Print ISSN: 1813-0526

Online ISSN: 2220-1270

Volume 20, Issue 4

Volume 20, Issue 4, Summer and Autumn 2012, Page 1-153

Digital Image Enhancement Using Hybrid Fuzzy Techniques Based on LabVIEW

Sura Nawfal Abd alrazaaq; Dr. Fakhraldeen H. Ali

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.54148

In this paper, two LabVIEW based hybrid fuzzy filters combining fuzzy logic with simple filtering techniques for image de-noising are presented. LabVIEW is widely adopted for the design of real time systems and their realization in hardware due to the facilities available for performance simulation and measurements under different conditions. The main feature of the filters is that they try to determine the corrupted pixels using fuzzy rules and then treat them by utilizing the classical filters. To measure the performance of the designed filters, several corrupted images with Gaussian noise are processed. An objective criterion such as the Mean Square Error (MSE), and visual observation prove the effectiveness of the hybrid technique compared with the classical filters and several modern filters.
Keywords: Denoising, LabVIEW, Hybrid fuzzy filtering, Gaussian noise.

Behavior of Carbon Fiber Sheets Reinforced Concrete beam

Dr. Bayar J. Al-Sulayfani; Hala Jassim AL Hamdany

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.54127

One of the new technologies used in increasing the bearing capacity of concrete structures is the replacing of standard (normal) reinforcement by bars made of carbon fibers making use of its properties, which gives an advantage by being antirust. In this research, an experimental study of the behavior of concrete beams reinforced with strips of carbon fibers, (one or two layers), in the tension zone of the beams, with a variable width is performed to study the behavior of the beams from the point of view of their flexural capacity, failure mode, and the effect of the friction between the concrete and the fiber strip on load failure. After conducting the tests, the results revealed that an effective contribution and an obvious role of carbon strips fiber in improving the members bearing capacity and the overall behavior, also increasing the stiffness and ductility at different rates depending on the bond stress and number of strips.

Design of Fractional Order PID Controller Based on Genetic Algorithms

Emad A. Al-Sabawi; Dr. Mazin Z. Othman

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 11-20
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.54151


Fractional Order Proportional-Integral-Derivative (FOPID) controller is based on integration and differentiation of non-integer order. It is usually denoted by (0 < µ < 1 and 0 < λ < 1) . In this work the gain values of the proportional, Integral, and derivative (i.e ) as well as the values of µ and λ are obtained using Genetic Algorithms (GAs).The tuning procedure is based on the principle of model reference control. Illustrative example is presented in which FOPID controller is designed and compared with Integer Order PID (IOPID) ones. It was shown that FOPID controllers gave more freedom in faithfully following the dynamics of the reference model.

Key Words: Fractional order, PID tuning rules, Genetic Algorithms, Model reference control.

Behavior and Capacity of CCT Nodes Anchored By Headed Bars in Fibrous Concrete Beams

Dr. Bayar J. Al-Sulayfani

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 12-29
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.54131

In the current research, the method of reinforcing by means of "Headed Bars" reinforcement was utilized in order to study the behavior of fiber reinforced beams, then conducting a comparison study with conventionally reinforced beams without "headed bar", where by headed bars were placed at the CCT node to analyze the behavior of the node. The presence of the headed bar with regard to bearing capacity, failure mode, and anchorage length for the reinforcing bar at the tension zone. Where the presence of the headed bar will help in reducing the anchorage length necessary to bring the reinforcing steel to yield stress (fy).This is the main objective of using such head bar reinforcing. In addition the use of this reinforce enables in the reduction of cost and the congestion of reinforce as well as the hooks. Four ratios of steel fiber and three values of shear span were used in order to find out the effect of those variables on the behavior of beams with headed bars reinforce regarding :bearing capacity, deflection under single point load, shape and type of failure,….etc. It was noticed that the bearing capacity, stiffness and ductility increased with the increased of volumetric steel fiber addition, also in the presence of headed bars reinforcement when compared with conventionally reinforced beams without steel fibers. The bearing capacity reduced as the shear span length increased.

