Print ISSN: 1813-0526

Online ISSN: 2220-1270

Volume 23, Issue 4

Volume 23, Issue 4, Summer and Autumn 2015, Page 1-190

Media Architecture A Comparative Study of Display Technologies According to Their Design Characteristics

Ahmed A. Alfakhry

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2015, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 1-20
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2015.105942

The fast development of electronic technologies in various fields of life , including communications and media at the beginning of this century led to fundamental changes , affected clearly in architectural design and formation of building facades and create a completely new architectural phenomenon which is a mix between architecture and media . This hybrid phenomenon was named as Media Architecture.
Over time ,Media Architecture involved in numerous applications and had a wide range of architectural and urban activities , at the same time , different display technologies and numerous manifestations were appeared.
The emergence of these display technologies were accompanied by new specific problems and challenges from several design aspects , these challenges were different from one display technology to another which required more studies and researches.
This study deals with comparing different display technologies according to specific design characteristics (integration ,flexibility , lighting and visual comfort , and media facade shape ). This study concentrated particularly on the application of Media Architecture in exterior building facades and electronic display technologies that change their appearance by use of color and light , this required a comprehensive classification to these technologies depending on the previous studies in line with the determinants of this study. The study showed variations between some of these display technologies in accordance with the design characteristics , and similarities between others.Number of recommendations was drawn in this study considering the possibility of applying this approach in our traditional architecture in future, and design indices that must be taken into consideration in order to avoid their disadvantages.

The impact of physical and spatial configuration on functional occupancy efficiency of recreational open spaceswithinthe residential urban fabric in Mosul

Raeed S. Ahmed Alnumman; Mazen J . Alnema

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2015, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 21-38
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2015.105943

The recreational open spaces, within the residential urban fabric in the cities of Iraq in general and in Mosul in particular are suffering from being neglected because of their weak activities, mentioning to their low efficiency of occupancy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to study some of their urban properties, including the physical and spatial configuration, and its impact on their occupancy.Most of previous studies on this specific urban spaces didn’t mention the impact of such physical and spatial factors on its efficiency.
This research studies the effect of the physical and spatial configuration on occupancy of recreational open spaces within the residential urban fabric, on the efficiency of their functional performance, positively and negatively, by conducting a series of analysis and the use of certain techniques, such as the (Space Syntax), classification of urban squares based on spatial organization, as well as an on-site survey of the users, which would be taken up in the practical part of this research through the election of a number of open recreational spaces of different residential urban fabric in Mosul.

Visual Analysis of Symbolic Buildings LocationsIn the University Sites - Administration Building as an Example

Dr. Turki Hasan Ali; Muhammad Ahmad shihab

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2015, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 39-58
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2015.105944

One of the main aspects in urban design is to choose the appropriate location for the dominant buildings because of its effect on the image ability, legibility and way finding in addition to the aesthetic aspect. Administration building of University has an important symbolic value through its main function and responsibility that includes managing of all components of the campus. The relationship between visual organization properties of administration building of University and the building location represents phenomena that lacks adequate research endeavors, despite its importance in organizing Campus site. So there is a need for a clear and precise vision of this relationship.
Four universities were selected as case studies, include designed university as Baghdad University, and accumulatively grown universities as Mosul University, Cairo University and Kufa University. Visual analysis and space syntax approach were applied to determine and compare the visual attributes of administration buildings of Universities using relevant softwares. The study outcome showed some similar and different indicators among universities.

The Relative Importance of some Spatial Criteria contribute the Route Location for rural highway

Mohammed Ghanim Jamel; Dr. Ayman Abd Alhadi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2015, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 59-71
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2015.105945

This study was conform determine the set of criteria spatial affect the process of selecting the site route location of a road linking between Mosul - Baghdad and Mosul- Kirkuk highway at the southerner entrances of Mosul city. These criteria were a land use, water resources,slope, geology, environmental impact, hydrology, control area and linear engineering structure. Questionnaire from was distributed to a group of decision-makers and specialists in the field of design and road construction to determine the relative importance of these criteria spatial using Pairwise comparison was conducted after building a hierarchical structure to evaluate the standards and using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The study results showed that the highest relative importance criteriawas the water sources 26% when the ratio of the consensus of 44% , followed by the uses of the land value of 23% when the ratio of the consensus 70% , while value of the relative importance was the standard environmental impact by 5 % and the rate at a consensus of 65% . The high consensus at (70%) of the uses of the land and slope of the grounds are important criteria during the design process. The study also showed less consensus and important standard for linear engineering structure where tracks matched by consensus (47%) of the importance of (7%).

