Print ISSN: 1813-0526

Online ISSN: 2220-1270

Volume 27, Issue 2

Volume 27, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2022, Page 1-235

Employing Local Architecture Elements in Airport Buildings

Amaleid Abd- Alrhman Yousif ِAlabasee; Momtaz Hazim Aldewachi

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2022, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 1-20
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.132340.1145

Airport buildings are among the complex and unique buildings of the contemporary century. Their importance lies in the fact that they represent the city’s gateway to the whole world. Employing local architecture elements is one of the design ideas used to design passenger buildings at airports, allowing the recipient (traveler) to define the urban identity of the city and the city’s history and culture, she indicated. There have been many proposals in architecture about the mechanism of employing the elements of local architecture in buildings, but none of these studies specifically addressed the mechanism used to employ elements of local architecture in airport buildings.
And the same thing is repeated when reviewing the architectural proposals related to the aspects related to airport buildings, so the general problem of research was identified by the lack of scientific knowledge and studies dealing with the employment of local architecture elements in airport buildings, while the special problem was identified in developing the approach or mechanism that shows how to employ local architecture in the passenger building.

Sustainable Urban Renewal of the Old City of Mosul

Ibtihal Do Alfuqhar; Mehmet Emre Aysu

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2022, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 21-27
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.132545.1147

The research focuses on clarifying the relationship between sustainability and urban renewal project in the old city of Mosul, this city has a distinctive architectural character but it has lost many of its landmarks in the last war. From this point, the study began to assess the current situation of the site based on the concepts of sustainability that have become one of the basics of design at present. The research aims to clarify the ways of applying sustainability strategies in the urban renewal program of the study site on its social, economic and environmental aspects. The research adopts a data analysis system for the city in addition to the survey data that was conducted in it to determine the extent of the impact of the population of the area on this process.

Design Characteristics of the Interior Elements of a Prayer Hall in Congregational Mosques

Alaa Abdulkareem Suleiman ALsaydan; Ahmed Abdulwahid Dhannoon

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2022, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 28-38
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.133548.1168

The prayer hall was chosen as the target of this study as it is the main interior space within the building of a mosque where religious rites are held.
     The problem of the research is represented in the lack of a database that summarizes the design characteristics of the interior elements of the prayer hall, and their potential values in a way that ensures reaching quantitative and qualitative scales that allow conducting comparative studies between different styles of congregational mosques.
    The research aims to set a database for the characteristics of the interior elements of the prayer hall by building a theoretical framework supported by the previous studies, and by using the descriptive analytical method to set the essential vocabularies of the elements of the interior space with their possible values, which will enable future studies to develop these elements, in both quantitative and qualitative ways.
     A detailed table has also been completed to help researchers conducting more studies on how to develop the characteristics of the interior design in mosques, and the design of the interior elements, and to help conducting analytical comparison between the different types and models of mosques for ancient and contemporary times.

Effect of Lime Stone & Cement on the Mechanical Properties of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA)

Bayan Abdullah Taha Al-Ali; Abdulkhalik M. Al-Taei; Shafika Abdullah

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2022, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 39-48
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.133947.1174

Most of the roads in Iraq are paved using Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) which is consisted of aggregates, asphalt cement and filler. In this study a laboratory investigation is conducted using two types of widely used fillers highly and locally available. Four different proportions of fillers are. Filler proportions used in this study are four proportion (i.e., 1.9%, 2.5%, 3.5%, and 4.5%) by total weight of aggregate for both types of fillers used. These proportions were blended using asphalt with penetration 40/50 and Performance Grade (PG70-10) using super-pave mix design methodology. The performance of bitumen binder with both types of filler was evaluated by: Penetration, Ductility, Softening Point, Penetration Index, Volumetric properties, Indirect Tensile Strength and Tensile Strength Ratio. The volumetric properties indicate that, the proportions of (1.9%, and 2.5%) for both type of filler are within the Super-pave criteria as the ITS increased with the increase of filler content and the highest TSR values for 2.5% Limestone dust is 90%, while for 3.5% Cement is 89.7%. Finally, it was concluded that the HMA is highly influenced by the amount and type of filler content.

