Print ISSN: 1813-0526

Online ISSN: 2220-1270

Volume 20, Issue 5

Volume 20, Issue 5, Summer and Autumn 2012, Page 1-164

Inelastic Response of Reinforced Concrete Frames Partially Reinforced with (CFRP) Rebar Subjected to Blast load (Arbic)

Ghofran Abd-Almageed Gharbi; Sofyan Younis Kashmola

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.60972

The use ofFRPrebars has become in the last decades at the head technologies of internal reinforcement of concrete sections instead of normal steel bars for their lightweight, portability and have a high tensile strength in addition to their resistance to rust and corrosion.This paper presents the inelastic response of 4-story reinforced concrete framepartially reinforced with Carbon FRP rebars. Thisframe was analyzedunder actual blast loadusing high strength concrete.Two-dimensional Beam-Column Element has been used in representing the frame members. A computer program hasbeen developed (in Fortran-77) for analysis purposes.Lump plasticity model has also been used, which depends on the concept of plastic hinges that reflect the inelastic behavior of the element, assuming that inelastic action is lumped at both ends of the element as plastic hinges. An interaction diagram between axial forces and moments is determined; this diagram is considered as a Yield Surface which represents the limits of the ultimate strength of the element.A direct Systematic integration technique has been used depending on Newmark's Predictor-Corrector method to solve the equation of motion.Based on the results obtained, it can be seen that CFRP rebars have the ability to increase the flexural resistance of reinforced concrete sections, which contributed to the increase in their strengthsand their ductility;consequently, they reduce the number of plastic hinges formed in the frame, as well as delay in the time of their formation.

Transformation Matrix for 3D computer Graphics Based on FPGA(English)

Dr.Fakhrulddin H. Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.61024


The real time of the computer graphics system performance is one of the fast many computing applications. The 3D (three-dimensional) geometric transformations are one of the most important principles of interactive computer graphics, which are essential for modeling, viewing and animation. This paper tends to construct a general form of a single matrix representation for multiple geometric transformations for three-dimensional objects. This way, a speed up factor of 1 to 5 can be gained. Architectureis designed, and implemented as a hardware unit, and then testedfor the single matrix transformation, using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA).

Keywords: 3D graphics, lookup table, FPGA, concatenation.

Effect of solid mixing ratio and temperature on the performance of dry anaerobic composting (Dranco) reactors treating domestic solid wastes(Arabic)

Roa Modhaffer Younis; Dr. Kossay K. Al-Ahmady

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 14-24
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.61017

In thisresearch, an experimental plant was operated in order to study the effect of solid mixing ratio and temperature on the performance of dry anaerobic composting (Dranco) reactors treating domestic solid wastes.The experimental plants consists of four reactors, which were operated under different temperatures of 35oC, 45oC, 55oC, and 65oC , for the first, second, third and fourth system respectively. Three of these reactors were used to treat food waste at different solid mixing ratios of 40%, 50% and 60% for the first, second and third reactor respectively, while the fourth one was used to treat processing vegetable, fruit and garden waste (VFG) with the solid mixing ratio of 50%. The result of researchrevealed that, both of the removal efficiency of COD and the volume reduction of waste increase with increasing the temperature.Higherremoval and volume reduction were recorded at 65oC. In contrast, there was no significant effect of the solid mixing ratio on the removal efficiency and the volume reduction. The study also shows that the total volume of biogas produced per kg of solids were (2.4, 2.44, 2.7 and 1.26 L/Kg for the first, second, third and fourth reactor respectively.
Key words: Solid waste, Dranco, Anaerobic treatment, Biogas, Temperature, Solid ratio

Allpass-Based Design, Multiplierless Realization and Implementation of IIR Wavelet Filter Banks with Approximate Linear Phase (English)

Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar; Rasha Waleed Hmad

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 16-25
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.61025

In this paper, Bireciprocal Lattice Wave Digital Filters (BLWDFs) are utilized in an approximate linear phase design of 9th order IIR wavelet filter banks (FBs). Each of the two branches in the structure of the BLWDF realizes an Allpass filter. The low-coefficient sensitivity, excellent dynamic range and good stability properties of such filters allow their realization with short coefficient wordlengths. Suitable coefficient wordlength representations are estimated for the best selection of some prescribed performance measures. The quantized coefficients are then realized in a multiplierlessmanner and implemented on Xilinx FPGA device. Therefore, less-complex infinite impulse response (IIR) wavelet filter bank structures are obtained with linear phase processing.