FPGA Implementation of Reversible Medical Image Watermarking

Dr. Ahlam Fadhil Mahmood

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 21-31
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.54152

Medical image protection and authentication are becoming increasingly important in an e-Health environment where images are readily distributed over electronic networks.
This paper presents an FPGA implementation of reversible watermarking encoder and decoder system. The system is based on the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT/IDCT) to embed and extract the copyright protection mark and least significant bit (LSB) technique to hide the patients’ information and then extract back the information by the owner using.
The proposed structure employs a single multiplierless 1D-DCT/IDCT block, instead of three in many existing DCT watermarking systems, which is reduce the hardware DCT part to 16.6% compared with previous proposals. The parallel hardware implementation of DCT and LSB is done in Xilinx XSC3S500 FPGA. The proposed scheme allows multi-insertions by many doctors in order to give an exact diagnosis to the patient.

portable system of the watermarking with small size and low power dissipation
Keywords: Information hiding; watermarking ; FPGA; DCT/IDCT; Least Significant Bit method.

Effect of Compaction Pressure in the Fresh State on The Resistance of Concreteʹs Compression and Tension

Samer Sami Majeed; Rafal Naheth Wadie

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 30-37
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.54135

This present research presents an experimental study on the behavior of the compacted concrete filled in cylindrical steel molds with dimensions of (100 mm Diameter and 200 mm Length). In this study, different compaction pressure values have been used to compact concrete mixtures, which differ in water to cement rates using electronic compression machine. Then, compression and tension strength of a concrete at the age of (28) days, under compaction pressure in its fresh state, compared with the compression and tension values of a concrete, of the same mixing rates, unexposed to pressure, in order to study the effect of compaction pressure on the concrete in its fresh state, on the compression and tension values of the solid concrete. (90) Specimens under the impact of the stresses of compression and tension at the age of (28) days have been tested and the effect of water to cement rates and the compaction pressure on the maximum resistance of the columns have been tested. The results showed, that the compaction stresses of the concrete, affect the ultimate capacity of the columns, where they increase the compression and tension resistance of the concrete at a certain limited value of subjected compaction pressure value in the fresh state, and that the mixture with (w/c = 0.45) requires the minimum value of compact pressure to produce the maximum value of concrete resistance, while the mixtures with (w/c = 0.50) and (w/c = 0.55) require higher values of compact pressure, in order to introduce higher values of concrete resistance.

Performance Analysis of Single-Multiplier Digital Sine-Cosine Generators

Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar; Noor N. Qaqos

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 32-46
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.54153

In this paper, second order structures satisfying single-multiplier digital sine-cosine generators are derived analytically, resulting in four different realizations. Some important characteristics of these generator structures, like total harmonic distortion percentage (THD%), frequency error ( and frequency resolution are defined and examined as performance measures. The four generator realizations are simulated using Matlab7.0 program. The simulation results show that better performance (THD% and are very low or negligible) can be obtained for these realizations by using 32 bits to represent the single-multiplier coefficient and other the outputs of arithmetic operations. The rounding-off method is applied as a quantization process after multiplication process. A comparison is made between one of the best-derived structures and other two recent structures implemented in previous researches. The comparison results indicate that better performance measures can be achieved from the proposed realization for the single-multiplier digital sine-cosine generator.

Keywords: Digital sine-cosine generators, Look-up Table (LUT), CORDIC, Harmonic Distortions, frequency errors, frequency deviation.

Coefficient of Discharge for Labyrinthine Side Weir

Dr. GhaniaHayawi; Azza Al-Talib; Mena Al-Sawaf

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 38-49
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.54139

The main objective of this investigation is to be obtain the coefficient of discharge for labyrinthine side weir. 24 labyrinthine side weirs were constructed and built in upstream of side channel of a 15 cm width and 30 cm depth and 2 m long with constant horizontal bed. The weir height were varied three times as 9cm, 12 cm, and 15 cm and each height tested for four different angels of the weir crest ( ). The weirs were used with direction and opposite direction of flow with different discharges.
From the analysis of results it was found that the labyrinthine side weir with small height and small angle is more efficient when put in the direction of flow.
Two general expressions were obtained to estimate the coefficient of discharge in terms of the hydraulic parameters in direction and opposite direction of flow, also it was found that the rate between length of weir to the depth of flow is the most effective parameter.