State-of-the-art for Strengthening and Rehabilitating Structural Beams Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers Configurations (A Review)

Islam Abdullah Aziz; Khalaf Ibrahem Mohammed

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2022, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 49-59
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.133019.1162

The technique of using carbon polymer fibers to strengthen and rehabilitate structural beams considered one of the modern techniques that have proven its effectiveness in various civil engineering projects. From this point of view, this review came to clarify the practical benefit of using this technology to inform researchers and workers in the construction sector about it and to provide modern sources for those wishing to conduct More researches in the field of strengthening and rehabilitating concrete, iron and composite structural beams and highlighting the studies that dealt with flexural, shear and torsion resistance of beams and reinforced with carbon polymer fibers externally or internally . 

Efficiency Enhancement of CMOS Power Amplifier for RF Applications

Shamil H. Hussein; Mohammed T. Yassin

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2022, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 60-67
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.132768.1156

This paper presented a new structure for the CMOS power amplifiers as a more effective trend to amplify radio frequency (RF) signals compared to polar power amplifiers PA's by using envelope removal and restoration (EER) technique. Polar PA offers high-efficiency RF-modulated linear signal amplification. However, these amplifiers need high uniformity between the amplitude and phase of the modulated signals. The last translates promptly into higher energy consumption. Rather than deconstructing the quadrature signals into the combination of phase and amplitude signals, it is suggested that the CMOS quadrature power amplifier (QPA's) technique had been used to amplify RF signals immediately. The linearity, bandwidth, efficiency, and power consumption of the QPA's has been improved by separate amplitude and phase quadrature signals. The quadratic geometry architecture contains two bridges from modulated PA's that are able to treat negative or positive voltages, modulation, and RF-power bundling. The design of the new structure is compared with respect to parameters such as fundamental frequency, power gain, PAE, output power, technology or fabrication process, and number of stage transistors. Simulation results for PA's design using CMOS process show an effective quadrature model by a power-added-efficiency (PAE) of 78.413% at a maximum output power of 21.619dBm. The third intermodulation IDM3 is -49.2dBc at output power driven at frequency 2.4 GHz and input power greater than 20dBm. The amplitude and phase distortion has been obtained of 1.4 and 0.26 ᵒ/dB respectively at 50MHz of bandwidth for modulated signals.

Design and Optimization of Butterworth and Elliptic Band Pass Filters in 5G Application

Dina Riydh Ibrahim

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2022, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 68-81
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.132518.1146

                     Filters are two-port networks that may pass or attenuate frequencies within defined ranges and can alter the frequency response of any system. In the present research study, the goals and optimization controller embedded with (ADS2019) are used to design Butterworth and Elliptic bandpass filters with frequency ranges of (18GHz – 38GHz), a bandwidth of (7GHz), stopband attenuation of (S21=-60dB), and passband attenuation of (S21=-1dB). Three types of each filter (Hp-Lp 6th order – 3rd order – 6th order) are simulated and optimized to choose the best (C, L) values. The selected filters are redesigned using the Design Filter Guide, and the simulation during this phase yields different values for (C, L). The designed circuit is then transformed into a microstrip model using transmission lines for open and short circuits. The study investigates the differences between each filter in BW-f center- attenuation at the stopband.In the last phase of the study, the circuit of each filter is transformed using a microstrip transmission line to obtain the (W, L) for each component of each filter. Finally, the study compares past studies and research projects in this field.

An Innovative Way to Describe Islamic Architecture Identical Line Bundles Describing Unity and Repetition in Ventilation Malqafsof Aleppo Architecture

Ahmed Kamal Mohamed Jatal

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2022, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 82-91
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.132890.1158

In this paper, we tried to interrogate measurements and numbers and extrapolated them, through an analytical study,and four relationships that are found that are called the basic equations for the design of the Malqaf, containing four basic units and their repetition, each of which was expressed by a bundle of identical straight lines that represent the equations of a straight line passing through the principle of coordinates, These four identical line bundles relate the size of the room, the size of the Malqaf, its width, depth and height from the roof of the building, and the errors were calculated, so these errors were among the permissible human measurement errors. These relations werea mathematical proof of the straight monotheistic thought on which the Islamic religion is based and on the idea of ​​unity and repetition in Islamic architecture in an innovative mathematical way.

