Print ISSN: 1813-0526

Online ISSN: 2220-1270

Volume 17, Issue 2

Volume 17, Issue 2, Winter and Spring 2009, Page 1-107

High Performance Colored Image Segmentation System Based on Neural Network

Shefa A. Dawwd

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38756

image segmentation is often the most time-consuming part of image processing systems. Traditionally, systems employing real-time color-based segmentation are either implemented in hardware, or in very specific software systems. This paper describes an FPGA implementation of a skin color segmentation based on a neural network. The proposed segmentation approach is an essential stage for face detection. The system uses a multilayer feedforward neural architecture with three-inputs, one hidden layer, two output neurons and a pipelined saturating linear activation function to simplify the FPGA hardware implementation. The system was tested by using different colored face images for face segmentation problem and its performance was compared with the results obtained using advanced software system designed specifically for face segmentation. A comparable performance was achieved and a speed up of (64583) was estimated compared to a Pentium 4, 2.4 GHz general purpose sequential computer and when it is compared to reduced instruction set computer IBM RISC 350 station, it was (407).

Keywords: Neural network implementation, image Segmentation, FPGA based systems

Modeling of Nanocrystal Storage Cells

L. S. Ali; S. M. T. Abdul Mawjoud; A. D. Mohammed Saleem

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38878

The computer program is prepared for applying Montecarlo simulation and modeling for single-electron nanocrystal memories. The nanocrystal memory device of (5×5) quantum dots is used for studying the relationship between, geometrical dimensions, electrical characteristics and charging effects for single electron static programming characteristics. The nanocrystal inter-dot effects are included. All parameters got in the memory simulation programming are studied and discussed.
Keywords: Nanocrystal Memories.

Digital Hardware Implementation of Artificial Neurons Models Using FPGA

ad Ahmed Al-Kazzaz; Rafid Ahmed Khalil

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 12-24
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38764


This paper present the digital implementation of multiply-accumulate (MAC) circuit of artificial neuron using FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) including three types of nonlinear activation functions: hardlims, satlins and tansig. A VHDL hardware description Language codes are used to implement the neuron using XC3S500E-FG320 Xilinx FPGA device. The simulation results obtained with Xilinx Foundation 8.2i software are presented. The results are analyzed in terms of usage percentage of chip resources and maximum working frequency.

Keyword:- Artificial Nouron , FPGA , Neural Network

A Study of the performance of different Iraqi Oils

Inad Fatehi Mustafa

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 15-27
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38887

Three different of Iraqi motor oils have been chosen ,Baghdad, Al Rasheed and Babylon. Using viscometer Redwood No.2 to check the best performance of these motor oils has done many experimental works. In order to get the value of thermal viscosity index of new and used motor oils, plotting the relationship between Temp and Time for each Type of oils. The results shown that the lower value of T.V.I mean that oil was the best. By the application of the World definition for V.I oils and compare all the types of our chosen oils with the two standard types of oils at 100F and 210F then plot the relation between temp and viscosity also the relation between log-temp and log-viscosity ,we can show that when the slope of the curve decrease as the temp increase which mean that the of viscosity decreases with the increases of temp. In order to get more information about the performance of these oils, the I.R infrared instrument has been used to get the relation ship between the transmittance and wave number, by analyzing and normalizing the data obtained from the above relation-ship .it is concluded that no noticeable change occurred on furfural extraction there is in fact a considerable increase in the CH2/CH3 finally, we can say Baghdad oil is the best one then Al-Rasheed oil and Babylon oil respectively.
Key words : Oils , Viscosity , Performance

Anti-Aliased DDA

Fakhraldeen Hamid Ali

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 25-34
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38769


Bit-mapped images are prone to the jaggies (stair-step effect along edges) because the computer uses small dots to build images. This effect is called aliasing and the technique used to reduce it is called antialiasing. This paper investigates aliasing along straight line segments or edges, its origin, and how it is affected by the orientation or slope of the segment. A method for antialiasing or smoothing the straight line segments by modifying the intensity of the pixels is presented. Hardware implementation of this method is finally formulated and tested using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA).

Keywords: pixel, jaggies, antialiasing, raster, FPGA.

Ffect of Different Quality of Irrigation Water for Leaching of Saline Soils

Ahmad Khalaf Al- Jubori

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 28-33
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38898

Two soil samples were selected to study the salt affected soil in Nenava province. Leaching experiment was study in laboratory. Sodium behavior during leaching process was contacted on two salt affected soil collected from (F10, N16) irrigation units of AL-Jazera project with four types of water (Distilled, Tigris water from AL-Rashidia district, well water from AL-Namrood and Khosser water) leaching was stopped when the leaching water collect 100 ml at 1 parts Each part 10 ml. The leachates extracts were analyzed for PH, Ec and cation (Na+, Ca++, Mg++).