Key words: side weir, discharge coefficient

Performance Analysis of Wireless Network Control Systems Using Different Controllers

am F. Khuder; Ena; Sura N. Abd alrazaaq; Omar abd al-kareem

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 47-59
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.54155


Recently Wireless communication technologies have strongly adopted in real-time industrial environments. The increasing availability of products and solutions based on the IEEE 802.11 standard make this kind of communication technology becomes more cost effective in distributed control systems. This paper describes real time control application over Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) in Ad hoc mode using a Virtual Instrument VI environment (LabVIEW). Particularly the delay time in such networks is considered as a critical factor that has a significant effect on the system response time characteristics such as rise time(Tr), settling time(Ts). So in this paper we discussed the effect of using different controllers (such as P, PID, Fuzzy, …) on the overall system performance. The experimental measurements show that the using of fuzzy controller gives best results where it can minimizes the effect of the network delay on the system behavior as much as possible.

Keywords: UDP/IP, WLAN, Remote real-time control, PID, Fuzzy.

The Hydraulic Characteristics of Tigris River at Mosul City

T. A. Chilmiran; I. A.I. Al-Hafith; Kh. I. Othman

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 48-59
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.54142

In this research the hydraulic characteristic of seventy seven cross sections along 21 km of Tigris River at Mosul city were studied. These cross sections were surveyed and their bed and water surface elevations were measured.
The river at the studied reach have a different morphology and includes three different shapes (meander part braided part and straight part). The results of the study showed that the river at study reach has an average water surface slope equal of 4.7*10-4. The straight part of the river reach has uniform and regular hydraulic characteristic compared to other river parts. The river have wide cross sections, the values of T/D varies between 50-1500 and due to reduction in discharge there was a great reduction in flow depth and the river was receded and river reach was narrowed than before . The deepest part was extended beside the right bank from upstream of Ninevah Bridge to downstream of Al-Horriya Bridge. Application of HEC-RAS Model showed that the model can simulate the hydraulic characteristics of river under different flow condition. Data obtained from the model was used to find empirical relations between (average velocity, average depth, cross section area, Top width and discharge with the stage.

Key Words: Tigris River, Mosul City, Hydraulic Characteristics, HEC-RAS Model.

Modeling Effect of Irrigation Water quality Frequency with difference Leaching requirement on the salts accumulation and yield for sorghum

Omar Mkdad Abdul Guny Mahmood

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 60-73
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.54145

A Computer model is made in (MATLAB) language to study the effect of irrigation water salinity levels 20,15,12 dS/m irrigation applied by continuous irrigation with saline water and alternant irrigation by different methods (pure irrigation : saline two irrigation),(pure irrigation : saline irrigation) and (pure two irrigation : saline irrigation). Pure irrigation represents Tigris River salt water 0.47dS / m. Each method used the Leaching requirements (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25, and 0.3), The model depends on the principle of balancing water and salt. The computer model has been applied to the sorghum crop; a summer crop which endures medium salinity. The results show that the accumulation of salt varies according to the differences in irrigation style. The amount of salts accumulated in the soil increased by using the continuous irrigation, while the use of alternant irrigation led to reduced accumulation of salts and thus led to increased production. The amount of decrease in the accumulation of salts depends on the method of alternant irrigation and leaching requirements used. Mathematical equations have been formulation to find out the increase or decrease in the real Yield and relative evaporation transpiration as a result of the influence of the amount of salt water and pure water additives under the conditions and limitations of the study area
Keywords: Leaching, salinity, continuous irrigation, alternant irrigation, Yield