Improving Grounding System for Oil Tanks Using Finite Element Method, Taking into Account the Frequency Dependence of Soil Parameters

Wejdan I. Awad AlAli; Riyadh Zaki Sabry

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2022, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 92-100
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.133281.1165

This work was devoted to the development of a simulation model of the grounding and lightning protection system for oil tanks, taking into account the frequency dependence of soil parameters, where we, based on the equations mentioned in previous studies, designed a grounding model for an oil tank taking into account the frequency dependence of soil parameters by using the finite elements method. and for different configurations, where it was observed that the grounding potential rise GPR was significantly reduced at high frequencies, especially in the case of high soil resistivity, the percentage of decrease in the grounding potential rise in the case of dry soil for the studied site 1266.65 Ω.m and for wet soil 596.27 Ω.m, respectively, 22.8%  and 23.8%, respectively. and it was pointed out the necessity of conducting soil resistivity measurements before the tank construction process, and the need to use the network configuration of the oil tank grounding model in some cases where the soil resistivity is high and it is difficult to eliminate the effect of lightning current with the typical design mentioned in NFPA 780 for tank grounding.

Optimization of Power Quality Using the Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) with Unbalanced Loads

Ahmed Yahyia Qasim Alhatim; Fadhil R. Tahir; Ahmed Nasser B. Alsammak

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2022, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 101-109
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.133962.1175

The power quality (PQ) is a major issue for both electrical utilities and their customers. The nonlinear loads cause PQ problems like current harmonics, voltage harmonics, frequency deviation, voltage sag and voltage swell. A unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is utilized in this research to minimize these PQ problems. The UPQC is made up of two active power filters (APFs), one of which is connected to the line in series and the other in parallel. The Unit Vector Template Generation (UVTG) approach is used to control the series APF, whereas the Synchronous Reference Frame (SRF) technique is used to control the shunt APF. The compensating properties of a series-shunt APFs when the loads become imbalanced have been explored. The system performance has been tested under conditions current harmonics, voltage harmonics, voltage sag, and voltage swell. The voltage harmonics are identified and reparation in a series APF using the UVTG technique, whereas the harmonics and unbalanced currents are identified and reparation in a shunt APF using the SRF method. An IEEE-519-compliant THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) of less than 5% is achieved by UPQC in simulations with unbalanced loads. The findings indicate that harmonic currents and supply voltage fluctuations were lessened by UPQC.

Impact Study of Unequal Voltages of Power Plants (Generators)

Mohammad Ahmed Ali Al juboori; Yousif Mohammed Al-Younus; Mohammed Ali A. Alrawe

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2022, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 110-116
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.134000.1176

When connecting two generators together (in parallel), there are conditions that must be met and fulfilled before commencing the electrical connection process, which are known as synchronization conditions. In this paper, the loss of equality voltages which is one of the synchronization conditions will be represented when performing the connection process using Matlab and surveying the impact of this on the performance of the system and the extent of damage that may result from it. The presented analysis shows the influence of faulty synchronization on the following physical quantities: internal voltage, stator current, stator voltage, angular mechanical speed, terminal voltages which are the most vulnerable. In addition, knowing the type of fault (short circuit fault) caused by the faulty synchronization condition. In this paper, over and under voltage schemes have been implemented by using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

Comparative Investigation on the Quality of Sensitivity of Six Different Types of Thermocouples

Abdulkhalek M. Kadir; Salim Azeez Kako

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2022, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 117-126
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.132862.1157

Sensitivity quality of thermocouples is an important parameter in temperature measuring, it affects on the accuracy of measuring results. Metals type which used in thermocouples play a prominent role in determining level and quality of sensitivity.
Nine minerals were investigated and compared with each other, as these metals contribute to composition of six thermocouples of types E, J, K, T, R and S. Three factors such as metal type, magnetic field, and chemical composition were studied to find out their effects in determining sensitivity quality of thermocouples due to their effects on the increasing and decreasing of sensitivity and accuracy of thermocouples.
Research methodology has used data collection and analyzing on related 6 thermocouples.
The results showed that E- type has higher sensitivity, then J, K, and T, but R and S types have lower sensitivity in most temperature measuring ranges, also, copper, nickel, and chromium can give higher quality of sensitivity more than platinum and rhodium.
Also, the results of this research can assist manufacturers to further connection between quality of sensitivity, temperature ranges, and accuracy, in addition, for selecting appropriate metal for the medium being measured.