Effect of Frequancy of Irrigation Water on Salts of Soils

Ahmad Khalaf Al- Jubori

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 34-38
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38906


Two soil samples were selected, one of them from Rashidia and the other from Namrood location in Nenava. Electrolyte concentration used were (50, 150, 250 mmole-L -1) prepared using chloride salt of (Nacl, Cacl2.2H2O) with ratio 1: 9 to 9:1 and SAR value between (2.24- 40.0).
Wetting and drying experiment (irrigation frequency) was used. This experiment was carried out using a salt solution (50, 150, 250 mmole-L-1)and ten irrigation cycle for PH, Ec, soluble and exchangeable cations (NA, Ca, Mg). Wetting and drying (irrigation frequency) showed an increased value of electrical conductivity, soluble and exchangeable, Sodium, calcium and magnesium.

Investigation of the Effect of Building Dielectric Parameters on Indoor Radio Channel Characteristics

Y. E. Mohammed

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 35-42
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38792

The unlicensed industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band at 2.4 GHz has gained increased attention recently due to high data rate communication systems developed to operate in this band. In this paper the investigation of the indoor electromagnetic propagation and indoor radio channel characteristics have been performed at this band. Electromagnetic waves propagate by means of reflection, refraction, and diffraction. Reflection mechanisms are dependent on the nature of the surface, dielectric properties, polarization, incidence angle, and material thickness. The effect of the incidence angle and material thickness on the reflection coefficients for both horizontal and vertical polarization has been studied. Two-dimensional ray-tracing simulation has been performed to show the influence of building electromagnetic properties on indoor radio channel parameters, signal level, RMS delay spread, and coherence bandwidth. Results show the influence of the permittivity is more important than the influence of the order of reflection considered for the ray- tracing model. It is shown that, compared with power level, RMS delay spread is more sensitive to the building dielectric parameters. Maximum RMS delay spread is dependent on the dielectric parameters of the surrounded walls.

Keywords: Radio propagation, Dielectric parameters, Indoor Channel Parameters

Essential and Physical Properties of Architectural Form according to (Salingaros) thesis, Application case on Ottoman Mosques

Nasma Maan M. Thabit

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 39-62
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38923

In this research, we have produced new modes for measure essential and physical properties of architectural form in Ottoman mosques.
The research has adopted a literary approach in its analysis namely: Salingaros' scientific measurement and Yules' statistical measurement.
The research methodology encompasses the application of this new modes for measure on important mosques, the research also embraces the method of collecting data on building samples. Theses include (7) building samples chosen according to objective criteria. Then, a case study on these samples has been applied using a special formula. In consequence, results relating to the research hypothesis have testified, then it reaches to final conclusions, which described those properties of architectural form in Ottoman mosques, then the research reached to accurate formal description for Ottoman mosques. As a case study according to this thesis.
Keywords: Architectural form in Ottoman mosques, Essential properties of architectural form, Physical properties of architectural form.

Fault Location Estimation Algorithm for Digital Distance Protection Relay Based on Artificial Neural Network

Ahmed Ateya Albadrani

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 43-56
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38801

This paper investigates study the influence of a fault resistance on the performance of a digital distance protection installed on a transmission lines, it is well known that augment of fault resistance can cause seriously overreach or underreach to distance relay depending on the different operational situations of power system, To compensate the magnitude and phase error of the apparent impedance, This algorithm uses the angle of an impedance deviation vector ( ). The impedance correction algorithm for ground faults has been employed by the Fault Resistance Compensation Block (FRCB) to compensate fault resistance effect.

Artificial neural network technique using Matlab/Simulink software is trained to determine the suitable value of an impedance deviation angle for the FRCB, In order to minimize the estimated impedance error of a distance relay. The results of simulation showed that compensated scheme relay performance are acceptably improve and the impedance estimated by relay is close to the actual value via FRCB with ANNS. So the performance of distance relay is much more reliable and accuracy.