Keywords: AllPass Sections,Bireciprocal Lattice Wave Filters (BLWDFs),Linear PhaseProcessing, Quadrature MirrorFilters(QMFs), IIR Wavelet Filter Banks,FPGA Implementations.

Broken Rotor Bars Fault Detection of The Three-phase Induction Motor(Arabic)

Prof. B. M. Saied; Dr. Y. M.Y. Ameen; M. H. Saud

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 25-32
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.61020


This paper presents results of the comparison between the use of inductionmotor current signature, vibration signature, and acoustic signal analysis methods to detect broken rotor bars fault. The results have taken at healthy and faulty conditions at different speeds due to change of load. It is a comparison between three ways to determine the sensitivity for detecting faults and to adopt the best technology in detecting damagesin order to increase the reliability of the system. Signals are beenanalyzedin time and frequency domains.The value of the root mean square of the current signal, the peak value of vibration signal,and the sound pressure level of the machine sound have monitored for healthy and faulty conditions.
The laboratory tests show that the results of analyzing the current signature is considered one of the most sensitive to detect the rotor broken bar faults in its early stages، while the vibration signal methodis less sensitive to detect the fault in the initial stages because of the presence of other components in the vibration signal.But the acoustic method is not reliable method for detectingthis type of the faults. This is due to the presence of noise in the environment and fault low order frequencies.

Keywords: Broken rotor bars,Current signature, Vibration Analysis, Acoustic Noise.

Analysis and Optimization Performance of the QOS in GSM/EDGE Networks(English)

Salih M. Atroshey; Myasar R. Tabany

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 26-34
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.61026

The aim of this paper is to analysis and optimizes the efficiency of the Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) Quality of Service (QoS) profilewhich is used for Packet Data Protocol (PDP) context in data transfer over GSM/EDGE networks.Two software tools were used in the practical part: the first one is a Subscriber Management Unit client (SMU/9820) from HUAWEI Technologies Co., Ltd. that is a real time system for mobile network management in HUAWEI Home Location Register (HLR); the second is a DUMETER 5.02, which monitors the network traffic and displays a real time charts. The practical part has been achieved in Asia cell telecommunications Company in three different cities; Mosul, Duhok and Erbil: each one in three levels; the first level is the analysis of available QoS in the network, based on the default profile which depended by the network. However, 24 testing have been recorded; this testing has been repeated for three cities. In second level a hundreds of tests and optimization implemented on tens of QoS and PDP parameters in order to reach better data rate. Final level includes the implementation of the proposed profileswhich resulted from second level. Finally, the proposal profiles improved the performance of the QoS which reflected the gains of 34% in average data rate in the three cities.
Keywords: HLR, GSM, QOS, ED

Laboratory Study of the Effect of the Branching Angle and the Branching Channel Slope on Flow(Arabic)

Nashwan K.Al Omari; Dr. Moayed S. Khaleel

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 33-41
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.61022

In this paper the hydraulic characteristics of branching flow in open channel has been studied, a main channel was used with a branching channel connected with three angles (30°, 60°, 90°) with four bed slopes (0.001,0.0015,0.002,0.0025)and at each slope five values of discharge were pass in the mainchannel(13, 14, 15, 16 and 17.25) l/s. For each discharge five depths of water were allowed in the branching channel in each experiment. The results of the experiments indicated that the discharge ratio increases with increases bed slope of the branching channel. It was also found that the highest discharge ratio is obtained in the angle 60° then the angle 90° and then angle 30°. The results also showed that the relationship between thedischarge ratio and Froude number is linear and direct proportional to the Froude number in the upstream main channel and in the branching channel, and inversely with the Froude number in the downstream main channel. The relationship between discharge ratio and the ratio of water depth in the branching channel to water depth in the downstream main channel is linear and inverse. An empirical equation to calculate the discharge ratio was observed, with a coefficient of determination (R2) equal (0.953).
Key Word: Branching channel, Branching channel slope, open channel, Branching flow and Branching angle.

