TV-20150923233514.