Key Words: - Distance protection, Fault resistance, Artificial neural network

Impacts Of Re-Heating And Compaction Temperatures On Hot Mix Asphalt Volumetrics

Romel Nano Yaqob

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 57-65
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38821

The need for accurate, consistent laboratory tests of the volumetric properties of the hot mix asphalt (HMA) has become increasingly important in the past few years. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of re-heating and compaction temperatures on the volumetric properties of the HMA mixtures. These effects were studied with two experiments. In the first experiment, mix was compacted after 0, 3 and 20 hour's storage time. In the second experiment, mix was compacted at three different temperatures; standard target compaction temperature for the grade of asphalt cement in the mixture, target - 14oC and target + 14o C. Above and under superpave restricted zone graded mixtures comprised of two sources of aggregates, and one type of binder were compacted with the Marshall compactor machine and their volumetric properties measured. The results show that there are significant differences in volumetric properties as the mix stored by 3 hours or more and changes in volumetric properties occur as the compaction temperature varies.

Keywords: Volumetrics, compaction temperature, storage time, re-heating

Effect of Direct Compressive Stress on the Shear Transfer Strength of Fibrous Concrete

J. R. Al-Feel; B. J. Al-Sulayvani

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 66-76
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38837

Experimental investigation is carried out to study the shear transfer of uncracked fibrous concrete. The test specimens used in this study were of the push-off and modified push-off type .The parameters investigated were the volume fraction of fibers, the amount of stirrups crossing the shear plane, and the ratio of direct to shear stress. Test results showed that the presence of normal stress and fibres increase the first cracking load and shear transfer strength and this enhancement is more pronounced in specimens without stirrups in the shear plane for both push-off and modified push-off specimens. The fibrous specimens showed more stiffness, failed in a ductile mode, and experienced more strain capacity than plain specimens without fibres. From the present test results, a regression analysis was done and a prediction formula is proposed .

Keywords: Direct stress; Ductility; Fibrous reinforced concrete; Shear transfer strength; Stirrups.

Analytical And Experimental Study Of Three Test-Run Balancing Method

Gaydaa I. H. AL-Sarraj; Mohammed T. S. Al-Taee; Sabah. M. Jamil Ali

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 77-85
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38851

In this research, a single-plane balancing method based only on vibration amplitude readings has been adopted. This method has been thoroughly discussed including the analytical basis as well as the practical procedure. Balancing according to this methodusually performed by adobting the diagram procedure (Drawing). However; this research-unprecedently-establishes a mathematical analysis base for this method which makes it easy programmed, saving time and effort as well as attaining high-accuracy findings. As to the current work; an experimental test rig prepared by AL-Taee [9] has been used to obtain the required vibration measurement where they have been fed as input data into a (C) language computer program that successfully accounts the magnitude and location of the weight required to balance the test rig rotor, as well as allowing disk’s safe rotating process during its running speed.
Key words: Three Test-Run Balancing Method and Single Plane Balancing.

Theoretical Determination of Forming Limit Diagram for Al 2024 T3 sheet when changing strain paths

Anas.O.Balod; Waleed J.Ali

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 86-94
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38857

The effect of changing strain paths on forming limit curve of aluminum alloy Al 2024T3 sheet has been studied by determining forming limit diagrams after prestraining theoretically . The method of calculating the shape of forming limit diagrams used Hosford yield criterion (high exponent) with the Marciniak and Kuczynski (M-K) analysis to include the effects of changing the strain path to several levels in (uniaxial, biaxial, and plane strain tension).In this work it was found that theoretical forming limit curve, calculated using the above analysis and yield function is closed to the experimental curve of complex strain path.

Keywords : sheet metal forming, forming limit diagram(FLD), complex strain path

Performance Improvement of Broad Crested Weirs

Inam A.K. Juma; Bahzad M.A. Noori

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 95-107
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.38864

In order to improve the performance of broad crested weirs, forty weir models were manufactured and tested and two hundred thirty six experiments were conducted in a laboratory horizontal channel of 10m length, 0.3m width and 0.45m depth for a wide range of discharges. The performance of broad crested weir was improved by introducing an upstream face slope, rounding upstream corner and capping the upstream corner with a semi-cylinder in order to reduce the effect of flow separation. Analysis of experimental results showed that introducing an upstream slope face to square edge broad crested weir improved the performance and gave higher values of discharge coefficient. Rounding upstream corner increased the values of discharge coefficient and improved the performance of the weir. Also, capping the upstream corner with semi-cylinder improved the performance of the weir and gave higher values of discharge coefficient. Two empirical equations were obtained to estimate the value of discharge coefficient in terms of effective head to crest height ratio, upstream corner radius to crest height ratio and radius of cap to crest height ratio with high correlation coefficients.
Keyword :-Performance , Broad crested Weirs