Document Type : Review Paper
Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Isra University, Amman, Jordan
Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) materials have become more popular according to contemporary developments in civil engineering applications. These materials have been used to repair and rehabilitate traditional structures. In turn, the majority of currently used applications are the result of research and recommendations made by fiber composite manufacturers or the experience of the designer. Therefore, optimization techniques try to achieve the best design under different conditions in structural design. An extensive search was conducted on existing research in the literature on applying optimization techniques such as artificial intelligence (AI) methods to reinforced concrete members that were externally strengthened with FRP materials. This paper provides a concise assessment of many studies that have been done in the literature on the behavior and strength of fiber-reinforced concrete elements, particularly in shear and bending scenarios. Each study's methodology and key findings are summarized.
- K. Sengun and G. Arslan, "Parameters affecting the behaviour of RC beams strengthened in shear and flexure with various FRP systems," Structures, vol. 40, pp. 202-212, 2022.
- S. Kar and K. Biswal, "FRP shear contribution prediction for U-wrapped RC T-beams using a soft computing tool," Structures, vol. 27, pp. 1093-1104, 2020.
- Y. M. Xie, G. P. Steven, Y. Xie, and G. Steven, Basic evolutionary structural optimization. Springer, 1997.
- J. G. Teng, J. F. Chen, S. T. Smith, and L. Lam, "Behaviour and strength of FRP-strengthened RC structures: a state-of-the-art review," Proceedings of the institution of civil engineers-structures and buildings, vol. 156, no. 1, pp. 51-62, 2003.
- B. J. Al-Sulayfani and A. S. Al-Luhybi, "Flexural Behavior Of R/C Beams With Externally Bonded Gfrp Sheets," Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), vol. 17, no. 6, 2009.
- A. A Mohammed and Y. K Faiud, "Parameters Affecting the Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Wrapped With CFRP Sheet," Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 1-26, 2012.
- A. Mofidi and O. Chaallal, "Shear strengthening of RC beams with EB FRP: Influencing factors and conceptual debonding model," Journal of Composites for Construction, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 62-74, 2011.
- K. Neale, "Manual no. 4—Strengthening reinforced concrete structures with externally-bonded fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs)," ISIS ISIS Canada Research Network, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, 2008.
- S. T. Yousif and M. A AL-Jurmaa, "Modeling of ultimate load for RC beams strengthened with Carbon FRP using artificial neural networks," Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 28-41, 2010.
- Externally bonded FRP reinforcement for RC structures. Design and use of externally bonded fibre reinforced polymer reinforcement (FRP EBR) for reinforced concrete structures, fib, 2001.
- S. Kar, A. R. Pandit, and K. Biswal, "Prediction of FRP shear contribution for wrapped shear deficient RC beams using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS)," Structures, vol. 23, pp. 702-717, 2020.
- P. Balaguru, A. Nanni, and J. Giancaspro, FRP composites for reinforced and prestressed concrete structures: a guide to fundamentals and design for repair and retrofit. CRC Press, 2008.
- S. Shahriari and H. Naderpour, "Reliability assessment of shear-deficient reinforced concrete beams externally bonded by FRP sheets having different configurations," Structures, vol. 25, pp. 730-742, 2020.
- G. Pohl, Textiles, polymers and composites for buildings. Elsevier, 2010.
- Z. K. Awad, T. Aravinthan, Y. Zhuge, and F. Gonzalez, "A review of optimization techniques used in the design of fibre composite structures for civil engineering applications," Materials & Design, vol. 33, pp. 534-544, 2012.
- G. Spadea, F. Bencardino, and R. Swamy, "Optimizing the performance characteristics of beams strengthened with bonded CFRP laminates," Materials and structures, vol. 33, pp. 119-126, 2000.
- B. Gao, J.-K. Kim, and C. K. Leung, "Optimization of tapered end design for FRP strips bonded to RC beams," Composites science and technology, vol. 66, no. 10, pp. 1266-1273, 2006.
