Print ISSN: 1813-0526

Online ISSN: 2220-1270

Volume 22, Issue 5

Volume 22, Issue 5, Summer and Autumn 2014, Page 1-249


Effect Of Soil Surface Slope On The Performance Of Trickle Line Source:(A) Wetted Pattern

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 22, Issue 5, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.100996

The soil wetting pattern under the trickle source be affected by several factors, and these factors are the soil surface slope, water application rate, soil type, and the initial soil moisture content. The aim of the study is to find out the einterferences effects of the above factors on displacement of surface wetting pattern center from the trickler. The study included 16 test to monitor the advance of the wetting front with time in the soil profile under trickle line source. This was done by using sandy loam soil and clay loam soil, several soil surface slopes are applied (0%, 3.75%,7.5%, 15%) two water application rates (3.03,5.06) ml/min/cm and two levels of the initial soil moisture contentand for the two type of soil. The results showed that the displacement of surface wetting pattern center from the trickler increases with the increase of soil surface slope, and this increase is more clear with the increasing of the soil softness. Also it showed that the displacement of surface wetting pattern center from the trickler increases with the increase of water application rate at the same applied water volume. And also showed there is no significant effect of initial soil moisture on the displacement of surface wetting pattern center from the trickler for two study soils.

Effect Of Soil Surface Slope On The Performance Of Trickle Line Source:(B)Surface Runoff

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 22, Issue 5, Pages 14-23
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.100998

The present study aims to find out the einterferences effects of the soil surface slope, the water application rate, soil type, and the initial soil moisture on the local surface runoff, which is resulting from the application of certain water volume by trickle line source. In addition to determining the maximum applicable value for each of the above mentioned factors, which can be used without the surface runoff occurs which may be lead the water out of the area that is supposed to be secure the moisture from concerned trickler. The study included 16 test to monitor the advance of the wetting front and the local surface runoff with time in the soil profile under trickle line source. This was done by using sandy loam soil and clay loam soil, several soil surface slopes (0%, 3.75%,7.5%, 15%), two water application rates(3.03,5.06) ml/min/cm and two levels of the volumetric initial moisture for each soil. The study results showed that the surface runoff downstream trickler increases with the increase of the soil surface slope or the increase the water application rate or the increase of the initial soil moisture and the surface runoff effects are greater in the clay loam soil than the sandy loam soil. And study proposed the maximum value for each of the soil surface slope, the water application rate, and the volumetric initial soil moisture for study's soils when using trickle line source, so that the surface runoff does not happen outside the area that is supposed to be secure moisture from the concerned trickler.

Shape Factor During Advance Phase in Border Irrigation

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 22, Issue 5, Pages 24-34
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.100999

The present study proposed a new single shape factor to be used in volumetric balance equation. The new single shape factor combines the surface shape factor (0.77) and the subsurface shape factor (Kiefer factor) in one shape factor. By depending on hypothetical design factors: border length, border slope, inflow rate per unit width of border, manning coefficient, as well as soil type, the power function of water advance, the subsurface shape factor and single shape factor have been found respectively. The study introduced an equation to calculate the single shape factor as a function of water advance distance, border length, border slope, inflow rate per unit width of border , manning coefficient and the exponent of infiltration function without needing to data for water advance or the exponent of advance function (b), which is used to calculate the subsurface shape factor (Kiefer factor). Generally, the study demonstrated that the variation limits of the values of the single shape factor are (0.73-0.76) with average of 0.75 when the ratio of advance distance to total border length greater than or equal to 0.4.

