Print ISSN: 1813-0526

Online ISSN: 2220-1270

Volume 14, Issue 3

Volume 14, Issue 3, Summer and Autumn 2006, Page 1-94

VLSI Architecture for Real Time IWT

Ahmed Khorsheed Al-Sulaifanie

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2006.45302


In this paper, the design of new real time integer to integer lifting based wavelet transform IWT architecture is focused. An efficient design method is proposed to construct an integrated programmable VLSI architecture that can operate as forward or backward IWT in pipeline fashion. The layout VLSI integrated structure is simple, modular, and cascadable for computation of wavelet transform based on 5/3 biorthogonal filters. The architecture is optimal with respect to both area and time and independent of the size of the input signal without necessitate to memory.
The lifting steps adapted to be causal and the proposed architecture is suitable to be used in the real time processing applications. The critical path of the architecture is equal to critical path of one lifting step. The numerical precision has been established using simulink model. Experimental tests have been made with 8-bit signed two's complement integer numbers. Based on the experimental result observations,
the data path width of proposed architecture is fixed at 10 bits.

Keywords: Lifting scheme, VLSI architecture, wavelet transform.

Effect of Misalignment on Gear Teeth Stresses

Dr. Akram Y.Al-Sa; ati; Dr. Sabah M.J.Ali

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2006.45329

The present research work concentrated on the analysis of stresses generated on transmitting gear tooth, also the effect of misalignment angle on stress distribution and its concentration. This study had been done on a gear model similar to accessory gear of Gas Station for electricity generation in Mansour-Mosul.
Computer program using finite element technique had been developed. Gear tooth model had been analyzed using finite element method in three dimensions. The results of execution finite element program for many cases of misalignment angle showed clearly, that the stress distribution and its concentration on tooth changed with misalignment angle. According to the values of generated stresses, the tooth fracture can be predicted, this leads to the selection of more suitable materials to be used for gears. New formulas governing stresses change with change of misalignment angle, had been obtained - using regression analysis -. Also it is found that when angle of misalignment being generated by 0.1 degree, this leads to increase of 154 % in maximum principal stress at root tension side, 163 % in maximum shear stress and 147 % in minimum principal stress at contact region.

Finite element Stress analysis Spur gear Misalignment Keywords:

Application of Thermal Energy Storage Systems to Public Worship Buildings

Dr. Ghalib Y. Kahwaji

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 14-30
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2006.45303

This paper presents the feasibility of utilizing thermal energy storage systems in reducing both the initial and running expenses of chiller systems in large mosques. The study focused on the great mosque in the city of Mosul as a model. Two load profiles are considered, the occasional and the normal profiles with three different partial storage control strategies. The conventional strategy is also considered for the purpose of comparisons. From the results, it can be concluded that, the amount of the shifted load from the on-peak period for the occasional profile is equal to 45.2%, 24%, and 39.1% for the three control cases respectively. Up to 74% reduction in the on-peak power consumption can be achieved with a total shifted power, (from the on-peak to the off-peak periods) of up to 47.2%, which will add significantly to the total cost reduction. For the normal profile, the amount of the shifted load from the on-peak period is equal to 9.8%. The peak power consumption is reduced by 33.1%, and about 10% of the consumed power is shifted to low price period.

Key words: A/C systems, refrigeration systems, thermal energy storage

Properties and Behaviour of Lightweight Concrete Containing Polystyrene Granulars

Salwa Mubark Abdullah; Usama Abdullah Ameer

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 17-26
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2006.45331

In the current research polystyrene particles are added to the concrete mix to produce six strips of reinforced slabs, in order to study the strips bearing capacity at the age of 56 days then later at 10 years. A selected mix of specific w/c is used; the main properties of the mix were studied from the results of casting cubes and beams. The results indicated that the L.W.C containing the polystyrene particles may be used to manufacture reinforced slab strips, in addition and as a by product to fabricate precast building blocks.

Keyword : Light Concrete, Properties, Polystyrene Granulars

Mechanical and Thermal Expansion properties of Roselle Fiber Reinforced Cement Composite

Dr. M. A. Ismail

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 27-42
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2006.45337

This paper describes an experimental investigation on the mechanical,
physical and thermal expansion properties of cement reinforced with Roselle
fibres. The short discrete fibre length of (5-7mm) were used as reinforcement
which were randomly oriented and uniformly distributed in the cement matrix and
with various volume fraction of fibre cement ratio of (0-4%). The flexural
strength, fracture energy, and thermal expansion of composites were found to
increase as the fibre volume fraction was increased, while the elastic modulus was
decreased, and also the results of the physical properties showed that a
lightweight construction materials was obtained.
Key ward : Roselle Fiber , Flexural strength , Fracture Energy , Elastic
Modules , Thermal Expansion , Reinforced Cement Composites .