- M. M. Rahman, M. Z. Jumaat, and M. A. Hosen, "Genetic algorithm for material cost minimization of external strengthening system with fiber reinforced polymer," Advanced Materials Research, vol. 468, pp. 1817-1822, 2012.
- M. Bennegadi, Z. Sereir, and S. Amziane, "3D nonlinear finite element model for the volume optimization of a RC beam externally reinforced with a HFRP plate," Construction and Building Materials, vol. 38, pp. 1152-1160, 2013.
- M. De Munck, S. De Sutter, S. Verbruggen, T. Tysmans, and R. F. Coelho, "Multi-objective weight and cost optimization of hybrid composite-concrete beams," Composite structures, vol. 134, pp. 369-377, 2015.
- I. M. Metwally, "Intelligent Predicting System for Modeling of Flexurally–Strengthened Reinforced Concrete Beams with CFRP Laminates," BUILDING RESEARCH JOURNAL, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 25-42, 2014.
- J. Kaura, "Optimisation of thickness of fibre reinforced polymer sheets for strengthening reinforced concrete beams with flexural deficiency," Nigerian Journal of Technology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 45-49, 2017.
- S. Tveit, M. Wilhelmsen, V. A. Lundeland, and M. Kioumarsi, "Cost-optimal design of flexural concrete beam reinforced with FRP reinforcements," 2018.
- N. Sundar, P. Raghunath, and G. Dhinakaran, "Flower pollination-based optimal design of reinforced concrete beams with externally bonded of FRPS," Advanced Composites Letters, vol. 29, p. 2633366X20962499, 2020.
- V. Kodur and A. Ahmed, "Guidelines for achieving optimum fire resistance in FRP-strengthened reinforced concrete beams," in Structures Congress 2013: Bridging Your Passion with Your Profession, 2013, pp. 1120-1130.
- J. Zhang and Y. Wang, "Evaluating the bond strength of FRP-to-concrete composite joints using metaheuristic-optimized least-squares support vector regression," Neural Computing and Applications, vol. 33, pp. 3621-3635, 2021.
- R. Perera, J. Vique, A. Arteaga, and A. De Diego, "Shear capacity of reinforced concrete members strengthened in shear with FRP by using strut-and-tie models and genetic algorithms," Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 714-726, 2009.
- R. Perera, A. Arteaga, and A. De Diego, "Artificial intelligence techniques for prediction of the capacity of RC beams strengthened in shear with external FRP reinforcement," Composite Structures, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 1169-1175, 2010.
- R. Perera, M. Barchín, A. Arteaga, and A. De Diego, "Prediction of the ultimate strength of reinforced concrete beams FRP-strengthened in shear using neural networks," Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 287-298, 2010.
- A. Lousdad, A. Megueni, and A. Bouchikhi, "Geometric edge shape based optimization for interfacial shear stress reduction in fiber reinforced polymer plate retrofitted concrete beams," Computational materials science, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 911-918, 2010.
- M. Nehdi and H. Nikopour, "Genetic algorithm model for shear capacity of RC beams reinforced with externally bonded FRP," Materials and structures, vol. 44, pp. 1249-1258, 2011.
- R. Perera and A. Ruiz, "Design equations for reinforced concrete members strengthened in shear with external FRP reinforcement formulated in an evolutionary multi-objective framework," Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 488-496, 2012.
- H. Tanarslan, M. Secer, and A. Kumanlioglu, "An approach for estimating the capacity of RC beams strengthened in shear with FRP reinforcements using artificial neural networks," Construction and Building Materials, vol. 30, pp. 556-568, 2012.
- H. Zhang, S. T. Smith, and S. Kim, "Optimisation of carbon and glass FRP anchor design," Construction and Building Materials, vol. 32, pp. 1-12, 2012.
- B. Krour, F. Bernard, and A. Tounsi, "Fibers orientation optimization for concrete beam strengthened with a CFRP bonded plate: A coupled analytical–numerical investigation," Engineering structures, vol. 56, pp. 218-227, 2013.