A new Model of a Wireless AD- HOC Network with Sub-Layer Mac Using Simevents Tools(English)

Dr. A.I. A. Jabbar; Saad Ahmed Ayoob

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 35-47
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.61027

Wireless ad-hoc networks with different topologies proved to be a feasible solution for low-cost deployment of computer networks. It provides quick and easy networking in circumstances that require temporary network services or when cabling is difficult to be installed. In this paper, an analytical model of a wireless ad-hoc network is presented, in addition, a new model for wireless ad-hoc network with a sub-layer MAC is designed using Simevents tools. It is also taken into account the effect of the contention process and losses on the sub-layer MAC, then OPNET software is used to validate this model. Finally, the results of a practical single-hop wireless ad-hoc network using six computers are compared with the results of the proposed models. It is obvious that there is an excellent agreement between the throughput performances of the different models.
Key words: Wireless, Ad-Hoc, MAC, Simevents.

Minarets of Mosul: Location and Signification of Style Change (Aabic)

Dr. Hassan Haj-Kasim

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 42-57
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.61023

Old Mosul –like other Islamic cities- is characterized by the architectural heritage, in particular Mosques with their towering Minarets. While analyzing the architectural characteristics of minarets, those related to their mosques and locations, and syntactical characteristics, most of the mosques have no minarets. Among the 32 old mosques, there are only 13 with minarets (40%). In accordance with architectural characteristics, they could be classified into: those derived from local minarets of previous ages, and those affected by Turkish minarets.
This research aims to examine and interpret these two phenomena. The research hypothesis is that they related to Islamic Law restrictions, and to the local identity related to political and cultural conditions. Islamic Law has restricted the existence of minarets in locations where there is no impacts on housing privacy. Thus, minarets were in markets, near city wall or in locations that were previously public areas. Minarets with local characteristics were built when native rulers ruled the city and local culture rooted from old ages. As for minarets affected by Turkish minarets; they were built when Mosul was directly ruled by Ottomans.
Key Words: Islamic Architecture, Minarets, City of Mosul

Design and Implementation of A Fuzzy Logic Based A Photovoltaic Peak Power Tracking Controller(English)

Dr. Khalid K. Muhammed; Marwan A. Abdulhameed

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 48-57
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.61031

The output power induced in the photovoltaic (PV) cells is influenced by the intensity of the solar radiation, the temperature of the solar cells and the load connected to the solar panels. Therefore, to make PV cells keep giving maximum power under different operating conditions, a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) strategy is required. The Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is one of most sufficient control strategies used for MPPT. FLC based on linguistic rules describing the operators control strategy is applied to control the step-up converter for MPPT. The proposed PV system designis evaluated and tested by computer simulations, using Matlab/Simulink facilities. Practical implementation is also included in this study. The fuzzy based MPPT algorithm is written in assembly language using the fuzzy logic instructions supported with the microcontroller HC12 MCU. Simulated and practical results are presented under different operating conditions in order to determine the tracker efficiency. The MPPT has been tested with three -, five- and seven-terms of linguistic variables for each input/output fuzzylabel. The tracker efficiency is about 92% using three fuzzy subsets with some fluctuation and about 95% using five fuzzy subsets with less fluctuation. By using seven fuzzy subsets, the tracker efficiency amounts to 99.9% and the system seems to be extremely stable with minimum fluctuation.
Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, Photovoltaic, MPPT

Study MIOS Memory Structure and Fabrication of (English)

Dr.Luqman Sufer Ali; Hamsa Fawaz Thanon

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 58-68
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.61034


This research represents fabrication and investigation for various kinds of MIOS structures as memorization devices. All structures were fabricated with dot and strip gates. The analysis is based on an investigation of charge transport in the Al2O3/SiO stacked films. It was shown that the trap-assisted tunneling is the dominant conduction mechanism through Al2O3 layer and is responsible for charge trapping into Al2O3 or Al2O3/SiO interface and into the second insulator layer. Nonvolatile digital memory switching has been observed in MIOS prepared by thermal vacuum thin film deposition.