Ziad M. Al-Makhyoul; Dr. Ghalib Y.Kahwaji

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 31-42
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2006.45305

An experimental investigation of the heat transfer in annular fins of constant thickness was carried out to prove the total resistance model suggested by Kahwaji [4] , given in equation (1) in the introduction . The experiments covered both the natural convection and forced convection heat transfer modes using fins of different materials and dimensions. Different Ra and Re numbers also achieved through varying the power input to the fins and the speed of the air flowing through the fin assembly. The results indicated good agreement between the suggested model and the experimental findings. Calculated and measured heat flux was found to be less than (8.33%) in the natural convection tests and (11%) in the forced convection tests. The maximum experimental error was estimated at about (6.33%). A numerical solution, based on the Gauss-siedel technique, was also derived and used to support the results.
Key words: Heat transfer, annular fin, natural and forced convection, heat
transfer coefficient

The Effect Burnt Alum To Removing Turbidity From Water

Lilian Yaqup Matt; Soad Abid Abawi

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 43-52
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2006.45341

The research focuses on the use of ordinary and burnt alum to remove the
light turbidity (10 NTU) and reduces the medium ones (75NTU) by adding of
different doses of ordinary alum Al2(SO4)3.16H2O and compare the results with
these obtained from the burned alum at varying temperatures (200, 300, 400, 500,
600) C0.
Jar test is used to find the change in the water characteristics of turbidity, pH, EC
at the conditions. The study revealed that 10mg/l of burnt alum at 200Co and more
give, final turbidity of about (2NTU), while it gives NTU between (7-8) in the
case of using ordinal alum in removing of the light turbidity of (10NTU). In the
case of reduction of the medium turbidity it find that 10mg/l of burned alum at
200Co reduces the final turbidity to about (3NTU).
It appears also that the alum consumption is about 14% in case of using burnt
alum as compared with the ordinary alum especially in reducing of the medium
turbidity to 5NTU.
key word (burnt alum, remove the light turbidity, Jar test)


Al Saffar; S. I; Nadiya

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 43-57
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2006.45308

This paper studies the tensile strength of steel fibrous concrete, four different percentage of fibers where used to find out the effect of the addition of steel fibers on the tensile strength of concrete using the splitting, flexural, and compressive strength of concrete. Test results from this study and earlier published data were used in a regression analysis to derive empirical equations for tensile strength of SFC. The following relationships were derived; splitting strength and the compressive strength of fiber and normal concrete, the relationship between the flexural and compressive strength of SFC and compressive strength of normal concrete, and the splitting cylinder strength and the flexural strength of SFC.
Key Words: Steel fiber concrete, tensile strength.

Evaluation of Drinking Water Quality in Group of Schools at Mosul City

Musa; b A. Al-Tamir; Mazin nazzar Al-Sanjari

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 53-62
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2006.45343

The monitoring of water quality produced for drinking is one of the most
important study in order to evaluate the suitability of water for human
consumption also to evaluate efficiencies of treatment water plants and water
distribution system especially in the present situation of the country. This study
focusing on the quality of drinking water used by student in some schools at
Mosul city. Where 17 schools had been selected through the city. main
chemical and physical analysis had been done on these samples in addition to
the total bacteria count, the study revealed that the water quality of the studied
schools was within the standards of drinking water. A negative result were
appeared for total bacteria count in one sample, only seem to be an indication
of a new case of pollution with bacteria, this might be due to the water supply
network, fortunately the result were within the Iraqi standards for drinking
Key words: Water quality, Drinking water, Schools, Iraq, Mosul, Blockade,
Water Supply.