Dynamic Simulation and Optimization of Flat Plate Solar Collector Parameters Using the MATLAB Program for Erbil-Iraq Climate Condition

Kamaran Fatah Rashid; Idres Azzat Hamakhan; Chalang Hamarasheed Mohammed

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2022, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 127-139
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.133419.1167

This research aims to investigate the performance of solar water collector by varying: mass flow rate, inclination angle, total solar radiation, pipe size, and number of glass covers. The test rig was established to collect the data for the whole months of September and October and use it as a focal point for analysis of the solar water heating system's performance. The dynamic behavior was simulated and optimized with MATLAB software for the practical data to investigate the performance of the flat plate solar collector. The novelty in this study is the first time the authors use the whole practical data instead of average data to approximate the theoretical dynamic investigation of the flat plate solar collector. The achievements are as follows: the collector'sefficiency was increased from 62.17% to 71.26% when the collector pipe spacing was reduced from 186 mm to 86 mm; the increase in efficiency was approximately 2% as the collector pipeline diameter increased from 1 mm to 50 mm; the optimum efficiency was achieved with triple glazing and was about 0.83%; the mass flow rate increases from 1 to 5 liters per minute, so it improves the efficiency of the system from 64% to 83%. Moreover, the best tilt angle for the flat plate solar collector was 30°. Also, the heat loss coefficient was raised by around 50% when wind speed was increased from 1 m/s to 5 m/s. Thus, the use of dynamic investigation with actual data will assist the researchers in improving the performance of the solar water flat plate collector.

Forecasting the Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) Using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs)

Rana M. A. Qassab Bashi; Abdel Wahab M. Younes Al gazzak; Omar M. A. Mahmood Agha

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2022, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 140-155
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.132569.1149

The study of drought and its forecasting plays an important role in planning and managing water resource systems, especially in extreme climatic periods. This study aims to analyze and forecast drought characteristics, through the use of the Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) in order to analyze temporal and spatiotemporal climatic drought in nine climate stations in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq for the period (1973-2020) to detect the beginning and end of the drought period, as well as forecasting future droughts using two types of artificial neural networks: Recursive Multi-Step Neural Networks (RMSNN) and Direct Multi-Step Neural Network (DMSNN). The results revealed that the driest years were in the years (1998-99) for Amadiyah, Erbil and Sulaymaniyah stations, and the years (2007-08) for the rest of the stations in the study area. Moreover, the results of the two models depending on the simulation methods adopted have shown the ability of these models with regard to the forecasting for the last six years, and the ability of both models to forecast with an increase in the amount of error as we go forward. However, the (DMSNN) model was more accurate, as shown by the results of the statistical tests.

Quantitative Characteristics of Groundwater and its Distribution in Tal-Afar Region- Iraq

Asaad Mahmoud Shehab ALKnoo; Abdulwahab Mohammad Younis Al gazzak

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2022, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 156-165
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.131941.1137

The current research aims to know the quantitative characteristics of groundwater and its spatial distribution in Tal Afar district. It was relied on a set of data related to groundwater. All of them were entered into the GIS environment for the purpose of performing digital manipulations and drawing out maps. It was found that the depth of the groundwater ranges between (0-519) m, the stable groundwater level is within (0-89) m, and the variable groundwater level is (0-165) m. And the amount of decrease in the wells was within (0-146.4) m, and the productivity of these wells ranged between (37.28-0) L/sec, and the amount of conductivity was between (1345-0) m2 / day, and the productivity of water springs spread in the study area It was within (0-1000) L / sec. The study showed that the distribution and direction of the wells are from the northwest to the southeast of the study area and its standard distance covered 61.5% of the wells data, and the direction of the wells distribution was 120º towards the north in an oval shape that included approximately 66.76% of the data entered wells.

