Print ISSN: 1813-0526

Online ISSN: 2220-1270

Volume 17, Issue 6

Volume 17, Issue 6, Summer and Autumn 2009, Page 1-100


Investigations on Two Methods of DEM Extraction

A.R. Santhakumar; Rasheed Saleem Abed

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43583

Abstract

Digital Elevation Models (DEM) comprise valuable source of data required for many engineering applications. Contour lines, slope - aspect maps are part of their many uses. Moreover, a DEM theme is an essential layer to be included in most GIS analysis operations. Recent scientific achievements aim to automate acquiring DEMs with the most possible speed and accuracy. This paper studies two methods of DEM data extraction from sample aerial stereopairs, the analytical plotter method versus the digital photogrammetric method (DP). The DEM output of the analytical plotter is used as a reference. This is compared to the work performed using the DP method on the sample photos in digital format. Comparison covers various steps of image orientation followed by DEM collection. Numerical outputs of speed and accuracy are presented and discussed. The tests show that errors in automatically extracted DEMs may result from areas representing ground surface of poor texture or contrast conditions, or it may appear due to imperfect photographic processing. Editing time of the product is a major factor especially in urban/ forest areas. Depending on the specified needs of the user, an erroneous DEM output might be accepted as appropriate digital surface model DSM. Statistical tests detect marginal error types in the output. The paper gives conclusions about some problematic sources with recommendations to improve the product.

Keywords: DEM, stereopair, digital photogrammetry

The Use Of Used Engine Oil As Anadmixture In Concrete With High Temperature

I.H. AL-Zubady; Dr. A.H. Ahmed

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43617

الخلاصةAbstract
The aim of this research is to study the effect of (Used Engine Oil) (UEO) on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete and its effect on the properties of the hardened concrete under high temperature, the (UEO) used as a plasticizer material, adding an air-entrained to the fresh concrete, thus improving workability of the fresh concrete. The (UEO) is used as percentage of cement weight (0.1,0.15, 0.2%) ,the 28 day concrete is exposed to different levels of high temperature (200,400,600°C) for 1.0 hr, the concrete samples were tested after
24 hr of cooling, two methods were used to add the (UEO), First Method: adding the (UEO) during the mixing process (mixing the dry materials and water after that the used engine oil was added), The Second Method: An emulsion mixture consisting of oil and water was prepared for the different percentages of additions this emulsion was used after mixing the dry materials, the mixing time was 4 minutes. Results showed that the effect of using the (UEO) is similar to that of air-entraining chemical to fresh concrete, its effect appears on the (initial & final setting time, slump and air content) and also affects the properties of hardened concrete.
Keyword: used engine oil, concrete, high temperature, air-entrained.

Flexural Behavior Of R/C Beams With Externally Bonded Gfrp Sheets

Bayar J. Al-Sulayfani; Ashtar S. Al-Luhybi

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 11-27
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43586

Abstract
During the latest decades there has been a significant increase in using FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymers) as a main material for external reinforcement in the construction industry.Externally bonded FRP sheets have been used to increase moment capacity of flexural members and to improve confinement in compression members. This paper summarizes the result of experimental and analytical studies on the flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams by external bonding of glass fiber reinforced polymer sheets to the tension face of the beam. Four beams, three with different thickness of GFRP sheets and one without GFRP sheets were tested using third-point loading over a span of 900mm.The tests were carried out under load control. The results indicate that the flexural strength of the beams increased significantly as the thickness of the sheet increased. Analytical study using a computer program based on strain compatibility is presented to predict the ultimate strength and load-deflection behavior of the beams. When the experimental results were compared with theoretical ones, good acceptable agreement was obtained which make it possible to consider and recommended this model in the design.


Keyword: Analytical Study, Flexural Behavior, GFRPSheets, Strengthening.