Study of the factors affecting water advance function in level border irrigation system using proposed volume balance model

Dr. Younis M. Hassan

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2015, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 72-84
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2015.105946

A simple and practical model balance system was developed to predict the advanced distance with time in level border irrigation systems, this model proposed the surface and subsurface water storage during irrigation as one unit with a single shape factor changed with advance time, the proposed shape factor was calculated at different
time intervals by using 13 field test including all the involved with surface irrigation process. The obtained values of the shape factor in addition to the other variable was grouped in dimensionless terms, the shape factor was correlated with these terms by using (SPSS) statically analysis program. The proposed model was evaluated with afield data and compared with other models, the results shows good agreement between the field data and the proposed model, the study also conclude that that the advance affected significantly by manning roughness, flow rate and kostiakov coefficient in different degrees the analysis also show that the change in discharge have the largest effect on advance distance among the other variables.

Removal of Turbidity From Water by Electrocoagulation Technique.

M. A. A.; A. T. I.

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2015, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 85-97
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2015.105947

This study search’s the removal of turbidity from water by electrocoagulation technique. Bench scale with continuous flow system was designed the system consists of electrocoagulation reactor with volume (2 L), flocculation basin and sedimentation basin with volumes change due to the change in detention time of electrocoagulation. Aluminum plates (17×8) cm were used (3 plates) as the anode and (4 plates) as the cathode, the spacing between plates was taken (1 cm) and the temperature of water was kept at (25°C).
The study investigates the effects of some operating parameters such as, electrical current that ranging from (0.1 – 2) A, detention time of electrocoagulation (1 , 5 , 10 , 20) minutes and initial turbidity variety of the raw water (10 , 25 , 100 , 300) ntu upon the residual turbidity.
Experiment result shows that the residual turbidity decrease with increase value of the electrical current for all values of initial turbidity. Also, the residual turbidity decrease with increase time of electrocoagulation for all values of initial turbidity specialy in (0.1 , 0.25 , 0.5) A, when the electrical current increase to (1 , 1.5 , 2) A , the change in residual turbidity was small specialty in time between (10 – 20) minutes. The results also proved that increasing the initial turbidity lead to increase the residual turbidity.

The Levels of Ozone and NitrogenOxides and Its Relationship with Metrological Factors

Abublmuhsin S. Shihab; Omar A. AL-Jarrah

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2015, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 98-109
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2015.105948

The research includes afirst detailed study for ozone and nitrogen oxides NOx(NO+NO2) concentration in Mosul city using a monitoring station type Horiba. This research aims to find the monthly variation and the relationships of these gases with metrological factors. The site of general library in the City was selected for monitoring air quality. This site was nearby crowded streets and heavy traffic and intersections. The monitoring period started from 1/5/2013 to 30/4/2014. The research found that the mean concentrations of O3, NOx(NO,NO2)during the study period reached 0.0243, 0.0669 (0.0407, 0.0263) ppm respectively. The higher levels were recorded in the hot months for ozone, and in the cold months for nitrogen oxides. Spearman correlation test showed a significant reverse relationship of zone with nitrogen oxides, while the relationships among NO, NO2 and NOx were significantly positive. For the correlation with metrological factors, ozone correlated positively with temperature, sun light, wind speed and wind direction, while it correlated significantly negative with relative humidity and atmospheric pressure. On the other hand,a nitrogen oxide correlates negatively with the former group of metrological factors and positively with the later ones.


Dr. Abdulhaqq A. Hamid; Ghaydaa I. Husaen

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2015, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 110-123
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2015.105949

The aim of the current research work is to study the creep behavior of the epoxy-based reinforced with different weight percentages of 1 wt.% and 3 wt.% of SiCparticles and 25 wt.% ofcarbon fibers and the results obtained have been compared to that of unreinforced epoxy matrix. Experimental creep testing device have been designed and constructed for this purpose. Basically, it containsfrom variable heat source, loading mechanism for generating stress in the specimen and instruments for recording temperatures and strains. The test was carried out under (70, 85 and 100 °С), and different loads of (29.4,34.3 and 40 N).Results showed that the creep was decreased in composite material comparedwith pure matrix material, also itwas concludedthat the creep resistance decreases with increasing the temperature and appliedload.