Effect of Different Sustainable Rainfall on the Peak Flow

M. Ezz-Aldeen Mohammad; Sahar Sameer Younus

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 22, Issue 5, Pages 35-46
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.101001

Rainfall is the main source of normal and flood surface flow. The storm intensity and sustainability in addition to the watershed properties soil type and land use have a direct effect on the peak flow. In the first stage of this research the TR-20 model and HEC-1 model based on both SCS method and Snyder method operating under watershed modeling system (WMS). The models were calibrated based on a number measured hydrograph for Khashban which is one of sub-basin of Alkhoser seasonal river near Mosul city, and Solak in Sinjar- Republic of Iraq. The comparison between the two model based on Nash model efficiency E%, determination coefficient (r2) and the t-test values for the measured on predicted value of peak flow, time of peak flow and runoff volume. The result showed that TR-20 model is the best. In the next stage, the TR-20 model was applied for the two watershed for different value of rainfall intensity, duration, and curve number for soil conservation service (SCS) method that reflect the effect of soil type, initial water content, land use and plant cover. The aim is to obtain the peak flow the watershed for different value of consider variables to an equation of peak flow for different values of rainfall duration.

Laboratory Study to Decrease the Scour Downstream Weirs Using screen Walls

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 22, Issue 5, Pages 47-59
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.101003

In this research, a laboratory study of the phenomenon of scour in the stone floors (gravel, crushed) using single and double screen walls used as energy dissipation. The study includes the effect of weir height (P), the diameters of screen wall hole (∅), the number of screen walls (Sw) on scour behind walls screen.Seventy experimentswere carried out (ten of them without using screen walls).One size of crushed stone (Dm = 0.79) mm were used with two height of weir (P = 25, 30) cm and three different diameters of screen walls (Ø = 0.8,1.2,1.6) cm were used and single and double screen walls (Sw = 1, 2) with five different discharge, with porosity 40% for single and double screen walls.
The results of the experimental work showed that the depth and length of the scour hole was minimum when using screen walls of (P = 25) cm in comparison with (P = 30) cm. Also the use of single and double screen walls decrease the depth and length of scour hole with ratios of (28-83.33)% and ratio of (47.37-85.71)% respectively compared with the state of without using screen. Using dimensional analysis two empirical relations were determined to compute the ratio of depth and length scour in term of dimensionless variables.

Natural Convection Heat Transfer in a Square Porous Enclosure with Corner Heating and Magnetic Field

Abbas Saeed Hussain; Falah Hadi Mhawish

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 22, Issue 5, Pages 60-71
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.101004

This numerical study documents the phenomena of heat transfer natural convection in a square porous cavity with corner heating and magnetic field. The finitedifference technique with Gauss-Siedel method is used to solve the governing equations with aid of (Over Relaxation) technique of a range (1.1-1.3). The governing parameters are modified Rayleigh number, Hartmann's number, inclination angleof magnetic field and dimensionless length (non- dimensionalheating region in both directions(x,y)) . It was concluded thatincrease in the Hartman number leads to a decrease in the average Nusselt number while the increase in the modified Rayleigh number increases the averageNusselt number .Theincreaseof dimensionless length (h)led to an increase the average Nusseltnumber . However, the optimum reducing of the heat transfer rate was obtainedat a large magnetic field in the horizontal direction.

Nucleate Boiling Heat transfer From an Enhanced Horizontal Tube Using Different Working Liquids

Hussain H .Ahmad; Sarah J. Majed

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 22, Issue 5, Pages 72-84
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.101005

In this research, an experimental investigation of nucleate pool boiling froma single horizontal tube has been done ,with distilled water and ethanol as working liquids.The tests were carried out on five tubes;one of them has smooth external surface wherethe other four tubes have enhanced external surfaces of different finish with outer diameter (30 mm( and length (71mm) under atmospheric pressure within the range of heat flux(14.94–67.25kW/m2). The effect of the liquid on the characteristics of boiling and amount of enhancement of enhanced tubeswere studied. The results showed that the enhancement factor of all tubes has maximum value with distilled water as boiling liquid equal to (2.11).Where with ethanol, the maximum value was equal to (1.84) .The comparison between results of smooth tube in the present work and results of (Rohsenowcorrelation ) showed a good agreement.