Numerical and Experimental Study on the PressureDistribution ina Volute of High-Speed Centrifugal Fan with Impeller- Volute interaction(English)

Dr.Muthana K. Aldoory; Ahmed A. Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 69-91
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.61038

This paper shows a numerical simulation in capturing the dynamic and static pressure effects inside a centrifugal fan due to the impeller-volute interaction.The fan used in this study is a single-stage machine with an unshrouded impeller and external volute.Three volute tongue designs were investigated. Volute C had a full tongue and did not allow any flow recirculation. Volute B had a reduced tongue length thereby opening the recirculation port. Finally the tongue of volute A had a rounded leading edge to make it less sensitive to off-design flow conditions. For the numerical simulation, the viscous Navier-Stokes equations are handled with unstructured grid and the relative reference frames technique is applied to take into account the impeller-volute interaction. The data obtained allow the analysis of the main phenomena existent in these fans, such as: pressure changes in the volute for different flow rates and the secondary flow generated in the volute due to the width change between the impeller and the volute. Numerical results are compared with the experimental pressure data measured in the volute and agreement is found show that at low flow rates ,the volute decelerates the airflow leading to an increase in pressure throw the volute. At these low flow rates separation or flow unsteadiness can occur from the underside of the tongue and the strength of the instability increased when the mass flow rate was reduced further. The pressure fluctuation for various mass flow rates is a non-periodical nature and it is manifest as the broad band components in higher level of random frequency (up to nearly 500 Hz).This investigation concentrates on the measurement of the flow characteristic in the volute casing and the volute tongue configuration.
KEYWORDS Flow in volute, Centrifugal fan, volute tongue

Theoretical Study and Computer Simulation of aModified Quick Return Mechanism(English)

Ahmad Wadollah S. Al-Sabawi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 92-102
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.61041

Quick return mechanism, (QRM), is considered one of the important mechanisms. It is always desired to increase machine productivity and/or to decrease time losses. Shapers, for instance, have a considerable importance in production engineering, they have gearboxes for speed variation purposes required for cutting, and most of them employ QRM. This study aimed to introducecoupling with a pre – determined misalignmentengaged to QRM in order to obtain an enhanced QRM that has different time ratios and speed ratios. This modification then applied to shaper for making precise speed adjustmentof the cutting and return speeds of the ram beside the gearbox.Consequently, the resultedhightime ratios (TR>1) enhanced the productivity of the shapers for the same ram stroke. The lower return time the higher the productivity. Furthermore, the “quick” effect of the QRM retained even with shorter strokes by the present modification. The research tools included mechanismmodeling and simulation using Autodesk Inventor Professional Software.In addition, it includes theoretical velocity analysis for the resulting combination.Both simulation andtheoretical analysesagreed well.

Key words: Quick return mechanism, shapers, parallel misalignment, time ratio

The Influence of Double Acting Hydraulic Piston on Tractive Forces for Towing Vehicle on Steering of Wagon Type Articulated Tracked Vehicle(English)

Ekhlas A. Basher

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 103-118
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.61044

Tracked vehicles have been in use for many years ago thus, there has been increasing interest in articulated tracked vehicles for various applications such as they can be used as transporters for heavy equipment or as heavy earth-moving machines.
Generally, it has been accepted that the wagon-type articulation of tracked vehicles is the simplest type of articulation. However, previous analysis has shown that this kind of articulation createsa problem to steering in the straightening-up position. This paper deals theoretically withthe possibility of changing the hydraulic piston, which used now in articulated tracked vehicles by a double acting hydraulic piston as another solution.It explains the effect of two forces of the piston on the outside tractive force and inside tractive force for the towing vehicle, when using a conventional wagon-type articulation of tracked vehicles with the introduction of double acting hydraulic piston in the system.It show that the length to the width ratio of the towing tracked vehicle is the main factor that affects much more than the other on the forces of the towing vehicle, where the value of this ratio (less than one) gives a good straighting up.
Keywords: tracked vehicles, articulation of tracked vehicles, thrust force, hydraulic piston

Acceleration Noise Parameter MeasurementAt Signalized Intersections in Mosul City(English)

Dr. A. M. ALTaei

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 119-127
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.61047