Design and Fabrication of Thin Film a-Si/Al2O3 Infrared Filter

Dr. Khalid Khaleel Mohammad; Mr. Saad Gazai

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 60-68
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.54156

Long-wavelength infrared filter operated at various temperature are critical for imaging applications. In this paper anew type of infrared filter is investigated, this infrared filter uses a crystalline silicon substrate coated with multi layers of aluminum oxide (AL2O3) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) to produce the multi layers thin film infrared filter a-Si/AL2O3 operating in the range (8-14)um. Amorphous silicon is used in this paper due to its high refractive index, while AL2O3 due to its low refractive index material. The a-Si/ AL2O3 thin film structure were designed using the Thin Film Design software (TF Calc 3.5.6 version). The simulated results obtained shows that the transmittance of the a-Si/ AL2O3 infrared filter with 19 layers is about 90% for (8-12.5) µm wavelength, while it is about 95% for 47 layers for (8.25-13.25) µm wavelength. The investigated filter was fabricated using vacuum evaporation process and the results obtained were comparable with the simulated one. The fabricated a-Si/ AL2O3 filter is compared with the Ge/ZnS infrared filter and it is found that the results is comparable but the cost of the fabricated filter is small compared to the Ge/ZnS filter.

Keyword: Infrared Filter, Silicon, Aluminum Oxide.

Impact of Downlink Distributed and Adjacent Subcarrier Permutation Modes on the Performance of Mobile WiMAX System in ITU-R Ped. B Channel with Obtaining Optimum Cyclic Prefix

Safwan E. Abdul Fatah; Dr. Sami A. Mawjoud

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 69-85
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.54157

Mobile WiMAX is one of the candidate technologies for 4G wireless systems, promising high data rates and affluent multimedia services. The mobile WiMAX standard (IEEE802.16e-2005)is based on Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA), which allows a very efficient use of bandwidth in a wide frequency range, this is due to the fact that OFDMA uses multi-channel OFDM approach and provides subcarrier access in the time and the frequency domains.
In this paper the impact of downlink distributed (FUSC, PUSC) and adjacent (AMC) subcarrier permutation modes used in mobile WiMAX system are investigated using simulation under various modulation and coding schemes (link speeds)with the support of optimum value of the Cyclic Prefix (CP) for the OFDMA symbol duration. The results are expressed in terms of the maximum achievable throughput and operating distance from base station in pedestrian multipath fading channel (ITU-R Ped. B at 3Km/h speed) under a UDP-based application (video streaming), which is the proper application for multimedia services. The results show the optimum cyclic prefix valve for the FUSC, PUSC and AMC subcarrier permutation modes to achieve the best system performance, also the results show differences in PER performance atvarious modulation and coding schemes for the three subcarrier permutation modes (FUSC, PUSC and AMC). These differences in performance are exploited in the present work to show the best threshold SNR to switch from link speed to another link speed in terms of throughput and operating distance.
Key words: IEEE802.16e-2005, OFDMA, FUSC, PUSC, AMC, ITU-R Ped. B channel, PER.

Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced High Strength Concrete Deep Beams With Openings

Baraa Jabbar Mahmood

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 86-102
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.54158

The objective of this study is to estimate the influence of web openings in reinforced concrete deep beams by using nonlinear finite element analysis. Concrete represented by isoperimetric eight nodes, serendipity plane stress, elements. The reinforcement treated as embedded elements and considered as elastic perfectly plastic. New constitutive models to simulate concrete material suggested by means of a nonlinear regression analysis of many experimental data by using SPSS 16 – statistical program. Strain hardening approach was employed to model the compressive behavior of high strength concrete. In tension two models were used to model high strength concrete in the pre – peak and post peak states. A smeared fixed crack approach of cracked concrete in tension is assumed. Three variables included concrete strength, shear span – to – depth ratio and the width and depth of openings. The results indicated that the ultimate strength is remarkably decreased in deep beams with openings rather than deep beams. Experimental results for reinforced high strength concrete deep beam with openings compared with the finite element results and showed good agreement.
Keywords: Deep beam, Finite element, High strength concrete, Nonlinear analysis, Openings, New constitutive models.