Evaluation of Performance of Combined Gas Units Using Steam Injection Technique

A. Haboo; Sh. S. Ibrahim

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 22, Issue 5, Pages 85-96
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.101006

The present workhas been carriedout ona gas turbine unitof a power output of 123MW operates on asimple cycle mode.Thestudy involvestwo main parts. The first part has been focusedon the effect of the ambient temperature rise on the performance of simplegas turbine unit,while the second part was concentrated toevaluate the extra power output that can obtained ,”with and without steam injection technique”, was applied to the combustion chamber of the simple gas turbine unit.Regarding the simple gas turbine,results show that the compressor mass flow rate of air power output, and thermal efficiency decreases, nearly by (9.43%),(22.627%) and(5.7%) respectively, as the ambient temperature increases from 15℃ to45 ℃ .While, the specific fuel consumption increasesby nearly(8%), as the ambienttemperature rises from 15℃-45℃.However, when the combined cycle modeis applied ,results show that the generated power output for the combined unit,has been increased nearly by (59.195%)over that one generated from simple cycleunit.Results also showed that when steam injection is used, in the combined power units, the power generated was increased by (13.931%)over that one which is generated when steam injection was not used atthesame operating condition. Key words:-Gas turbine, combined power plant, steam injection technique.

Water in Landscape Design, its Effect on the Placemaking

Anfal Azzam Hamodat; Dr. Ahmed Yousif Alomary

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 22, Issue 5, Pages 97-117
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.101007

Abstract
The current study is within the landscape architecture area and focus on placemaking that aims at creating interactive and urban environments to encourage the people to use them again. These are characterized by being retainable and distinguished with its symbols and significance and context related. Literature have pointed out the role of water as an important natural element in landscape as being related with sensual and spiritual aspects in addition to its vitality and comfort that makes the receiver experience something new. However, and despite referring to the importance of the well designed built environment on placemaking, these literature have not deeply dealt with the details that enable the designers to use water in placemaking. Water is examined as a designing element through deeply dealing with the designing elements and potentials to be used. Then, a theoretical approach, including all the affecting aspects, is constructed and relation indicators are derived. Various animated water scenes are designed and processed with computer software to add audio impacts and a questionnaire was made. Results have shown the efficiency of the water designing preparations with complexity related mechanisms within various levels (formal, visual, audio, tactile) and the efficiency of investing formal transformation, sequence, rhythm, light coloring, dynamism, reflection and historical heritage use with various impacts of each on receiver in placemaking

Using Standard Shape Grammars to Generate The Basic Types of Congregational Mosques

Ali H. Al-Jameel; Maged D. Younis; Rana M. Hamed

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 22, Issue 5, Pages 118-135
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.101011

Abstract
Shape Grammars is among the recent concepts that have gained considerable significance for its multiple benefits for different fields. This concept with its applications had been evolved during the last thirty years within the field of architecture generally and Islamic architecture in particular. The main goal of the present research is to study the shape grammars of the congregational mosques basic types, analyzing them to conclude and define the shape rules that generate those types. Its significance comes from providing a more clear conception for the rules that had produced the basic types of congregational mosques with the possibility of reapplying the concluded rules to derive those types with their formal and syntactical properties. The research adopted (Standard Shape Grammar) which is interested in syntactical characteristics, formal relationships according to Euclidean transformations between different types regardless the different criteria and dimensions of each one. The research goal has been achieved by concluding the shape rules formulating the basic types of congregational mosques and reapplying the concluded rules to derive those typesto test their potentialities for the generation process.

Effect ofMunicipal Solid Waste (MSW) depth on leachate quantity and quality

Anas Fakhri Kasid

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 22, Issue 5, Pages 136-148
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.101012