The Effect of Magnetized Water with Certain Intensities on Salts Leaching Efficiency from Agricultural Soils

Marwan Jassim Mohamed AL-Ubaide; Anmar Abdul-Aziz Altalib

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2022, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 166-177
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.132898.1159

Two saline soils taken from two sites inside the Mosul city of (mrs1, mrs2), and two types of water, drinking water and well water, were exposed to two magnetic strengths (4000,2000) gauss, and three transparent cylinders with a diameter of 140 mm and a height of 500 mm were used. The leaching process continued until infiltration of 5 liters of water with twice repetition for each condition with stability of soil conditions (moisture, bulk density) and temperature difference in each experiment. The results showed a decrease in the electrical conductivity EC of the soil paste extract, which reached (75.7, 90.5) % for mrs2 soil, which is the most saline for Washing with an intensity of 4000 gauss for (drinking, well) water respectively. The percentage of salts in the leaching water increased, and the distribution and concentration of salts increased with the progression of water in the soil column, in addition to the decrease in the concentrations of salt ions such as sodium and sulfate by increasing Magnetization intensity and less leaching for a longer period of time, especially for well water.

A Review of Arabic Intelligent Chatbots: Developments and Challenges

Zena N. Abdulkader; Yousra Faisal Muhammad Al-Irhayim

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2022, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 178-189
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.132550.1148

Chatbots, or machine based conversational systems, have become popular in recent years in a variety of applications. Chatbots are intelligent technologies that employ Artificial Intelligence (AI) to converse with humans in their natural languages. Chatbot's primary function is to interpret user's questions and respond with the most convenient intelligent and natural responses. In a number of the world's most generally spoken languages, chatbots appear to be quite successful; however, Arabic chatbots have not yet attained the predicted degree of success. Many academics have recently sought to bridge the gap in the implementation of Arabic chatbots by overcoming the complicated linguistic Arabic language features. This survey reviews the chatbots, their categories and implementation techniques. It also, presents some challenges that face the developer of Arabic chatbots due to rich complex properties of Arabic language. Then, most of published chatbot researches that deal with Arabic language are highlighted. Finally, a table of comparison among the mentioned Arabic chatbots is presented. The study concludes that, all the present AI based Arabic chatbots are developed in retrieval mode, and that Arabic chatbot literature is scarce in comparison to that in many other languages.

Comparison Between Features Extraction Techniques for Impairments Arabic Speech

Sura Ramzi Shareef; Yousra Faisal Muhammad Al-Irhayim

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2022, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 190-197
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.132977.1160

Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) is a tough task, with the existence of related noise and high unpredictability in a speech presenting the most severe problems. Especially with regard to the noise of speech impairments, whether due to disability or mispronunciation in children. Extraction of noise-resistant features to compensate for speech degradation due to noise impact has remained a difficult challenge in the last few years. This research investigated the impact of different wavelet generations for extracting speech features, then test the produced dataset from each technique with two types of deep learning techniques: deep long short-term memory (LSTM) and hyper deep learning model convolutional neural network with long short-term memory (CNN-LSTM). The result shows that the deep long short-term memory of MFCC has reached 93% as an accuracy while in the hyper deep learning model of CNN-LSTM the accuracy of MFCC was 91%, as the highest recorded accuracy which proves that MFCC would be the best feature extraction technique for our developed dataset.

U-Net Cost Analysis Using Roofline Model

Ula T. Salim; Shefa A. Dawwd; Fakhrulddin H. Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2022, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 198-205
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.133825.1172

One of the most important challenges facing U-Net architecture performance is the method design of its components and how to choose the suitable hardware computing device to deal with the training labelled datasets.  Convolution is the most process that requires computations and memory costs, which is needs to minimize. Thus, one of the suitable selection is to change the type of the convolution. Other suggested solutions are to reduce the size of image,    number of bits, and, stride value, in addition to number of filters, and image batches. Therefore, in this paper the roofline model will used as performance guide in analyzing the FLOPs and the memory bandwidth boundaries of a U-Net model with different configurations. The cost has been assessed with compared to the limitation of three computing devices, GPU230MX, GPU940MX and GPU2060rtx super. 128 × 128 image dataset has been used during the U-Net cost-performance evaluation process. Based on the analysis, the evaluation results show that the solution that achieves a balance between memory and computations is to implement a U-Net model in parallel using RTX2060 super card with the configurations of batch size is 16, image size of 128×128, number of bits is 32, shared memory management.