Effect of cavity on Stress distribution and Settlement under Foundation

A. A. Khalil; S. A. Khattab

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 14-29
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43621

Abstract
In this research the effect of cavities on the stability of foundation has been studied using non-linear finite elements analysis through the programs PLAXIS2D, and PLAXIS3D. The study included a number of variables represented by shape, size, sectional area, location, and depth of a single cavity under the base of footings. The effect of the above variables on settlement and stress distribution was studied on isolated square, round and strip footing.
Results showed that the shape and volume of the cavity has an effect on the settlement and concentration of stress under the footing for the chosen cavity sections (Circular, Ellipse1, Ellipes2, Loaf, Square) when the cavity is situated at a depth less than twice the width of strip foundation or 1.5 times the width/diameter of isolated square/circular footings. The study also showed an increase in the values of settlement and concentration of stress at what may be termed as the critical depth under the footing. It was also concluded that there exists a zone that may be called the critical zone below the footing (zone of radial shear and failure plane). If a cavity is situated within this zone then it will have a serious effect. Large value of settlement were recorded for cavities situated within this zone under the footing.

Keywords: Cavity, Settlement, Stress, Finite Element.

Simulation Of Chlorine Concentrations In Mosul University's Distribution Network Using EPANET Program

Mohammed S. Shihab; Abdullah I. Al-Hyaly; Mayada H. Mohammad

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 28-41
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43593

Abstract
The objective of this study was to demonstrate a real-time chlorine decay with enhancement of simulation program (EPANET 2.0) developed for drinking water supply networks. Periodically samples, two runs/week at various time intervals, were tested at (20) locations in water distribution system of Mosul University and analyzed in site with chlorinator instrument. First the system hydraulic model (EPANET) was used with the entire pipe and junction data which was obtained from university’s records, while chlorine decay coefficients (both bulk and wall) were used from previous literatures and some model runs. A value of the bulk decay coefficient of (-1.0 d-1) was chosen, as for the wall decay coefficient, it was set to zero.
The study demonstrated that most of the highly water consumption nodes have a residual chlorine concentration within (0.25 -1.2) mg/l. Moreover, the simulation program shows that from (12 – 5 A.M) chlorine concentration has nil values .However, due to the lack of maintenance works in both storage tank and piping network, about 93% of the reaction rates of the chlorine were happened in, so it is recommended to add an adequate dosing of chlorine with appropriate mixing in the high elevated tank.

KEYWORDS: simulation, chlorine decay, water quality, distribution networks, EPANET

Removal of PO4, NH3 and NO3 from hospital wastewater in Mosul City by SBR technique

Waad mohammed ali abbas; Fakhri Yassin Mahmood

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 30-44
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43625

The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) method was used throughout this research, for the treatment of hospital waste water in mosul. This system has also the advantages of low initial and performance costs. Different time periods were used in this study ranging (6-24) hrs for 6 months . The tests has been conducted in the environmental laboratory of the civil engineering department at the university of Mosul. Efficiency of PO4 removal from waste water depends on the change of anoxic conditions to aerobic. The efficiency is maximum when the periods of the two types of conditions are equal.. NO3 removal depend on food supply for micro- organisms to convert nitrates to nitrogen gas under anoxic conditions so it is change able.
According to the results gained, this kind of treatment could be used to remove phosphates & nitrates from hospitals wastewaters, and could be used for other cases when the discharge is relatively low, or unstable percentages of removal were 67% & 99% for SO4 & NH3 relatively.
Key Words :
phosphates , nitrates , sequencing batch reactor , biological treatment , hospital ww

An Analytical Design Procedure For Bireciprocal Lattice Wave Digital Filters With Approximate Linear Phase

Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 42-52
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43597

Abstract
A simple analytic design procedure for bireciprocal lattice wave digital filters (bireciprocal LWDFs) is presented with approximate linear phase. The design is started by replacing the odd order all-pass filter branch in the bireciprocal LWDF with a pure delay, leaving the other branch as an all-pass even function of z -2. Analytic design procedure is then formulated. Several design examples using such procedure are given for verifications.

Keywords: Bireciprocal LWDFs, All-pass sections, Half-band filters, Approximate linear phase.