The research aimed at studying the effect of(Municipal-Solid-waste)depth (MSW-D) and their degradation time (MSW-T) on the quality and quantity of leachate produced (L-Q&Q), and the effect of(MSW-D) on rapiddegradation (phase converting rate) and dilution factor (D.F)(wash out during rainy seasons). It also aimed at design a-statistical-modeland equations to link (MSW-D) and (MSW-T) with (L-Q&Q). A study of (48) leachate samples for 12th(time-levels),4th(depth-levels) showed that the leachate volume reduced with (MSW-D) or (DT) increasing, and the leachate strength changed positively with (MSW-D) and inversely with (DT) so the (COD, NH4-N, TSS, EC) concentrations were increased with (MSW-D). It also showed that the rapidity degradation and (D.F) changed inversely with (MSW-D),and that (D.F) increased with increasing of(MSW-T) during rainy seasons. Thestatistical-model results showed that the (MSWD) and (MSW-T) were significantly affected (within-5%confidence-level) on (L-Q&Q), andthat (MSW-D) was more effective than (MSW-T).

Effects of MaterialsProperties on Strength and Deflection of Optimized R.C. Beams: Genetic Algorithms

Salim T. Yousif; Rabi; M. Najem

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 22, Issue 5, Pages 149-165
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.101013

The Genetic Algorithms GAs, which is a powerful procedure of finding the optimum solution for constraints optimization, was used to find the optimum cost of reinforced concrete beams subjected to flexural constraints, with the limitations for section dimensions and steel reinforcement ratio according to the ACICode 2011.
After designing the sections optimally, a non linear analysis was carried out to check the capacity of the designed section, and to find out the effect of the materials properties on the beam's deflection. Eight node degenerated shell elementsare used to represents the beam in the analysis procedure;ten layers were used to represent the concrete through the optimum section and one layer to represent the steel reinforcement.
It was foundfrom the results that the materials properties affect the optimal designed sections in a way that the response of these sections towards strength and deflection, should be taken into consideration through designing the beams, if optimal design is required which was affected by about 5 – 19 %.

Effect of Using Well Water as Mixing Waterin Concrete

I. H. Hassan; O. M. Abdul-Kareem; A. Y. Shihab

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 22, Issue 5, Pages 166-177
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.101015

Water quality has been a matter of concern in civil engineering projects.Most specifications require the use of potable water because its chemical composition is known and well regulated. In some situations where potable water is not ready available, many water types which are unacceptable for drinking may be satisfactorily used in concrete, such as the well water. In this study, Well water is being investigated the feasibility of using well water as a mixing water in concrete. Water samples were obtained from three different wells. The chemical properties of these samples were investigated in the laboratory. Eight mixes were prepared from two types of cement (ordinary and sulfate resisting Portland cements) and these samples of well water as well as distilled water in order to make a comparative study. The concrete specimens were cured and tested for compressive,splitting tensile and flexural strengths at(3, 7, 28) days. The results, when compared with the results of control mixes (made with distilled water), showed that same effect of well water on the concrete strengths approximately. Therefore, the well water with acceptable limits in its chemical analysiswas suitable for use in production of concrete with acceptable strength.

Mechanistic properties of the unaged and aged DGAMs

Al-Hadidy A.I; Rashed Abdullah M

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 22, Issue 5, Pages 178-196
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.101016

Short and long term aging were conducted on the dense graded asphalt mixtures (DGAMs) containing 40-50 penetration grade asphalt cement binders. The short term oven aging (STOA) was conducted on loose mixtures at temperature of 135 C for four hours and at temperature of 154 C for two hours, whereas, the long term oven aging (LTOA) was conducted at temperature of 85 C and at two periods of time between four and eight days. The performance tests includes: Marshall properties, indirect tensile strength at 25 and 60C, compressive strength at 25 and 60C, flexural strength at 0 and -10C, cohesion at 60C, tensile strength ratio, and index of retained strength were carried out on unaged and aged DGAM. A mechanistic-empirical design approach using BISAR program was adopted for estimating the improvement in service life of the pavement or reduction in thickness of DGAM and base layer for the same service life due to the aging of DGAM. The results showed that the STOA and LTOA increases: (1) resistance of DGAM against permanent deformation at high temperatures; (2) resistance to stripping phenomenon; (3) flexural strength at low temperatures; (4) traffic benefit ratio between 10 and 20%; and (5) reduces the thickness of the surface layer between 8 and 14%; and (6) the base thickness reduces between 35% and 55%.