- S. Lee and C. Lee, "Prediction of shear strength of FRP-reinforced concrete flexural members without stirrups using artificial neural networks," Engineering structures, vol. 61, pp. 99-112, 2014.
- H. Tanarslan, A. Kumanlioglu, and G. Sakar, "An anticipated shear design method for reinforced concrete beams strengthened with anchoraged carbon fiber‐reinforced polymer by using neural network," The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 19-39, 2015.
- S. W. Choi, Y. Kim, and H. S. Park, "Multi-objective seismic retrofit method for using FRP jackets in shear-critical reinforced concrete frames," Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 56, pp. 207-216, 2014.
- H. Dehghani and M. Fadaee, "Optimum resistance factor for reinforced concrete beams retrofitted with U-wrap FRP," Int J Optim Civil Eng, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 227-40, 2015.
- A. N. Hanoon, M. Jaafar, F. Hejazi, and F. N. A. Aziz, "Strut-and-tie model for externally bonded CFRP-strengthened reinforced concrete deep beams based on particle swarm optimization algorithm: CFRP debonding and rupture," Construction and Building Materials, vol. 147, pp. 428-447, 2017.
- H. Naderpour, O. Poursaeidi, and M. Ahmadi, "Shear resistance prediction of concrete beams reinforced by FRP bars using artificial neural networks," Measurement, vol. 126, pp. 299-308, 2018.
- O. R. Abuodeh, J. A. Abdalla, and R. A. Hawileh, "Prediction of shear strength and behavior of RC beams strengthened with externally bonded FRP sheets using machine learning techniques," Composite Structures, vol. 234, p. 111698, 2020.
- R. Al-Rousan, "Predicting the Optimum shear capacity of reinforced concrete beams externally strengthened with CFRP composites," Procedia Manufacturing, vol. 44, pp. 631-638, 2020.
- R. Perera and F. B. Varona, "Flexural and shear design of FRP plated RC structures using a genetic algorithm," Journal of structural engineering, vol. 135, no. 11, pp. 1418-1429, 2009.
- K. J. Callahan and G. E. Weeks, "Optimum design of composite laminates using genetic algorithms," Composites Engineering, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 149-160, 1992.
- M. Abachizadeh, M. Shariatpanahi, A. Yousefi-Koma, and A. F. Dizaji, "Multi-objective optimal design of hybrid laminates using continuous ant colony method," in Engineering Systems Design and Analysis, 2010, vol. 49187, pp. 371-378.
- Z. K. Awad, T. Aravinthan, and Y. Zhuge, "Cost optimum design of structural fibre composite sandwich panel for flooring applications," in Advances in FRP Composites in Civil Engineering: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering (CICE 2010), Sep 27–29, 2010, Beijing, China, 2011: Springer, pp. 478-481.
- A. Axinte, L. Bejan, N. Taranu, and P. Ciobanu, "Modern approaches on the optimization of composite structures," Buletinul Institutului Politehnic din lasi. Sectia Constructii, Arhitectura, vol. 59, no. 6, p. 43, 2013.
- R. Perera, E. Sevillano, A. Arteaga, and A. De Diego, "Identification of intermediate debonding damage in FRP-plated RC beams based on multi-objective particle swarm optimization without updated baseline model," Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 62, pp. 205-217, 2014.
- G. Li, T. Hu, and D. Bai, "BP neural network improved by sparrow search algorithm in predicting debonding strain of FRP-strengthened RC beams," Advances in Civil Engineering, vol. 2021, pp. 1-13, 2021.
- R. Van Loon, E. Pujadas-Gispert, S. Moonen, and R. Blok, "Environmental optimization of precast concrete beams using fibre reinforced polymers," Sustainability, vol. 11, no. 7, p. 2174, 2019.
- G. Sas, C. Dăescu, C. Popescu, and T. Nagy-György, "Numerical optimization of strengthening disturbed regions of dapped-end beams using NSM and EBR CFRP," Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 67, pp. 381-390, 2014.