Estimate the Flooded Area and Land Use of Al- Tharthar Lake North West of Baghdad By Using Satellites Images from Aqua MODIS Satellite

Ghadah Y. AL-Ubaidy

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 45-53
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43632

The current study investigate the use of satellite image data and their potential to detect and determine the flood areas of Lake Al- Tharthar ( Eastern region of Iraq)), by using of the satellite image data ,such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) from the Aqua MODIS Satellite during the period of 7 days (29 Jan. to 6 Feb. 2006) , by using a pattern of software to identification and classification of land uses of the studied area, also identify the Ratios of quantitative amounts flood levels during the period proposed as well as giving a pattern or style proposal for the future of flood control lake.
The data which can be obtained from the satellite Aqua MODIS of the studied area gave a good accuracy in a style or system for tracking facilities for the flood wave with the time, during the period of active flood, and thus give the calculated values of the water filled the lake with time, we used a pattern of software (ISMIC) Integrated Software Multispectral Image Classification ver. 1.0 , at Which represents one of the most current programs used in digital image processing, the studied area were Classified into six main group and estimate the flooded areas during this period .
Key words: Al-Tharthar Reservoir -Wealth of water – Satellite Images - Classification of Land use – and Flood Levels.

Displacement Detection Application of HDNS A2051 Optical Sensor for Controlling a 4-DOF Cylindrical Manipulator

Rawand E. J. Talabani

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 53-66
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43602

Abstract

Parallel port interface circuit is designed, fabricated and tested for programmable control of electrical motor actuators used in a cylindrical robotic manipulator. The robotic arm built in – house has four degrees of freedom through the use of five electrical motors (four for joint actuating and one for end–effector). The interface circuit consists of relays as output devices, an octal bus transceiver, and a quad 2-input exclusive-XOR gate as input devices. An optical mouse – sensor (one for each joint) is used to indicate the actual position of the joint and uses it as a feedback signal. A menu driven QBASIC program is developed for controlling the robotic arm using the manipulator kinematics. The program contains a counter for counting the variation in digital signal (changing times of the state). The entire circuits, devices, and the program worked accurately. The result shows that the optical mouse sensors function properly in the controlling system and displacement measuring.

Investigate the Effects of F/M, MLSS, and Metal/MLSS Ratio on the Removal of Cd and Pb in the Activated Sludge Units,

Mohammed S. Shihab; Abdullah I. Al-Hyaly; Riyad M. Alobaidi

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 54-64
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43635

Abstract
The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of each of the average organic load, the mixed liquor suspended solids(MLSS) in aeration tank and the ratio of concentration of metal to the MLSS on removal of cadmium and lead in activated sludge unit. Bench scale unit was used to conduct this study. Four glasses container were used, one for monitoring and others for examination of specific doses of lead and cadmium (5,10,20)mg/l. The capacity of sludge for metal under conditions of study were calculated. Dynamic constant of removal was computed depending on the result of study demonstrated as Frendlich and Langmuir equations, it is clearly shown that the relationship between capacity of sludge for cadmium to organic load is strong at three initial doses while lead was less correlated at the upper initial doses. As a result concentration of metals doesn't affect the removal efficiency of organic material at the range of the organic load used.
Keywords: Cadmium, Lead, Activated sludge, Frendlich Equation, Langmuir Equation, Organic load

Expermintal And Theoretical Study Of Natural Convection Heat Transfer Between Two Concentric Cylinders Filled With Porous Medium.

Khalil Farhan Yaseen; Obeed Majeed Ali; Omar K. Ahmed Al; Joboury

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 65-75
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43639

Abstract
Porous media have considerable importance in improvement of heat transfer and storage. This research includes an experimental and theoretical study of natural convection heat transfer between two concentric cylinders filled with a porous medium, under condition of applying uniform heat flux on the inner cylinder and constant outer surface temperature for the outer cylinder. Two types of filling material were used as porous medium , iron and glass beads , the study shows that the heat dissipated ability in the inner cylinder is function of Rayligh number , and the Nusselt number increase is directly proportional with the increase in Rayligh number .
Fluent program was used to show the heat dissipation and the flow lines inside the gap between the two cylinders , the experimental results show that the nature of the heat distribution depends greatly on Rayligh number , and the use of highly heat conductive materials as porous medium will completely cancel the convection as a mean of heat transfer.
Key wards: Heat transfer, Natural convection, Porous medium, and two concentric cylinders.