A Model for Investigating the Iraqi Politics During the Elections

Thaer Sultan Alramli; Wael Wadullah Hadeed; Zaid Abdulelah Mundher

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2022, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 206-215
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.133622.1169

The Iraqi political arena has witnessed a dramatic change after the year of 2003. It moved from the dominated republican system to a democratic system. This movement in the political system has affected the situation in Iraq in terms of economic, education, industrial, trading, to mention a few. This paper analyses the Iraqi parliament representatives’ affiliations in terms of their coalitions they formed in the elections. Moreover, this study tries enabling us to deeply understand how the Iraqi parliament representatives are connected to each other and the relations among them. It also provides us with information on how different provinces adopted different coalitions regardless their religion and other tendencies. Several political networks were generated and visualized based on the concepts of complex networks. Each network represents a particular political aspect of the current Iraqi parliament. This study also reveals a new trend of forming coalitions in Iraq and the strategy followed by the representatives in attaching to coalitions. Finally, we believe this is the first kind of work that uses this approach of analysis in understanding the trend of Iraqi politicians.

An Enhanced Industrial Wireless Communication Network for Hard Real Time Performance Substation Automation Purposes

Firas S. Alsharbaty; Qutaiba I. Ali

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2022, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 216-226
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.133860.1173

Wireless communication network (WCN) technologies are charming solutions to bolster the conventional electrical substations with the intention of take the fashion of smart substation such as reduction in equipment, minimize the maintenance costs, flexibility, and expansion. However, the harsher challenge facing WCN employing in the electrical substation is the real time protection of substation automation system (SAS) for the high voltage devices in terms of the latency and the reliability in particular the substations of old topologies. This work suggests WCN including special types of the intermediate devices (Switched-Access Points (S-AP) and Multi Wireless Domain- Access Point (MWD-AP)) to address the expected packets congestion by creating independent wireless channels domains offering wireless channels reliability in such network topology that deals with real time data traffic (RT) and the non-real time data traffic (NRT). Riverbed modeler is adopted to simulate the model of the electrical substation network due to the rich tools of communication networks in term of industry environment. The results indicate, the suggested WCN can handle the hard real time requirements of protection from latency and data reliability points of view in case of basic capacity of 802.11a/n standards at the level of ≤ 4 msec and high data reliability.

Challenges of Load Balancing Techniques in Cloud Environment: A Review

Ola Hani Fathi Sultan; Turkan Ahmed Khaleel

Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 2022, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 227-235
DOI: 10.33899/rengj.2022.134056.1179

To highlight issues and challenges of the Load Balancing Algorithm (LBA) in the context of cloud computing. The authors of this work discussed load balancing and the load balancing problems in cloud computing, how to solve them, the basic techniques used to maintain load over the cloud, and the benefits and drawbacks of these algorithms. Furthermore, the static and dynamic load balancing strategies are compared. Load balancing methods in the cloud for data centers must avoid VM overload/low load, which is a challenge in cloud computing. Load balancing mechanisms aid in the management of workloads. The primary goal of load balancing among machines is to spread workloads and computing resources across one or more servers while lowering energy consumption and maximizing resource usage. Cloud computing is a type of computing in which scalable resources are made available on-demand and are frequently virtual, as in an online service. For a variety of reasons, including cost saving, speed, efficiency, performance, and security, cloud computing has recently become a popular choice for individuals and enterprises. Cloud computing uses the Internet to deliver a variety of services to a company's computers and devices. These resources can include data storage, databases, servers, networks, and software, among other tools and applications. In this paper, developers and researchers must design and construct a load balancer e for parallel and distributed cloud systems.