Contour let-BasedMethod for Speckle Reduction with Adaptive Estimation of Noise Level

Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar; Amenah. I. Kanaan; Zena N. Abdulkader

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 22, Issue 5, Pages 197-211
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.101017

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and ultrasonic images are inherently affected by speckle noise, which is caused by the coherent nature of the scattering phenomena. This paper presents a contourlet-based method for speckle reduction with an adaptive method for noise-threshold level estimation in a homomorphic framework. The method starts with the generation of many random images simulating the standard deviation level of the log-transformed speckled image. Different contourlet threshold levels are then calculated based on such simulations. Different contourlet coefficients of speckled images are thresholded by their corresponding pre-calculated contourlet thresholds.An exponential operation on the reconstructed output after thresholding is used to simulate the final homomorphic antilog-transformation stage and to obtain the de-speckled images. Unlike other classical and recent de-speckling methods, the despekled images indicate clearly the superiority of the proposed method for speckle reduction, especially for SAR images which possess a lot of detailed textures.

Efficient Hardware Implementation of the Pipelined DES Encryption Algorithm Using FPGA

Noor Najeeb Qaqos

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 22, Issue 5, Pages 212-223
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.101018

Abstract
This paper presents a high throughput reconfigurable hardware implementation of DES Encryption algorithm.This achieved by using a new proposed implementation of the DES algorithm using superpipelinedconcept.DES are simulated using Xilinx 9.2i software with the use of VHDL as the hardware description languageand implemented using Spartan-3E FPGA kit.The DES Encryption algorithm achieved a high throughput of18.327Gbps and 3235 number of Configurable Logic Blocks (CLBs), obtaining the fastest hardware implementation with better area utilization.Comparison is made between the proposed implementation and other recent implementations. The comparison results indicate that a high throughput with optimized resource utilization scan be achieved using a super pipelined concept on the proposed design in a single FPGA chip.

Modeling and Validating the Optimal Routes of a Sensor Network Using the Electrostatic Field Equations

A. I. A. Jabbar; Mohammed M. H

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 22, Issue 5, Pages 224-237
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.101019

In this paper, the analogy between the optimal routes within a sensor network and the electrostatic field lines is utilized successfully. In other words, partial differential equations similar to those of the electrostatic field theory are solved using Finite Difference Method (FDM) to find the optimal routes of the network. For the purpose of validation, an Opnet program based on the generated optimal routes is written to find the throughput and delay of the sensor network, a similar program is then applied to some arbitrary routing scenarios. The results show that the throughput and delay performance of the proposed method is better than that of the chosen arbitrary routing scenarios. It is also found from the results that the throughput of some scenarios is 50 % lower than that of the proposed method.

Design and Modeling of Speed Sensorless Control of DC Motor Drive System

Rakan K. Antar; Ahmed A. Allu

AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), Volume 22, Issue 5, Pages 238-249
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2014.101020

Sensorless speed control of a separately excited DC motor using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique based on current sensor alone is appliedin this paper. The speed sensorlesssystem based on ANN is estimatedadaptively to overcoming mechanical and physical problems associated with traditional speed sensor. The power circuit of the DC drive system consists of four-quadrant DCchopper with MOSFET transistors and reverse diodes. The ANN is trained, as a model adaptive reference system method, to estimate speed of the DC motor based on armature current sensor of the drive circuit and reconstructedterminal voltage waveform, which is generate depending on the PWM pulses of the DC chopper, as ANN inputs. The DC drive controller consists of proportional-integral controller, logic gates and routing circuits beside the trained ANN. The DC drive circuitis designed, evaluated and modelledby Matlab/Simulink in the forward and reverse motoring operation modes, respectively. The DC drive system is simulated at different speed variation in steady state and dynamic operating conditions. The simulation results without speed sensor illustrate the effectivenessand successful of the control system, fairly good responseand acceptable agreement between the actual, estimated and desired speeds.