Influence of Concrete Mix Proportions and Curing Regimes on Density, Absorption, and Voids in Hardened Concrete

Omer Mohammad Abdul kreem

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 103-117
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.54159

The aim of this research is to assess the mechanical strength and durability performance of the concrete incorporating various contents of the ordinary Portland cement and w/c. Besides, it has been undertaken to study the effect of curing methods on compressive strength of the concrete as well as the physical properties, which are investigated in terms of density, absorption and volume of permeable voids as an (porosity). Many researchers consider these physical properties as an indicating signs on the permeability of the concrete, or in other words, they were as an indirect method to measure the permeability and to evaluate it.
Five mixes are prepared and tested at the age of 28 days. The concrete specimens are cured in two different methods, in the first method specimens are moist cured while in the second method the specimens are air cured at 20 ˚C and 80% relative humidity to examine the effect of curing regimes. An experimental procedure for testing the physical properties of concrete is carried out according to ASTM (C 642-97). The results of the study showed that the increase of cement content and the reduction in the w/c leads to more durable concrete because of loss of absorption and porosity characteristics, in addition to that, higher density and compressive strength. Test results also showed that the water curing method have significant effect for improving the strength and durability performance of the concrete.

Keywords: Concrete, Mix Proportion, Curing Conditions, Durability Performance, Physical Properties.

Stream flow Simulation and Synthetic Flow Calculation by Modified Thomas Fiering Model

Dr. Cheleng A. Arselan

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 118-127
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.54160

In this paper , Thomas-Fiering T-F model was used twice for simulation of Khassa Chi river in Kirkuk city by using historical monthly stream flow sequences for a period (1941-2001) . A modification to Thomas-Fiering model was done by extracting the persistency from the monthly flow values of Khassa Chi river and including the regression values between the monthly values of the flow without persistence. It was concluded that Thomas-Fiering model is very suitable to simulate Khassa Chi behavior. The modified model MT-F was more capable to reverse the monthly and annual statistical parameters especially the monthly and annual standard deviation and it was more sensitive in reversing the drought times which reflects its capability in other simulation operations for variables which are suffering from drought times.
Key words :Thomas-Fiering , Persistence Simulation

Observing the rising and falling of water level in Mosul Dam Lake using remote sensing data and Geographical Information System

K.A.Ahmed; R.G. Thanoon; A.R. Abdurrahman

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 128-136
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.54161

Multi temporal Landsat ETM+ satellite images for the period (1986 to 2009) are used to determine the boundary of Mosul Dam Lake. Digital Image processing (Enhancement, Image Fusion and classification) applied for the input data. The output images showed the values of surface area in Km2. In order to extract the level of water a digital elevation model was combined with the output images.
The (Elevation – Area – Volume) curve for Mosul Dam Lake (which depended on field measurements) used to compare the values of water level of the lake that extracted from the satellite images with digital elevation model and that one plotted on the curve. The results of this study showed an agreeable convergence between them.
Keyword: Mosul dam, Remote sensing, GIS.

Comparison the stresses and deflections of an isotropic and orthotropic rectangular plates with central circular hole under tension load

Ahmed M. Abdullah

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 137-153
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.54162

The distributions of stresses and deflection in rectangular isotropic and orthotropic plates with central circular hole under transverse static loading have been studied using finite element method. The object of this present work is to analyze the effect of D/Y ratio (where D is hole diameter and Y is plate width) upon stress distribution and deflection in plates under tension subjected to a static loading. The D/Y ratio is varied from (0.1) to (0.9). The results are obtained for four different boundary conditions. The variations of stresses and deflections with respect to D/Y ratio are presented in graphical form. The finite element formulation is carried out by using the analysis section of the ANSYS package

Keywords: Finite Element, Isotropic and orthotropic plates, Boundary conditions.