A High Efficiency Maximum Power Point Tracker for Photovoltaic Arrays

Khalid Khleel Mohamed; Amina Edrees Kanaan

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 67-76
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43610

Abstract
The photovoltaic (PV) generator exhibits non- linear characteristics and its maximum power point varies with solar insolation and temperature, thus this work deals with the design and implementation of a real time maximum power point tracker(MPPT)for photovoltaic system aiming to improve energy conversion efficiency. A MPPT algorithm is developed using PV array voltage and current information's and the incremental conductance of the PV array, it's implemented by single chip 80C51 microcontroller to control the duty cycle of a boost converter with pulse width modulation (PWM). The practical and Simulation results shows the validity of the designed circuit to improve the tracking efficiencies to get the maximum power point.

Key words: solar panel, Maximum Power point tracker (MPPT), microcontroller.

Field study to Improve Quality of The Product in One of Weaving Companies in Mosu

M.M.A.Younis

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 76-83
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43646

Abstract
The goal of this paper is to prepare a field study for one of the famous weaving companies in Mosul, so that arranging at the end a Total Quality Management System (T Q M) system .This company is famous in producing one of the important national product YASHMAG, the head cover for men wearied in most of the regions of Iraq.
This company (like other industrial companies)suffer from a lot of problems due to circumstances in Iraq, as a result there products will accumulated in their stores, also there is a great compotation from the similar products in the market, which imported to Iraq from different places with different qualities..
In order to make a T Q M system , the study starts by collecting production data for a group of weaving labor how produce Yashmag and for a certain period of time, then analysis of these data using Pareto chart ,Ishikawa chart and Cause Analysis and Process Analysis chart.
This work could be a first step towards making T Q M system for this company in order to keep the company stand still against the great compations of similar products of Yashmag in the market.
Key words : Total Quality System, Weaving Companies ,Yashmag

Estimating The Limits of Stability under Several Working Conditions at Experimental Turning

Ramiz Saeed Matty Samarjy

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 77-91
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43614

Abstract
Predicting the Self-Excited vibrations (Chatter) during the cutting process as a result of the interaction between the cutting tool and work - piece is important as a guide for the cutting machine user for an optimal selection of the back engagement of tool in work piece(depth of cut), the rotational Speed for the specific feed rate which will produce maximum chip removal with out these undesirable vibrations. Such undesirable vibrations can spoil the cutting surface with chatter marks, which will have adverse effects on the whole cutting system. This can be achieved by performing several experimental researches. In the present study, a cutting process was performed by using the slide feeding of Hindustan lathe machine and sintered carbide inserts to cut several cylindrical shafts of 32 mm in diameter and 70cm long steel AISI1050 with out using coolant lubrication to specify the stability limits that represented by curves with the rotational speeds which separate stable and unstable zones for maximum productivity and accepted surface roughness. Also study the effect of feed rate upon the stability and the amplitude of vibration for constant depth of cut and rotational speed.
Key words : stability limit , chatter vibration , self excited vibration

Coefficient Of Discharge For A Combined Hydraulic Measuring Device

Amal A. G. Alniami; Dr. G. A. M. Hayawi; H. A. M. Hayawi

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 92-100
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2009.43616

The aim of this study is to investigate the coefficient of discharge for a combined hydraulic measuring device. For this purpose nine combined models were constructed and manufactured of an aluminum plates of 2 mm thick, the shapes of the models are of rectangular weir with different width ( )is used over a semi-circular gate of a constant diameter ( )the distance below the weir edge and the semi-circular gate y is changed three times( . The analysis of results show that increase as ( increase and for a constant value of ( increase as the width increase, the values of range from around 0.522 to 0.853 with an average of 0.695. Also decrease as the parameter ( ) ,( ) and ( ) increase and at a constant values of that parameters increase as increase, and the values of range from around 0.61 to 0.74. A multi regression model to estimate for the combined device is estimated with percentage of error .
Keywords: combined orifice, combined weirs.