In this study a parameter called traffic acceleration noise along different approaches of some signalized intersections located within the Mousl City road network was measured. This parameter is usually defined as the root mean square of car acceleration. Approaches of two signalizedintersections having four legs were surveyed different times using digital camera to measure vehicle speed at the start of green light opening. Acceleration noise correlated with other signal parameters obtained out of the analysis of different phasing plans such as, saturation flow, v/c ratio, lane group volume .etc., level of service is obtained too. Outcomes out of this study are the development of a new scale measure for level of service depending on acceleration concept rather than approach delay concept as demonstrated by the Highway Capacity Manual Special Report 209 authorized methodology.
Key Word: Noise, Mosul City

Mechanical Properties of Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete(English)

Muna M. Abdullah; Eman K. Jallo

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 128-135
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.61048

This paper described an experimental study ofsome mechanical properties of glass fibers reinforced mortar (GFRM) and concrete (GFRC), namely tensile, compressive strength and young `s modulus. The investigation is designed to find out the effect of glass fiber content (0, 600, 1000, and 1400)gm/m3 on the mechanical properties of glass fiber reinforced concrete and mortarat 28 and 14 days respectively. The results indicate that the addition(600, 1000, 1400) gm/m3 of glass fiber to concrete and mortar increased the splitting tensile strength by approximately (1,4.3,12.5)% and (5.4,7.7,17)%for concrete and mortar respectively.The results indicate also that compressive strength of concrete increasedby ratios (3.6,7.1,9.3)% and for the mortar increases by (2) %for fibers content (600) gm/m3 and (0.8,0.4)%forfiberscontent(1000,1400)gm/m3.Based on this study the young modulus ofGFRCincreasedby (9.7,56.6,84)% due to glass fibers content in concrete.

Key words: glass fiber, concrete, mortar, compressive strength, tensile strength.

Comparing Ground Survey Data with SRTM Satellite Data:Case Study in North of Iraq(English)


Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 136-147
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.61049

In this paper a comparison between DEMs, which generated from ground survey using total stationand DEMgenerated fromSRTM DEM (Space Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) with 90m spatial resolution, has been done. The comparison achieved intwo different areas, area-1 (covers1,384,707.00 square meters)andarea-2 (covers549,041.00 square meters).The topography ofthe area-1 was non flat,while the area-2 was approximatelyflat.The comparison achieved using two different methods, firstmethod wasan evaluation for contour lines which carried out between ground survey and SRTM DEM contour maps, second method was a spatial analyst testusing statistical functions (e.g. mean, standard deviation STD).The comparison showed that the variation of SRTM data and ground survey data is small in flat areas and increases in high grade areas. The software which is been used in comparison was ArcGIS package.
KEY WORDL: DEM, SRTM, ArcGIS, Geospatial

Genetic Shape Plan of The Traditional Ottoman's Style House - An Analytical study of selected models of the Traditional Ottoman's style house

Oday Qusay Alchalabi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2012, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 148-164
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2012.61050

Buildings vary in shapes, types and locations, but are correlated in the original elements and relations to constitute the unified building Type or a certain architectural style from a certain place. These relations are linking points among different architectural styles; each style has a strategy in dealing with these elements and relations. The strategy of dealing with those variables are the genetic tape that contains several codes, each of which donates relation shape. The varieties of these relations lead to a variation in building types and architectural styles. This variation in the structure of the code (the relations) depends on several environmental, social and geographical factors…etc.
The building types that could be much affected by those factors is the traditional house. The traditional Ottoman’sstyle house has been chosen in this study; as through previous studies conducted that there are some important points about the house and its shape . Most of the previous studies tackled only one specified term, other studies focused on the geometric principles to create traditional shape , and there is a co-genetic relations among the traditional houses. In order to achieve the objective of this paper, four samples oftraditional house from four countries(16 samples): Iraq, Syria, Turkey and Egypt have been analyzed ( four samples for each). An analysis houses outlines has been conducted and the major terms and determinants of the genetic code were found out. Then, the relations through which the basic shape was constituted have been found. Four elements of the genetic tape were identified as follows: Centrality, repetition, balance and scale. A matrix of the relations was made to find out the genetic tape of each house then of each region and eventually of the architectural style. The findings of the study show the existence of shape correlationswhich resulted in similarity among the genetic tapes of the traditional houses. Findings also show the shape’s genes that identify the architectural identity of each area under discussion in addition to results of cluster analysisthat show the three groups of selected sample within three clusters .

Key word :Traditional house, shape’s structure , geometric element , co-genetic relation , shape’s center , regularity. Genetic code .