Analysis of Oxygen Transfer Performance On Subsurface Aeration Systems

PhD; Kossay K. Al-Ahmady

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 58-73
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2006.45320

The efficiency of oxygen transfer depends on many factors including type, size and shape of diffusers and tank geometry. In this paper, the effect of the depth of water in the tank and, the extension of coverage area of diffusers on each of oxygen transfer capacity (OC), efficiency (E) and, on a percentage of oxygen absorption (δ) is tested. Experimental procedure is adopted to evaluate the effect of these parameters. The results of the study showed that, both of a depth of water and, the expand of coverage area of diffuser had a significant effect on the tested parameters. The values of oxygen transfer capacity (OC) and the efficiency (E) were ranging from (18 to 170 grO2/m3 tank. hr) and from (2 to 17 grO2/m3air) respectively, depending on the depth of water in tank and the ratio of diffusers coverage area. The value of an oxygen absorption percentage was ranging from (0.45-5.4%) depending on the circumstances of the test. Individual mathematical models to describe the effect of each parameter were also derived. The exponentional form of derived equation proved to be efficient to describe the effect of a depth of water on oxygen transfer capacity (OC) whereas; the linear form of the equation was good enough in representing the effect of the other parameters.
Keywords: oxygen transfer capacity, absorption, diffusers, water depth, KLa, efficiency, diffusers coverage area

Predicting Yield Response Factors In Jensen Model

Maan Hazim Sheet; Eman Hazim Sheet

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 63-72
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2006.45344

The yield response model is very important in irrigation planning and
management of irrigation projects. A computerized model for simulating irrigation
water requirement for wheat crop at Mosul area has been proposed for (20)years of
daily climatological data. The model predict daily actual and potential
evapotranspiration, then the relation between relative yield and relative
evapotranspiration is put into (20)equations and solved mathematically to find the
coefficients for each stage of growing growth period of wheat crop at Mosul
area.The yield response factors is found for two cases, the first is for rainfed
agriculture practice for wheat for (20)years where an available data for production is
available ,and the second is for irrigated practice where four years production data
were available[1] .Then the results are compared with the results obtained from
(Doorenbos & Al kassam 1979) equation for yield. [2] and show a small variation
while the last equation is justified by International Agriculture and Food
Keywords: crop water production function ,yield response factor, yield Jensen
model, irrigation managemen

Developing Annual Load Duration Curve Using an Intelligent Technique

Dr. Azhar S. A. Al-Fahadi; Majed S. M. Al-Hafid; Dr. Abdul-Bary R. Sulaiman

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 73-82
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2006.45324

The paper discusses a method to get the hourly load data from the peak daily load (i.e. to store one value and get 24 values). The method uses one of the intelligent techniques (Artificial Neural Network ANN).
The annual load duration (ALDC) is used in different studies, such as power system planning, reliability study . . . etc. In this work the ALDC is used as an example for the application of the proposed method. When the hourly load data for a year are available, it is easy to find the ALDC. In the studies where the ALDC is needed, the load is usually forecasted (future load) where the hourly data are not available.
A proposed ANN is explained to overcome this difficulty. The method develops the daily load (24 hours) from the peak load. The required days are encountered, which means that the ALDC is obtained for the required days. Also if there is a missing period, the proposed method can develop that missing period in the data.
The data of the Iraqi North Region National Grid (INRNG) for the year 2001 is used to verify the validity of the proposed method. The results of a conventional method are also given.
Key words: ALDC, Daily load, Hourly load, ANN.


Rabee Khaleel Thanoon; Dhuha Abdul Gani Abdul Aziz

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 73-94
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2006.45345

The research focused on studying the specialty of mosque architectures in old
Mosul City as theoretical knowledge can be used by architect in designing
mosques that have its origins in the traditional model of mosques. The
research adopted typology to analyze models of Mosul traditional mosques,
focusing on its formal characteristics by inducing the apparent characteristics
related to plans and elevations , and essential characteristics related to
movement system.
The research concluded the constant characteristics of mosque architecture in
old Mosul City that are the formal embodiment of intellectual direction of
mosque typology as the substance of Islamic doctrine in doing the praying

Probabilities of Storage States of Real Time Reservoir System

Dr. Kamel A. Al-Mohseen

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 83-94
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2006.45327

The long-term probabilities of storage states of Bakhma reservoir system at northern part of Iraq have been investigated. The seasonal probability transition matrices have been manipulated in different orders to construct the yearly probability transition matrices where the latter were implemented to calculate the steady state probabilities. The results reveal that the final state of the system depends upon how one can manipulate the seasonal transition matrices in an appropriate order. Additionally, it was found that Bakhma reservoir workable storage is either underestimated and should be re-evaluated or the turbine capacity has to be increased to generate additional power, otherwise, significant amount of water might be lost over the spillway.
Keywords:Transition matrix, Long Term Probabilities, Reservoir Storage Estimation