Using Static Reactive and Distortion Power Compensation System to improve The Quality of The AC Supply

Basil M. Saied; Basim M. A. Anwar

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2015, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 124-142
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2015.105950

This research addresses a key aspect of improving the quality of electric power to tackle the distortion due to the widespread use of power electronics systems in particular, nonlinear loads in general, as well as addressing the loads of influence on power factor. The analysis and representation of new system using MATLAB and combining two functions of static synchronous reactive power compensation, STATCOM, and active power filter, APF, in one unit.
The proposed system has the ability to control the reactive power flow in power schemes and also reduce harmonics at the same time by compensating all of the imaginary part of the load current and harmonics. This system is named as Static Reactive & Distortion PowerCompensation(SRDPC).The circuit control system SRDPC, enabled Random Pulse Width Modulation(RPWM), is obtained according to the equations have been derived for this purpose. The results of the analysis and representation of the system SRDPC that have the ability and efficiency in improving both power factor and shape of the supply current waveforms power within allowable standards for linear and nonlinear loads.

Numerical Investigation of Unsteady Mixed Convection Heat Transfer In ventilated enclosure With Different Aspect Ratio

Amir S. Dawood; Ali A. Mohammed

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2015, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 143-156
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2015.105951

Unsteady mixed convection heat transfer of a laminar fluid flow in ventilated enclosure was studied numerically. Thebottom horizontalsurface was considered isothermal, whereas the other walls were considered adiabatic. The fluid enters into enclosure through a hole located at the bottom of the left vertical wall and exits from the top of the opposite wall. The mathematical model is governed by two dimensional conservations of mass, momentum and energy equations. The numerical simulations of the fluid flow and heat transfer were investigated with a range of Reynolds number (50-500) and Richardson number (0-10), with Prandtl number fixed at 0.71. The effect of the aspect ratio on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics in the enclosure was studied in three different values (0.5, 1, 1.5 ). The numerical results showed that the maximum value of the average Nusselt number was achieved at aspect ratio of 0.5. Also, the average Nusselt number increases with the increase of Richardson and Reynolds numbers for whole different cases.

Artificial Neural Network Model for Shear Strength of Fibrous RC Beams

S. T. Yousif; S. M. Abdullah; M. H. ALkhafaf

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2015, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 157-171
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2015.105952

This study has investigated the modeling of shear strength using the artificial neural network (ANN) approach. The Results of 128 samples of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) beams without stirrups were collected gathered and used to generate a four-layer feed forward neural network using the back-propagation learning algorithm available in the MATLAB program. Nine parameters for SFRC beams, namely, beam height, beam depth, beam width, steel cross-sectional area, shear span-to-depth ratio, concrete compressive strength, volume fraction, fiber length, and fiber diameter, were considered as input variables for the ANN. ANN output representing the shear strength were compared with those observed experimentally using regression analysis approach. Results indicated that the ANN modeling technique is effective in simulating the behavior of SFRC beams. In addition, a parametric study shows that shear span, compressive strength of concrete, volume fraction, and fiber length are playing the major role in the behavior of SFRC beams.

Genetic-Based IIR Filter Design for Efficient QRS Complex Detection using Neuro-Based Classifier

Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar; Omar Najeeb Saadi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2015, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 172-182
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2015.105954

In this paper, a new method is proposed for QRS complex detectionusing a special kind of IIR filter called bi-reciprocal lattice wave digital filter (WDF). This filter has some attractive features that make it more efficient than other types of filters.One of these features is its sufficient linear phase in the passband, thus yielding a perfect reconstraction condition. Therefore, it is not required to cascade the designed filter with anall-pass filter for correcting the phase distortion. The coefficients of the designedfilter areachieved by simulating the FIR response suggested in [1].A least square method solution is usedin such simulation with a genetic-based algorithm.A simplified structure for the designed filter is accomplished with less-complex realization. 50records of European ST – T ECG database is classified into four classes (Normal, Left Bundle Branch Block (LBBB), ST segment elevation, and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH)). By applying the designed filter coefficients into neural network classifier, the results show that the accuracy of the classification process is 95.9 %.

Comparison between Open CV and MATLAB Performance in Real Time Applications

Ammar Sameer Anaz; Diyaa Mehadi Faris

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2015, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 183-190
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2015.105955

The most important operation in the image processing field is detect the objects inside an image or video, which it is used in many applications, especially in real time systems. Real time image processing in modern systems demands fast technologies, and there are variety methods to achieve this goal. This paper compare between the performance of (MATLAB) and (Open CV) to detect circular shapes that have specific color (blue) from live video in a real time. The input is a live video with resolution (640*480) pixels, taken by a web camera, and then processed by a sequence of image processing operations. The results refer to a program written in (Open CV) speed up the system up to 174% more than the same program written in (MATLAB) to do the same job.